United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard
Anthem: "March of the Fatherland"
(1) Within Aurora
(2) Showing overseas territories and Crown dependencies
and largest city
|Official languages||Staynish |
|Recognised regional |
|Ethnic groups |
|95.4% Human |
|Countries of Great Morstaybishlia||Staynes |
|Government||Federal parliamentary Constitutional monarchy|
|House of Peers|
|House of Representatives|
• Annexation of the Kormistazmic Empire
• Secession of Norograd
• Acts of Union of Morstaybishlia and Valeria
• Acts of Union of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard
|5,940,250 km2 (2,293,540 sq mi)|
• 2021 census
|86.84/km2 (224.9/sq mi)|
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
• Per capita
|Time zone||UTC (Toransloe Mean |
• Summer (DST)
|UTC+7 to +11 (Morstaybishlian Summer Time)|
|Driving side||the left|
|ISO 3166 code||MBE|
The United Kingdoms of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard, commonly known as Great Morstaybishlia (MBE, sometimes GMB) is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country in Aurora and southeast Yasteria. Great Morstaybishlia includes Staynes, Caltharus, Valeria and Justelvard, as well as other islands. Great Morstaybishlia shares land borders with thirteen countries (from left to right); Axdel, Valerica, Rosalica, Asilica, Durentria, North Ethalria, Thalria, Nolova, Tuvaltastan, Volova, Baykalia, Blueacia and Tivot. Justelvard shares no land borders except on one island with East Malaysia and a Tivot district whilst neighbouring the Kohatu Isles. The Morstaybishlian Sea lies between the north coasts of Staynes and Caltharus and the south coast of Justelvard. The Caven Sea sits north of Justelvard, and the Azure Sea sits south of Valeria. The Packilvanian Ocean starts at the left coastline of Staynes and the north-westernmost island in Justelvard.
Great Morstaybishlia is a constitutional monarchy with a two-House parliament system. The current monarch is Lambertus VII, who has reigned since 1991 and the heir apparent is Rosamund. The capital is Sani Bursil, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 50 million in 2019, the largest in Aurora, largest in the United Nations of the Auroran Continent and largest in Urth. Other major urban areas in Great Morstaybishlia include Aeternum, Kirdintayos, Lamburtupol, Valeron, Redrugus, Fort Jubrayn, Imbazdu, Fort Vitaryn and Kasidura. The nearby Frorkstolm and Necraties Islands are not part of Great Morstaybishlia, being Crown dependencies with the government responsible for defence and international representation.
The relationships among the countries of the Great Morstaybishlia have changed over time. In 1515, Lambertus III united the thrones of Staynes and Caltharus which formed the United Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharus, which went on to become the sovereign state of the Morstaybishlian Empire. Justelvard was annexed by the Morstaybishlian Empire after the Morsto-Justelvardic War in 1604. Justelvard declared independence from the Empire in 1967, but was not recognised until 1975. Valeria seceded from Staynes in 1975 which saw it obtain status within Great Morstaybishlia two years later under the Acts of Union, and in 2016 Justelvard entered a political union with Great Morstaybishlia under the Acts of Union of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard. The Morstaybishlian Empire transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy in 1917 by the end of the Great War, establishing a democratically elected parliament which ended slavery the same year. The MBE is one of the last reminders of colonial times with nineteen Overseas Territories of Great Morstaybishlia; remnants of the Morstaybishlian Empire which, at its height in the 1800s, encompassed almost a tenth of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. Today, they collectively comprise of 106.144 million people over 828,243 sq km; whilst Great Morstaybishlia exists over 5,940,250 sq km and recorded 515.88 million people in its 2021 census, the first year the country recorded over half a billion people. Morstaybishlian influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies.
Great Morstaybishlia has the world's largest economy by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), and the second-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It has a relatively high-income economy and a very high human development index rating, ranking 6th in the world. It was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries, competing in the Auroran Space Race and beating Ethalria and Salovia by landing four men on Olune in 1968. The MBE remains a superpower, with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a recognised nuclear weapons state and is first in military expenditure in the world.
Great Morstaybishlia has been a member state of the United Nations of the Auroran Continent since its formation in 2017; the successor union to both the Auroran Continental Assembly, where the MBE was a member state, and the Auroran Union. The MBE's council representative of the UNAC is Fischan Rhye who was appointed in December 2017. Great Morstaybishlia is also a member state of IRSA, the Morstaybishlian Economic Sphere and Morstaybishlian Commonwealth, as well as Special Member of the North Shield Treaty Organization, a Permanent Invitee to the OFAC, and has Observer Status in the Alliance of Northwest Gondwana and the League of Novaris.
Etymology and terminology
The word Morstaybishlia derives from an amalgamation of Morsa Lake, Staynes and the Bishlans. It is often misinterpreted for "More Staynes and the Bishlans". The true meaning of the name Morstaybishlia can be read from the founding documents of 1515 where is it described as "The Staynish people whom control the heart of the continent Morsa Lake; unionised with the Bishlan cultures of the east."; though Bishlan was latinised to Bishlia in the shortened form name Morstaybishlia. Bishlan derives from the Calth name of the Ider River "Aberbish", and replaces the Calth place-name prefix Aber with the Middle Staynish place-name suffix Lan, which literally means "shallow seas".
The 2016 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard", though the new state is also referred to in the Acts as the "Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia", "United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia" and "Great Morstaybishlia".
Although Great Morstaybishlia as a sovereign state is a country; Staynes, Caltharus, Valeria and Justelvard are also regarded as countries, though they are not sovereign states. The Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe Great Morstaybishlia.
The term "MBE" was a historic acronym for the Morstaybishlian Empire, though today it is more commonly synonymous with Great Morstaybishlia. MBE is the standard country codes for Great Morstaybishlia and are consequently used by international organisations to refer to Great Morstaybishlia, replacing GM in 1959. Additionally, Great Morstaybishlia's Olympic team competes under the name "Great Morstaybishlia" or "Team MBE".
The term "Morstaybishlian Empire", in politics, is used to describe Great Morstaybishlia and all Overseas Territories.
The adjective "Morstaybishlian" is commonly used to refer to matters relating to Great Morstaybishlia and rarely as a synonym for Great Morstaybishlia. The term has no definite legal connotation, but is used in law to refer to Great Morstaybishlia citizenship and matters to do with nationality. People of Great Morstaybishlia use a number of different terms to describe their national identity and may identify themselves as being Staynish, Calthian, South Staynish, Justelvardic; or as being Laulian, and still in some cases Horkalic, except Horkalic refers to the ethnic group Horkalans. A growing minority of people have identified themselves with Morstaybishlian nationality after the Acts of Union 1977, likely a patriotic spur.
After the Union of the Thrones in 1515, the two kingdoms were briefly known as the "United Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharus" and subsequently their empire was known as the "Staynish-Caltharus Empire" until it was formally dubbed the "United Kingdom of Morstaybishlia" in early 1517.
The Acts of Union 1977 decreed the United Kingdom of Morstaybishlia in political unification with Valeria. By extension of Kingdom territory, the region of "Morstaybishlia" was given the epithet "Great", short for "Greater".
The Acts of Union 2016 decreed the United Kingdom of Morstaybishlia in political unification with Justelvard to ratify the earlier 2016 Treaty of Union and so unite the two kingdoms.
In 2017, a new design of Morstaybishlian passport was introduced. Its first page shows the long form name of the state in Staynish, Calth, Justelvardic and Horkalic.
PrehistoryHistory of Staynes, History of Caltharus, History of Valeria, History of Justelvard
The earliest traces of human life in what is now any part of Aurora began in what today consists of areas in Staynes and Caltharus approximately 1.7 million years ago. During this period, the Strathepolic Ridge connected the continents of Aurora to Yasteria across the Morstaybishlian Sea. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climates. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. Caltharus has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era. At the end of the last glacial period (10,000 BCE), the climate became milder; from approximately 8,000 BCE, this part of North Aurora entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary. By the end of the region's prehistoric period, the earliest known Auroran culture had developed and is thought to belonged, in the main, to a culture termed Strathepolic.
After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 5th and 4th millennia BCE, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 4th millennium, initially working gold, copper and bronze, and later iron. Morstaybishlia has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period. The Strathepolic culture would refine itself in the 3rd millennium BCE. Culutral groups across Morstaybishlia existed, separated into three distinct groups; the Stanks, the Kalts and the Vals. The Krösnauen conquest into what is now Valeria in 109 CE saw the Krösnauen Empire annex all of the land south of the Zycannes in one fell swoop, and then in 159 CE led an series of campaigns above the Zycannes into the Kingdoms of Kostaen, the Kingdom of Hortaen and the Kingdom of Burtael which made up modern Staynes. The Stayn people, the collective ethnicity of the three kingdoms, fought with determination and resilience, but faced a superior, professional army, and it is likely that between 400,000 and 650,000 may have perished in the conquest period.
Early Middle Ages
Fall of the Second Maltervenian Empire
Late Middle Ages
The Red War
Staynish conquests of Valeria
Since humans migrated into Aurora some fifty thousand years ago, they displaced the already established presence of Usprian elves. In fact, this displacement can be seen so clearly when the term "Aurora" came from a human language and "Uspria" comes from ancient elvish language. Anatomically modern humans began settlements in northern Aurora, where Staynes, Caltharus and Tivot exist today. Later, humans would spread across the continent, co-existing with elven civilisation but occasionally wiping them out through war or plague. These factors, coupled with a much higher birth rate among humans, led to the demise of the old high Usprian civilisations, though many civilisations lived on into the 2nd millennium CE, in pockets of the Zycannes and other highlands, such as the Altfers, but mainly through ancient Valeria - which is regarded by historians as the elves' final stand as a nation state in Aurora, where they held the reigns of socio, economic and political power over their human counterparts.
Wars between the Staynish and the Valerians existed in many forms and has history going back to the Maltervenian Kingdoms. These skirmishes existed prominently around the Mouth of Elaspin, where many primary trade routes between north and south Aurora existed. The second Kingdom of Maltervenia really pushed for territorial expanses and control of the Mouth of Elaspin during the early 1st millennium CE, where legendary stories, romances and poetry exist of Queen Eredhela leading the defence of the elven homeland between the 2nd and 5th centuries.
Staynes formed in an era of ashes when the second Kingdom of Maltervenia fell and the Krösnauen Empire was on stark decline. It was then where Staynes began its ethnic land reclamation and conquests, which extended into southern Aurora, and which exerted more energy and interest than predecessor civilisations in north Aurora. Staynes conquered the elven homeland in two successive waves between 1216 and 1256.
Seventy Years' War
Early Modern from Union of the Thrones
|Caltharus Throne War|
|Part of Caltharus Conflicts|
Lambertus the Great marching through Lambertupol after defeating the rebellion.
|Republic of Caltharus|
|Commanders and leaders|
Lambertus III |
Berbatov Haligan †
Gretargius Ballistra † |
Crow Jusa †
|Casualties and losses|
The Caltharus Throne War was the war which saw the United Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharus come into being after the surrender of the Republic of Caltharus to the Kingdom of Staynes and the Bishlan kingdoms of Dovia, Calthia and Laulia which made up the monarchist faction of Caltharus, as well the resurrection of the Caltharusian throne, which was incorporated with the Staynish to form the Morstaybishlian throne on the 29th of December 1515.
In March 1513, the Kingdom of Caltharus was overthrown by a military coup which established the Republic of Caltharus. Haligar II, the King of Caltharus and father of Princess Katerina was executed. Princess Katerina was married to Lambertus III and was the second in line to the Caltharusian throne but was exiled to Staynes as the risk of capture and execution was too great. She lost contact with her younger siblings and cousins and they were presumed dead. The Republic caused conflict and fractured the nation into two factions. The Republic and loyalists to the King and Kingdom. Katerina returned to Caltharus to lead the war between the Republic and Kingdom loyalists but the loyalists continued to loose ground until they were confined to north-west and west Caltharus.
In November 1514, Chancellor of the Republic, Gretargius Ballistra, had his prisoners of war and two of Katerina's six siblings executed. Katerina discovered the news later the same month and convinced Staynes to intervene. It was not only a personal loss to Katerina as they were distantly related by previous marriage to Lambertus III. After their execution, the Republic was unable to make friendship with either the Ethalrian's or the Molgov Dynasty despite previous talks.
From the 12th of January 1515 to the 29th of December the same year, Lambertus III led Staynes and the Caltharusian loyalists into battle against the new Republic of Caltharus for control over the rights to rule. The conflict lasted through many strategically implemented episodes during 1515, however there was fighting between Caltharusian loyalists and the Republic before and after this period between the belligerents.
With the initial execution of Halligar II's two children and another one child, Lambertus amassed an army of 140,000 Staynish and 240,000 Caltharusian loyalist soldiers that stormed the major cities until Lambertupol, pushing the Republic's forces back where they held their ground for two months days until the 29th of December when they fell.
Their victory in Lambertupol concluded the end of the war. The monarchy was re-established and Lambertus III was crowned King of the United Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharus, later the Kingdom of Morstaybishlia, on the 29th December. The remaining four siblings and cousins of Katerina who had fled to the both the Ethalrian Empire and Molgov Dynasty returned from exile. A feast on the 11th January began in Lambertupol to mark the victories. This day is celebrated annually around the world as Unity Day.
After the republic was defeated and control fell into Staynish hands, New Calth became the first major colony of the new Morstaybishlian Empire.
Lambertus did not return back to Bursil until 1519, establishing order and peace in Caltharus. He faced some challenges from both the Ethalrian Empire and the Molgov Dynasty, both looking to expand their territory. He defended the border for a year and a half until a mutual agreement was held. The conflict led to heavy bloodshed on both sides. It remains the most gruesome conflict in pre-modern Auroran history.
During the Louzar period (1515-1663)
Western Auroran Crusades
Main article: Western Auroran Crusades
Between the years 1519 and early 1522, Lambertus IV was apart of an expedition to find more gold for the young Morstaybishlian Empire. He had discovered the largest-yet deposit of natural gold ore in Aurora during June 1522 and sent his older brother and then king Slev III an official report which enclosed information regarding both the geopolitical position and the status of the gold. Slev set out to take control of the supply lanes of the gold from the Kormistazic Empire and within a week had amassed an army of 3,000 men, 250 horses and battery equipment. The army left on the morning of the 25th of October 1522. They camped at many locations during their trek towards Fort Montekaan but the most prominent was in the small village of Harrow. A merchant from Soltan called Kaledus saw the army and reported the impending attack to Delphus Faithful the day before the battle took place, which gave them enough time to rally troops and plan an ambush.
Slev and his forces reached the fortress in the early hours of the summer solstice (21st December). He divided his forces into two fronts; the assault and support. The trebuchets acting as the support was ambushed soon into the battle. The fortress had two portcullis' where the ambush captured Slev and his soldiers inside. Reportedly, Delphus Faithful had all but one prisoner, excluding Slev, shot, and had the king later beheaded.
News reached Lambertus IV on the 5th of January, in which he immediately ascended the throne. He was officially crowned King of the Morstaybishlian Empire on the 6th of April at Syllester Abbey, Redrugus. During the next few months, Lambertus and his council thought of ways to take control of Fort Montekaan. During early September, Lambertus sent his cousin Amet to important cities and towns in Caltharus to amass a large army for the upcoming war. Amet returned to Fort Redrugus a month and a half later with a strength of 70,000 men with a promise of another fifty to seventy thousand in the next five to ten years.
It was during late 1523 that Lambertus suffered betrayal from two members of his privy. He did not know of this, and this betrayal actually lent an advantage during the next battle of Fort Montekaan. Lambertus ordered the immediate forced conscription of 45,000 young Morstaybishlian men into the already 40,000 strong army.
Lambertus IV led the second Battle of Fort Montekaan on the 2nd of January 1524. The forces did not travel in the lowland valleys in the Zycannes and instead travelled directly through them. This led to the deaths of several hundred soldiers and half a dozen horses. 24,500 soldiers camped at the base of the Zycannes for an hour before attacking the fort in the early hours of the morning. The walls were breached around 5AM, the same time the soldiers attacked the fort. It is known that Lambertus IV had a duel and won against Honoluras Faithful once the battle was won.
On the first day of February the same year, Morstaybishlia amassed a sizable fleet in Redrugus and set off for Andel. A lengthy siege ensued.
Main article: Morstaybishlian Empire
Morstaybishlian colonialism began as early as the 11th century with Caltharusian territories in Arcturia. Arcturia saw a surge of Staynish and Caltharusian early settlements in eastern Arcturia from 1001 to 1515; these trading outposts were generally not unified into one territory until the Morstaybishlian Empire formed after the Union of the Thrones and trading outposts were led by Viceroys.
Staynes led an expedition in 1444 and found the Necraties and Frorkstolm under Admiral Wince Ledkeat. The islands were not inhabited by any sentient species and became a pivot point for Staynish naval projection and trade prowess. Perdaé, the Necraties' capital, began life as a port town until the late 16th century, where Lambertus V designated its port to be shared for naval affairs. It was first used for this purpose when it rallied galleons in 1604 to invade Justelvard.
Many species endemic to the Necratie Isles were pushed to extinction from the arrival of people and pests. Gold-tipped owls were a species of owl that was hunted for their feathers and rendered extinct in the wild in the latter of the 18th century. Despite persistent attempts to re-introduce the captive populations into the wild, the species was declared fully extinct in 1974.
The Necraties, Frorkstolm, the Morstaybishlian West Pacific Territories and in particular the Arcturian Territories saw a spur of piracy in the mid to late 16th to mid 19th centuries. Rebels and pirates saw these trading outposts and islands as perfect hiding places in the war against piracy, as well as perfect areas to manoeuvre the pirating business to its greatest heights between 1660 and 1730. Pirates were a common pest in the several bodies of water until the Imperial Navy killed the last of seven Pirate Captain in the Battle of Valna Bay in 1821. Continuous efforts by the navies of the southern Yasterian and north Auroran nations saw to the eventual demise of pirates in and around the Morstaybishlian Sea.
The earliest record of Justelvard in Morstaybishlian history was a written document signed by Lambertus V on the 10th of January 1602, agreeing to install the necessary components for a full scale invasion and planned annexation of Justelvard and Kistelvard, which made up the Strathepole archipelago; and to greatly enlarge the size of the standing Morstaybishlian Army to defend the ever-expanding Auroran empire. In the latter of the same month, a letter left Fort Staynes on horseback and arrived in Fort Jubrayn on the 5th of February to Francesci Morston, the then current Military Overseer. It demanded the production of one hundred ships-of-the-line and a million trained soldiers in two years.
In January 1603, Lambertus V received an imperative tactical map from a Jussie called Dorghold. The drawing showed relevant information such as towns, docks, ships and more. The meeting concluded with the promise to allow Dorghold some undisclosed form of power of his homeland after the war.Some time in 1603, Francesci Morston was either murdered or committed suicide. He was replaced with Ledwin Dinged, who managed to complete the 100 ships of the line but not the million soldiers. The invasion was led by Admiral Pennisine, thought to be one of the best Admirals in Morstaybishlian history.
The Morstaybishlian troops followed the Jussies to Mount Surraine and laid siege to the town. Morstaybishlian forces won and Surrot was executed. In the next year, proceedings to bring Justelvard and Kistelvard into the Empire was underway, and it was formally incorporated as the first Overseas Colony of the Empire. Dorghold became a familiar icon in Justelvardic history, with many statues of him being erected. An island chain between Justelvard and Peregrinia was named after him, but his legacy is also frowned upon by Jussies who believe in independence.
Battle for Luxaria
After success in Justelvard, Lambertus V asserted himself as a more confident leader among his privy council. He set his sights westwards to Arcturia, an already known and landed continent by both Staynes and Caltharus as well as other kingdoms Kormistazm and Ethalria. After finding out the Ethalrian Empire had united a nearly 200 kilometer coastal colony a decade prior and with a flair to compete, he sent a ship to send a letter to the Viceroys of each trade outpost for the provisions to form a unified colony southwards of New Calth, but the ship never returned. He later found out the Ethalrian soldiers had seized the ships and executed the soldiers. Frustrated by this, he amassed a fleet of warships and sent them to defeat the Ethalrian Armada. The fleet came back victorious, but the Ethalrian Empire sent their own fleet and reclaimed the small Gronmund Port.
In 1615, Lambertus V ordered a larger fleet of nearly thirty warships to invade the Ethalrian port town. A brutal bloodbath ensued, with the crippled Morst fleet victorious. After receiving a letter from King Lothair I of Ethalria, the two Empires devised a treaty to divide the land according to the Lothair Line; north of which would be controlled by Ethalria and south of which would be controlled by Morstaybishlia, despite who was already living there. The nations agreed, and Luxaria became the second colony on Arcturia.
A castle was erected in Gronmund Port, Teriloe Port and Dogrugan Port to defend against any future attacks. Lambertus Castle in Dogrugan Port is the sole survivor to this day, the others falling into disarray and ruin.
In later years following the Auroran Imperial War, the native population of Luxaria was granted independence during planned decolonialism which would go on to become Lokania. The area that retained its integrity within the Empire would be called Louzaria.
Taking over Kormistazic Arcturia
During the Western Auroran Crusades, the Kormistazic Empire fled to its colonies rather than surrendering as a last resort against the Morstaybishlian Empire. The Morstaybishlian Empire, led by King Redrugus V eventually conquered the Kormistazic strongholds in Arcturia and claimed the Kormistazic ports as their own. From the late 1500s to the early 1600s Morstaybishlia established seven other trade outposts to bolster its oversea’s economy.
In 1628 Morstaybishlia began a campaign to push further into Arcturia to unite the port towns and claim more land for agriculture. The Vivanish resisted the expansion of the Morstaybishlian settlement which began the First Morsto-Vivanan War. After one year the Vivanish people retreated further inland to the Delcanian mountains. Florence I signed the Finalem Charter which saw Morstaybishlia’s first unified territories as Vivania in 1631.
Colonising the South Concordian Ocean
After successfully beating the Ethalrian Empire over Gronmund Port, Morstaybishlian influence would begin to soar over the lands which made up modern day Luxaria. Within less than five years, due to a strong embargo on the Kingdom of Luzura, their influence waned, and eventually it was assimilated into the Morstaybishlian Empire.
Upon the ascension of Florence I, the oppressed peoples of South Peragen began to prefer the idea of Morstaybishlian intervention in the Concordian Ocean, which would upset the powerful influence the Commonwealth held on the nation. With more trading aligned to the Morstaybishlian Empire, South Peragen became a wealthier trade hub; and in 1629 the aristocracies of South Peragen started a revolt against the Commonwealth, which was supported by the Erranzan separatists and the Morstaybishlians. A three year war passed, after which South Peragen won and gained independence in 1632, and with Commonwealth forces retracted, the Empire sought to expand their influence into the prosperous South Concordian Ocean.
At this point the pretensions of Morstaybishlia well public knowledge as they had traded with South Peragen and helped it becoming independent from the Commonwealth. Shoneria followed the same path as South Peragen as it saw a prosperous path of trade and wealth, and started small rebel cells which became an overwhelming national rebellion in 1635. The daughter of the old king of Shoneria, Estelo, became aware of the rebellion and organised a coup on the throne, but her vessel who hosted her, the king pretender and his only son sank and all lives lost.
Morstaybishlia send aid, setting out a clear set of objectives to conquer its first territory in the South Concordian Ocean, and the Shonerian leaders accepted Morstaybishlian occupation. Commonwealth forces had been stretched thin because of the repression in its empire, reached and were victorious over the current occupation. Morstaybishlia retaliated by sending a blockade to the capital Privétia. Morstaybishlia rallied the support of South Peragen and more of their own forces for a full scale invasion of New Leganés, but the Commonwealth occupation of Shoneria retreated to defend their homeland, effectively leaving Shoneria to Morstaybishlia. The Commonwealth had a narrow victory against the coalition of Morstaybishlia and South Peragen, but the Commonwealth had suffered a long siege and suffered extensive damage. Six years of wars over the seas and the Commonwealth ensued, and fearing losing their autonomy, Queen Cristalina IV began negotiations with their enemies and in 1641 the Treaty of Arsal was signed and ratified by the three independent nations. The treaty saw Morstaybishlia take control of the already occupied Shoneria and also control over Oblivion Islands, as well as the Commonwealth dissolved so that the queen would retain power in the New Leganés and retain great trade and a presence of exploitation within the South Concordian Ocean. Morstaybishlia henceforth had huge economic control over the nations of New Leganés and South Peragen which lasted for over 276 years.
Ambitions past the Pacific Ocean
With action dwindling in the South Concordian Ocean and a decisive victory looming over the Commonwealth, the Morstaybishlian Empire set its eyes eastwards to the Pacific Ocean and beyond. It set out three vessels in 1639 to find new land and economic opportunities. They landed on an island named Draegia. Over a year later, one ship returned. Morstaybishlia would seek out more lands in this direction and send more vessels to the unknown east, where they landed and were greeted by natives. The explorer Marten Vhengar interpreted the native’s name for their land as “Vanoru”.
Keaneward and Visteue period (1663-1803)
Six Years' War
In the year 1688, Captain Kerden discovered an island in the Packilvanian Ocean and established a settlement a year later called Queensport. For another five years the Morstaybishlian Empire would build up their settlements with the prospects to use it as a military naval port and trading hub to Yasteria. Communications to the island abruptly ceased to which a vessel was sent and discovered that the Caven Empire had set up their own port on the other side of the island and had fought and won the Staynish port.
Now Commodore, Kerden was sent to claim back the small prospective trading hub and did so in a short-lived Battle of Queensport. A Caven ship survived and sent the news back to the Caven Empire after which there was no obvious retaliation.
Over the next four years, merchant ships leaving Aeternum and other ports in north Caltharus and Staynes were going missing and businesses in these ports were closing down from a loss of income. It was explored by the Morstaybishlian navy but there was no explanation until by chance MBS Queen Aprille was mistaken as a merchant vessel and attacked by a Caven warship but survived. Morstaybishlia later declared war on the Caven Empire.
In secret, Commodore Kerden was sent to Perigrinia, the rival of Caven in the north to formulate a plan to destabilise the Caven Empire as to both Morstaybishlia and Perigrinia’s gain. Perigrinia would fund Morstaybishlian armament and naval ship production for Morstaybishlia’s full scale invasion into Cavens’ south province of Wachovia, starting the Caven Wars.
Morstaybishlia had a strong starting advance in the war, pushing the Caven forces far back. Morstaybishlia would strategically siege Caven port towns of Truzcon, Merna and Libertyburg and cut off trading routes into the Caven Sea from the north. It held a strong advance into Caven and Verlot for about two years, pushing past the Izumi mountains, but fearing encirclement they were pushed back over the mountains to the Wachovia borders where the two forces reached a stalemate. There would be some victories on either side, but after six years in 1704 the Caven Empire surrendered its occupied lands to the Morstaybishlian Empire to end the war. With a suffering economy and a large famine, Peregrinia, who had remained neutral during the conflict, upheld its side of the agreement and began humanitarian aid, promising the people of Caven better fortunes. After fifteen years, Peregrinia had managed to integrate the Caven provinces of Dominionland, Termino, Trioni and Verlot.
Colonies in the Northern Hemisphere
Late Modern (1803 - 21st century)
Morstaybishlia played a leading part in the Pacific and Concordian slave trade, mainly between 1673 and 1917 when Morstaybishlian or Morstaybishlian-colonial ships transported nearly 5 million slaves from Gondwana in a legal system of human chattel enslavement. The slaves were taken to work on plantations in Morstaybishlian possessions, principally in Saint Matilda, the Morstaybishlian West Pacific, Justelvard and Luxaria, but also Aurora. The rapid expansion of the cotton and flax industries after the invention of the cotton gin and spinning wheel greatly increased demand for slave labour. Slavery coupled with the West Pacific sugar industry had a significant role in strengthening and developing the Morstaybishlian economy in the 18th century. Throughout the later 19th century movements called for the monarchy to install laws similar to other nations which began restricting and abolishing slavery, and giving slaves more rights, but this did not succeed. However, when Parliament was formed in 1917 following the handover of absolutism from the monarchy, it banned the slave trade and banned slavery in the Morstaybishlian Empire, freeing over 5 million slaves.
Through reward programs, former slaves were encouraged back to their origin countries, though it largely fell through and former slaves instead settled in the colonies where they had been set to work in. Today, large portions of former slaves live in Lokania, Justelvard, throughout the Pacific and in Gondwana - which can be seen in the distribution of large minority ethnic groups in these colonies.
First war (1795-1810)
See also: Posolic Wars
During the First Posolic War (1795-1810), Morstaybishlia's eastern border reclined drastically as a coalition between Ethalria and Baykalia defeated Morstaybishlia in two big battles; at Fort Nocturnia and Lambertupol. Morstaybishlia reclined back to near-similar borders before the Seven Years' War, behind the Ider River. When the Treaty of Cavenhelm was formed in 1796, Morstaybishlia was forced to give up Aurus and Forchemech, which saw a long evacuation of over twenty thousand troops.
Bittered by its defeat, Morstaybishlia's congregated its army from across the empire, including from the Kormistazic principality and from nearby colonies. Reconstruction of its fleet did not reach Ethalrian or Baykalian intelligence, and war was declared again when Morstaybishlia retook Lambertupol, which established a corridor on the eastern bank of the river. Preventing Ethalrian access to the northern seas was so important to Morstaybishlia because it would keep them as the hegemonic power in the region; that Viceroys from the western Auroran, Arcturian and Yasterian colonies were ordered to amass their warships. This affected west Aurora in particular which had been conquered by Morstaybishlia three hundred years before. Secession movements in Andel city and the Jilkania region declared independence in 1797.
Meanwhile, Ethalria expanded the independent Kormistazic regions, landing forces there and also in southern Staynes (today Valeria), aiming to cut off Morstaybishlia's strangehold on southwestern Aurora. Morstaybishlia was now unable to travel through the Kormistazic principality because a fleet of mainly Ethalrian warships stunned them at the Battle of Montinay in the same year. Since Ethalria had preempted Morstaybishlian movements across the Zycannes, their forces had to take harsher undefended passageways such as Dragon's End and across the West Coddles. A winter in 1798 was the coldest recorded in over fifty years, bringing below freezing temperatures into the continental centre, including over the Zycannes where the forces were passing through. Straddled down in valley settlements, including Birchlea and Emptingdale, food and wood supplies were occasionally intercepted by Ethalria, which killed a large portion of the force to starvation and the elements. Ethalria made enormous territorial gains after two long years of sieges to Morstaybishlian cities in southern Staynes, who surrendered because they ran out of supplies.
By 1799, Ethalria had beat Morstaybishlia at the Battle of Kirdintayos and had begun to absorb all of its surrounding lands and cities who surrendered. The southern Ethalrian city states that were now surrounded on all sides by Ethalria felt that their sovereignty was threatened.
By April 1800, the South Ethalrian city states allied with Morstaybishlia. A treaty would see Morstaybishlia recognise South Ethalria (later Asilica) for access to their land and ports to invade the Ethalrian occupied territories. As the Morstaybishlians were sailing past Valerica, their enemy who had leagued with the Ethalrians; they were ambushed by a fleet from its capital, and the ensuing battle was known as the Battle of Baecca Strait. Morstaybishlia suffered losses, but they were strong enough to repel them back and continue with their mission. Doing so gave a massive element of surprise to Morstaybishlia, and at the same time in the Zycannes, Morstaybishlia finally broke through with what forces survived the brutal winter via a previously uncharted route. Having a huge force north and south by the latter months of 1800, the Morstaybishlian and South Ethalrian forces encircled and starved out the Ethalrians.
Ethalria and Baykalia believed that striking at Aeternum and other large cities in Caltharus, could end Morstaybishlia's industrial capacity and end its era of dominance. Morstaybishlia's mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions from its rapidly expanding new Empire. Morstaybishlia's naval supremacy meant that Ethalria could never enjoy the peace necessary to consolidate its control over Aurora, and it could threaten neither the industrial capacity in Caltharus nor the main Morstaybishlian colonies. Despite this, an Ethalrian and Baykalian fleet under Admiral Maria Valtruda to invade Aeternum was defeated by a smaller fleet helmed by Admiral Prince Redmund off the coast of Cape Mortagra. Admiral Valtruda was uncertain about engaging, and the Ethalro-Baykalian fleet failed to fully organize. In contrast, Redmund was decisive, organizing the Morstaybishlian fleet into two columns sailing straight into the enemy to pierce its wavering lines. The outnumbered Morstaybishlian fleet defeated their opponents, loosing only two ships to the coalition's forty two. The Battle of Mortagra was a decisive victory for the Morstaybishlians. The victory confirmed the naval supremacy Morstaybishlia had established during the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and it was achieved in part through Redmunds’ departure from the prevailing naval tactical orthodoxy of the day.
The rest of the war saw stagnation and stalemate, and both forces vied for possession of the Laulian Bay with significant loss of life. Eventually, peace was brokered in Weyrcliff under the 1810 Weyrcliff Treaty.
Second war (1814-1826)
Height of the Morstaybishlian Empire (1826-1897)
Florence II ascended the throne when her father died at the end of the First Posolic Wars. Her opponents believed that due to her tucked away and extravagant lifestyle she would be weak leading Morstaybishlia into the 19th century. The Second Posolic Wars confirmed her as the opposite; a titanic leader who glided Morstaybishlia back into its role as the world superpower. Her reign, the reign of her son Frederick III and her granddaughter Rosamund II marked the Golden Era where Morstaybishlia reach the zenith of its economic and political power. Exciting new technologies such as railways, photography, telegraphs and steam ships emerged, making the world far faster-paced. Morstaybishlia reinstated its mostly active role in Continental politics which had been challenged by Ethalria and Baykalia in the years before.
There was peace and prosperity, as the national income per person grew by over half. Much of the prosperity was due to the increasing industrialization, especially in machinery and textiles, as well as to the worldwide network of engineering and trade which produced profits for Morstaybishlian merchants and experts from across the world. In the Morstaybishlian sphere, there was peace abroad, except for Kuthernburg's independence, which momentarily caused disruption in trade and global trust in Mortaybishlia's ability to control its oversea assets.
Despite these changes, Morstaybishlia lacked behind in its democratic index. It was still an absolute monarchy, and even though there was movements to change, an elected parliament would not happen until 1917. However, the Privy Council of Staynes and Privy Council of Caltharus which were appointed by the Crown and served at the Crown's pleasure became more autonomous, including consolidating the two devolved administrations of Staynes and Caltharus into one, based at Kalmington Palace, Sani Bursil, and helmed by a Chief Minister, equivalent of a prime minister today. This became the House of Peers in 1831, and were the first example of a unified chamber of Peerage from across the homeland. They drafted legislation in the name of the King, or Queen, at their pleasure, and the monarch was perfectly in their right to stop legislation from passing. In fact, this was common practice. The monarch remained untouchable and unaccountable to the House of Peers, and had a large sway among leading figures to bend them into submission.
On a local level, a rapid rise of the middle class, in large part displacing the complete control long exercised by the aristocracy occurred. Respectability was their code, and businessmen had to be trusted and must avoid reckless gambling and heavy drinking. The Thaerist institution imposed fresh moralistic values on society, such as responsibility, widespread charity, discipline in the home, and self-examination for the smallest faults and needs of improvement. They focused on exciting a personal revulsion against social evils and personal misbehavior. Though across the world slavery was being abolished, the lack of free press saw most of Morstaybishlia oblivious to the country's huge trade, and so anti-slavery movements barely took off despite this moral shift. The press was still widely controlled by the aristocracy who gained from the slave trade, and all independent agitation and reporting of the horrific conditions of chattel slavery across the Empire was either bought out or quashed.
There was a spirit of libertarianism as people felt they were free. Taxes however were moderate, and government restrictions on media and other aspects of everyday life was in effect. There were other problem areas, such as occasional riots, especially those motivated by anti-Monarchism. Society was still ruled by the aristocracy and the gentry, which controlled high government offices, the House of Peers, religious institutions, and the military. Becoming a rich businessman was not as prestigious as inheriting a title and owning a landed estate.
The abstract theological or philosophical doctrine of agnosticism, whereby it is theoretically impossible to prove whether or not a higher being exists, suddenly became a popular issue in the 1860s, though Blasphemy laws meant that promoting atheism could be a crime and was vigorously prosecuted, which drove these freethinkers underground. Children were entitled to education for the first time, though this was limited to literacy as the population was highly illiterate. A 1840s estimate believed that over 90 percent of people could not read or write; but by the end of the 19th century illiteracy had fallen so dramatically that over 65 percent could read and write, which inspired a boom in reading culture and Morstaybishlian literature. A plethora of reading materials were to children. Publishers also took advantage of innovations such as those that enable the printing of coloured illustrations. As the middle class boomed, people had more money to spend on entertaining their children. Moral messaging was de-emphasised in favor of fun.
Opportunities for leisure activities increased dramatically as real wages continued to grow and hours of work continued to decline. In urban areas the ten-hour workday became increasingly the norm; the Factory Act 1869 limited the working week to 60 hours, encouraging the movement towards an eventual nine-hour workday. Sundays became a day off for the working man, which opened up opportunity for some 1,000 seaside resorts emerging thanks to cheap hotels and inexpensive railway fares.
In this period, fertility rates remained high, leading to a population boom. Gradually, fertility rates fell as people became more affluent and had better access to contraception. By 1897, the infant mortality rate in Staynes was 10 percent, down from about half in the 15th century. There was no catastrophic epidemic or famine in Morstaybishlia in the nineteenth century, marking the first century in which a major epidemic did not occur throughout the whole country. In the olden days, people typically had had as many children as they could afford in order to ensure at least a few of them would survive to adulthood and have children of their own due to high child mortality rates. Moreover, it was the poor who had had an incentive to curb their fertility whereas the rich had lacked such a need due to greater wealth and lower child mortality rates. This changed due to the Industrial Revolution. Standards of living improved and mortality rates fell. People no longer needed to have as many children as before to ensure the propagation of their genes. The link between poverty and child mortality weakened. In addition, societal attitude towards contraception warmed, leading to the negative correlation between intelligence and fertility.
Morstopackia and the Great War (1897-1917)
In 1897, Thadeus I married Zerah Demir IV, Sultana of the Caliphate. The two superpowers were united under marriage and for 20 years remained so, until the death of the Morstaybishlian King in 1917. Trade between the two superpowers rose to unimaginable heights. The legacy of which is still visible in trade between the two superpowers to this day, with Morsto-Caliphate trade being the strongest and largest trade between two sovereign states in the world.
The two countries, having been married under political union for 18 years, decided that they would go through a legal process to form a permanent sovereign state with the alias "Morstopackia". The idea was taken quite radically in two fashions; some thousands of politicians and activists endorsed the idea whilst an equal number despised it. This union was despised because among other things, it concentrated even more over a transnational elite, removed from the problems and needs of Morst people. Furthermore, it imposed alien ideas that emanated from compromises made with the Packilvanians through the Articles of Union drafted by Packilvanian Grand Vizier Abdun Demir. When the King of Morstaybishlia abruptly died of liver failure after the war in August 1917 it sparked an international crisis.
Gideon Muktan, a member of the Bingol Parliament and the founder of the Feline Club in Packilvania, and his colleagues gave Sultana Zemir a manifesto asking for reforms. Due to her repressive tactics, Feline Club became the Packilvanian Communist Party in 1918 and they established a paramilitary force called the Packilvanian People's Liberation Army to overthrow her rule. The death of King Thadeus I led to a constitutional crisis as it was unclear whether Sultana Zemir Demir V would be the sole monarch of both countries or whether Thadeus II would become King. This led to delays in his coronation. Nevertheless, circumstances in Packilvania forced a resolution. To assuage some of the anger against her government, Sultana Zemir Demir IV ended the unification process and renounced her claims to the Morstaybishlian throne. Unfortunately this was too little too late and the First Packilvanian Civil War was fully under way. Morstaybishlian forces under newly crowned King Thadeus II came to her aid and fought on her side. However, she was defeated in 1925 and was captured by the Communists but she fled to Great Morstaybishlia for the remainder of her life. During the First Packilvanian Civil War, the ideas of communism spread among some Morst soldiers who were resentful of fighting in a bloody foreign war. The ideas of Nikobar Luden, a famous writer and academic spread such that they galvanised the desire for social and political reforms among Morstaybishlians especially the youth and intellectual classes.
Throughout both the Great War and First Packilvanian Civil War, the disdain for the Morsto-Packilvanian monarchist union cultivated a coordinated movement for democratisation and political reform. Following the death of King Thadeus I on the 1st of August, the movement gained momentum. Both political wings formed the Parliamentarian forces and stormed the Royal Palace on the 17th of August demanding a signatory from the young King Thadeus II on the Great Charter of the Liberties to sign over his right to absolutism. Agreeing to this, the Parliamentarians and the Crown agreed for the continuance of the monarchy constitutionally. The parliamentarians gave a purdah where constituencies were created and an election period began. On the 11th of October 1917, Orson Klarass led the Conservative Party into the first Morstaybishlian Government. Slavery was abolished in 1917 with a near unanimous vote in the chamber, a reflection of how it the concept of slavery was disliked by the turn of the 20th century.
With a fragile year in the royal family came a major political rift. Both the far reaches within the fatherland of Morstaybishlia and Packilvania saw large far-left groups emerge. The latter fell to a communist uprising in the years following with Queen Zerah Demir IV's assassination in 1936 and the far-left groups in Morstaybishlia would eventually be the precursor to Norogradian Independence.
Aftermath of the Great War
As the world evolved in the 19th and 20th centuries, many democratic nations abolished slavery and pressured the Morstaybishlian and Packilvanian Empires to do so. Owing to its incredible size and power in the 19th century and its absolute monarchy which had large capital interests and investment in the slave trade, the Morstaybishlian Empire did not abolish slavery until in November 1917, two months after the end of the Great War and the dissolution of Morstopackia. The nation saw huge social, economic and political reforms in 1917 as it transitioned from an absolute monarchy to parliamentary republic under constitutional monarchy; and later 1910s and 1920s.
Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act 1917 with over 79 percent of the House of Representatives voting in favour. The Act made the purchase and ownership of slaves in all of the Morstaybishlian Empire illegal and immediately freed over 5 million slaves. Slavery had been a point of social contention for nearly all of the 19th and early 20th century leading up to its abolition, with its abolition being a primary benefactor of their movement. By January of 1918, the Morstaybishlian Empire had de jure implemented the Act in its declining oversea territories, though de facto there was still an active slave trade in many territories. Following the thirteen years of warfare, the Imperial Navy was heavily damaged and initially struggled with enforcing the legislation. Many of the closer territories to continental Morstaybishlia, including New Calth, Luxaria, Ruxalara and Justelvard followed suit with the mainland and who's people accepted the changes, but elsewhere it was different.
In the colonial and territorial administrations of Joralesia, Salisar, the Morst West Pacific, Dalmaghar, Kurandia, and others recognised the Act and implemented it, but clandestine slave-trading and blackbirding still occurred as late as the mid 1930s. Though it was hit with the economic depression and major de-colonisation following the war, the Imperial Navy immediately established a presence off of the coasts of these territories where there were rumours, sightings, reports or evidence of ongoing slavery, as well as negotiating with countries neighbouring these colonies and territories for their rights to stop and search vessels believed to house slaves. The Imperial Navy dispatched three squadrons of four, five and eight light cruisers to the Pacific Ocean, as well as the south and north Concordian Ocean respectively. With bases at Montecadre, what is now Penisine Garrisons in Balidar, and Bruzraka; the squadrons aided in the capture of over 2,100 slave ships, freeing over 205,000 people from slavery between 1917 and 1934. However, unfortunately this did not exactly reduce the number of deaths of slaves. Thousands lost their lives if the captain of a slave ship knew they were being approached by a squadron vessel. The captain would order for the slaves to be thrown overboard still shackled. Very few would make it to shore.
Norograd separatism to the Auroran-Imperial War
With the death of Thadeus I and the recession of Packilvania-Morstaybishlia relations, separatists in the Principality of Korstazia formed the Korstazian Republican Army and began attacking police stations and government buildings within the major cities in a minor bid to take control. In 1920, the armed forces were deployed to deal with the KRA and attacks ceased. This action was incredibly well publicised, and in the time afterwards socialist newspapers in the region became significantly more popular, especially those promoting anti-imperial Noroist socialism. By the turn of the decade, most separatist groups and militias had become Noroist.
In 1943, a small Noroist group known as the Jilkania Revolutionary Front launched a surprise attack on the Barque city council hall. They captured it swiftly and with little resistance, taking several hostages including the mayor of the city at the time, Ferdinand Smithson. Police were unable to safely retake the hall, coming under fire and threats that the hostages would be killed. The JRF demanded that Jilkaan be allowed to secede from the Empire as its own state, and encouraged other groups to take action against the regional authority. The stand off lasted a week before the first hostage was eventually killed. Soon after, the Morstaybishlian Armed Forces were sent in to retake the structure without killing the hostages. However, the JRF were warned of the attack beforehand and a major firefight emerged, with major casualties on both sides. The city hall was eventually retaken, though Ferdiand Smithson was shot several times and died of blood loss and internal bleeding whilst being transported to hospital. In the aftermath, Lord Nelson of Jilkaan decided to enhance police liberties when dealing with rebellion to prevent further need for the armed forces and to root out separatist groups in the region. King Thadeus II then extended this law to all of the Principality in 1945 due to the increased number of protests and riots.
By the late 1950's, the counterculture movement emerged across Aurora, and with it, and increased number of protests and riots within Korstazia, as well as the Emberwood and Quartz fern regions. Primarily Noroist socialist separatist groups became significantly more prolific, especially in higher education and universities. with the turn of the 60's, the largest underground Noroist resistance group, the Norogradian peoples liberation party, made links with the government of Ethalria and East Cerdani. This allowed them to begin stockpiling arms and manufactured weapons, as well as giving them the resources needed to semi-covertly begin manufacturing weapons of their own design by the end of the decade. When the Auroran Imperial War broke out, the NPLP organised soldiers across the principality, coordinating with other smaller groups, and soon after launched a coup of the regional government. Armed with a vast supply of arms, vehicles, ships, and aircraft, the NPLP successfully gained control of the Kormistazic principality within three days, announcing its independence as the republic of Norograd and joining Ethalria against the Morstaybishlian Empire. This was further solidified by the use of high yield thermobaric weaponry by the Royal Air Force during an NPLP assault on an army base, which killed many soldiers of both sides.
With the close of the Auroran Imperial War, Lyrevale, Emberwood Coast, and Quartz Fern Coast had seceded from Norograd. Every new nation had its independence guaranteed at the post-war Weyrcliff summit and were officially recognised as separated from the Morstaybishlian Empire.
From secession to union
Years of tension between the central government and many local councils and authorities in Valeria led to a snap referendum on 6 June 1975 for independence at the end stages of the Auroran Imperial War. Questions of legitimacy all over the nation was raised because this was not a government sanctioned referendum, seeing a 54 percent vote to leave. Due to the ongoing war effort, a collapsing economy and independence elsewhere within the empire, the Crowcasa War Cabinet - a national coalition - broke apart, two years before a scheduled general election.
Greta Vardem declared herself President of an independent Valeria, and consolidated power via military divisions on the eastern offensive against Ethalria, who hadn't been rotated in over a year and were loyal to a South Staynish identity. South Staynish military leaders executed dissenters which allowed for a swift alignment of troops, but also several theaters of infighting between Morstaybishlian and South Staynish forces.
A stagnant eastern front was opened up by Ethalria after Valeria declared independence and the line of contact had internal problems. Ethalria pushed back the line of contact with an offensive from Imperium and Wulesburg to Rorivon and Rostok. Though the line of contact had deflated many miles, it soon consolidated into a more solid position as Valeria gained its footing. At this point, Ian Crowcasa had been voted out of government after his 14 year tenure, voting in Delores Gastrell.
Banking in Valeria was all headquartered in Staynes. From Sani Bursil, Gastrell ordered all banks to shut down. With over 90 percent of banks shutting down in Valeria, people were unable to withdraw money, and Valeria immediately plunged into financial ruin.
Vardem established an emergency National Bank and begun integration schemes with a new currency made of plastic coins, because there was no time to mine and mass produce coins made of nickel or other metals. Economic depression followed, and millions of people were out of work. Ethalria capitalised on this and seized huge swathes of land, before being immobilised from the Ketavuul orbital bombardment strikes. They would later cede land they absorbed in this offensive to what is the current border today. The Wreycliff Pact prevented signatories from recognising Valeria as an independent nation, and so Vardem's talks with Norograd broke down in the latter part of the year.
Between 1975 and 1977, millions of people died as a result of the depression. Nobody could afford healthcare and medical supplies and the government struggled with demand. Infectious diseases spread across the population, including Poliovirus, Typhus fever, and Measles.
Whilst Valeria held de facto power in the nation, Morstaybishlia continued its claim, which put pressure on nations to not recognise Valeria as a sovereign nation, which would aggrevate the superpower. However, Peregrinia came into controversy when CapCoal Bank, a private banking group headquartered in the nation, gave out loans to aid Valeria. Morstaybishlia put pressure on Peregrinia to withdraw this aid, which they eventually did.
Civil unrest began in March 1977, and saw South Staynish people target people and companies based on economic ties with Morstaybishlia. Arson and vandalism occurred against Staynish owned businesses, which were marked with a blood rose on shop windows before being subject of attack. People with Staynish blood, family or other ties were blamed for Morstaybishlia's actions in crippling their nation. Politicians and well known business owners who were Staynish fled to Morstaybishlia or were otherwise killed, or at the least beaten. A new opponent to Vardem's government swept the younger population who had known nothing other than struggle, war and famine. Supported by Delores Sofura's fascist regime, the opposition was helmed by fascist leader Morgan Lugin.
All Morstaybishlian allies turned a blind eye to the situation, unable to find adequate reason to undermine Morstaybishlia. Some nations supported Valeria, such as Norgsveldet.
In April, in a highly controversial moment, a gunman in a police disguise was mistakenly identified as Labius Deputy Police Officer Aero Benagli and was allowed on set during a live television broadcast where the President was filming. The gunman, Fred Greidman, fired and shot Greta several times in the chest and stomach before shooting himself. Immediately following the incident, fascist opponent Morgan Lugin seized power of the senate. Civil unrest was intensified, and infighting began in major cities. The armed forces was dispatched and under Morgan Lugin was ordered to fire live ammunition at violent protesters. Several thousand people were massacred. This action sent the country into civil war and Lugin lost the trust of Delores Sofura and other fascist allies. With infighting reaching extreme heights, Lugin was forced to resign by his own council and later went into exile. A new interim government ran by seven members of the Vardem Committee believed it was in the national interest to reintegrate with Morstaybishlia. The committee flew to Sani Bursil to begin negotiations, and a few months later, Morstaybishlia recognised Valeria as an entity and Valeria integrated into the nation under the Acts of Union 1977. This formed a political union with the United Kingdom of Morstaybishlia to create the United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia.
Between the two Auroran Wars
Lyrevale Civil War
A period of geopolitical tension between Norograd and Morstaybishlia and their respective allies began immediately following the Auroran Imperial War, and lasted until the dissolution of Norograd in 1996. There was no large-scale fighting directly between the two powers, but they engaged in proxy wars such as the Lyrevale Civil War.
Meremaa Civil War
On 15 April 1990, Grand Duke Telvi II of Meremaa ordered the military to fire at a labour strike organised by Democratic Socialist political organisations in the city of Morzk. Immediately after the actions ordered by Telvi II, Meremaan news outlets and papers began glorifying their leader and exerting an approach relating to their foreign policy which gave Prime Minister Robert Delari an unclear future for Dalmaghar. This concerned Robert Delari, who retaliated by condemning the actions of the Grand Duke. Meremaa declared their intentions to align further with Norgsveldet economically despite their independence less than a decade before.
Delari viewed this negatively, and made public his views on how Meremaa has lost its sovereignty and how the Morstaybishlian Government no longer viewed the government of Meremaa as legitimate. As civil unrest grew into civil war, Delari endorsed the Democratic Socialist movement, led by Tyr Vaines, which branded itself as the Republican Forces of Meremaa, whilst simultaneously sending its Pacific Fleet to protect the Morstaybishlian asset of Dalmaghar.
Norgsveldet viewed the newfound Morstaybishlian naval presence in Dalmaghar as hostile. However, they initially laid off any form of support to Meremaa as Morstaybishlia had not officially sided with the republicans.
On 22 May 1990, Robert Delari declared war on Meremaa, and revealed his new deal with the Republican Forces was to help install a democratic foundation in the region. The same day, media coverage of Republican Forces attacking an Ulvriktru temple went global, and this coupled with the already public dissent against war began a month long riots across all of Great Morstaybishlia. Delari’s opinion polls dropped dramatically as he guided a Morstaybishlian landing on the Meremain coast.
Soon thereafter, Norgsveldet declared their intentions to back the Meremain government and send troops to reinforce the already strong Meremain forces. Over the next year, Morstaybishlia sent over 82,000 troops to the campaign. The Meremain forces were well dug in and the Morstaybishlian’s lost 12,481 men. A hopeful campaign on 21 February 1991 laid out a plan to wipe out one of the main entrances of Norgsveltian troops into Meremaa. Morstaybishlian saw a quick naval bombardment and subsequent attack of the city, but over an ensuing ten days was blocked by a fiercely dug in Meremain defence line. The battle lasted 26 days, until 19 March, where the Morstaybishlian forces retreated to Dalmaghar. It was during this retreat that the MBS Augustine, the first Augustine-class aircraft carrier completed two months before was sunk.
Parliament immediately motioned a vote of no confidence against Delari’s administration, and no less than two weeks later Morstaybishlia had a hung parliament. The Conservative Party led by Rupert Sinkasa formed a confidence-and-supply coalition government with the Liberal Party. His party promised to end the war, but the Liberals, their only feasible coalition partner, would go on to make that reality very difficult. Through votes in government, the Liberals denied Conservative majorities on de-escalation.
Sinkasa immediately faced more riots in Sani Bursil and other major urban conurbations as he failed to find a de-escalation solution. Meremaa and Norgsveldet pushed a firm counter attack into Dalmaghar, with a continuous air strike campaign on military and civilian targets. Morstaybishlia was forced to deploy a second fleet to Dalmaghar stoked with fresh supplies and troops when Norgsveltian forces began accumulating in the Isles of Hel for a land invasion. This deterred Norgsveldet from commencing an attack.
Morstaybishlia sent over 124,000 troops from April 1991 to October 1992 to Morzk where they fought a huge series of campaigns to take the capital, Kalaborgdurg. Initially the campaigns went well, establishing a strong defence line halfway between Morzk to Kalaborgdurg, and gaining ground as close as Dzimspilsēta, but after some time Meremaa and Norgsveldet began to push them back. Morstaybishlia over this next year of retreat would lose 43,305 men. At the same time, the Republican Forces of Meremaa lost over 110,000 troops and became increasingly unpopular among the population of Meremaa for violent attacks on Ulvriktru temples despite the Morstaybishlian’s best curveball attempts.
By the beginning of 1993, the two sides had reached a stalemate at a natural defence line in the far east of Meremaa. Morstaybishlia and the Republican Forces of Meremaa agreed that any future campaign of Kalaborgdurg would be unsuccessful and agreed on forming a splinter state known as the Republic of Morzk. From January to April was a period of relative peacetime. This was interrupted when Norgsveltian submarines sank a Morstaybishlian supply lane which would mark the beginning of a Norgsveltian campaign to choke the mostly unrecognised republic.
Norgsveldet fought and won a decisive naval battle against an unprepared Morstaybishlian defence which would establish a blockade around the republic. Meremaa and Norgsveldet began a full assault into the region of Morzk which lasted until 23 October 1994 when the Republican forces surrendered. Rupert Sinkasa flew to Burdels, Lessau, and signed a peace treaty with Grand Duke Telvi II of Meremaa and Prime Minister Margete Kverheim of Norgsveldet which saw non-aggression between the three nations and Morstaybishlian recognition of Meremaa.
After the war, it was judged that during the Kalaborgdurg campaign Morstaybishlian and Meremain Republican forces were responsible for over twenty thousand civilian murders and somewhere between one thousand and two thousand five hundred rapes.
State of Morstaybishlia
Despite sharing the same culture, language and history, west and east Staynes have rivalled each other since antiquity, with the kingdoms of Staynnica and Maltervenia opposing each other during the Era of Changes and their capitals, Redrugus and (now) Sani Bursil going on to compete in growth and economic output during the Industrial Revolution. These two cities were the first two cities to rapidly industrialise in the early-mid 19th century anywhere in the world. Today Redrugus still maintains its industrial identity whilst other cities naturally deindustrialised into primary tertiary economies, such as being the site of Aurora's largest steelwork companies and some of the world's largest manufacturing companies. Up the coast from Redrugus, Fort Staynes maintains the facilities as Staynes' fourth largest port by freight distribution; the city sees large volumes of maritime traffic from east Arcturia and Alaria.
Morstaybishlia faced economic decline in the 1990s and 2000s. Years of privatisation in the 1990s resulted in the quality of goods and services decreasing whilst companies recorded record profits. Unions demanded better pay and working conditions whilst the government maintained its attention abroad in proxy wars with Axdel in Lyrevale and direct conflict in the Meremaa Civil War. When three Conservative prime ministers (Sinkasa, Tharen and Logrin) of six years was defeated in the 1998 general election by Labour's Verlhanz Rothgerus, the new prime minister focused a considerable amount of resources in tackling socioeconomic issues in the worse affected cities. Redrugus and Fort Staynes, as well as smaller cities nearby were among several areas within Morstaybishlia that was disproportionately treated. Redrugus, who's dockside constituencies are some of the most impoverished in the country, were overlooked and underfunded much to the distaste of the locals, whilst the richer constituencies (namely Bramblehead, Highwood and Kenton Beacon) had practically all of their funding redistributed to places elsewhere. Years passed and conditions did not improve, yet inflation was at a thirty year high.
On 3 May 2002 senior politicians and military personnel met in Clara House for the first of eight secret talks aimed at bringing the Staynish provinces of Horkalo and Redrugus out of Morstaybishlia. They met bi-monthly until their final meeting in July 2003. Notable members included Mayor Dinnick Amildon of Redrugus, Redrugus Chief of Police Kirkosby Lews, former Chief of Defence Staff Velisa Felgian and RedBank CEO Clauzia Murley. In the week leading up to the State of Morstaybishlia declaring independence, military and police leaders carefully and meticulously laid out the groundworks for their coup d'etat. On 31 July 2003, seperatist forces seized control of two aircraft carriers, MBS Marvant and MBS Baltassar, as well as the rest of the Home Fleet docked at Xenliada, the main dockyard of the Morstaybishlian Fleet and the headquarters of the Naval Staff Offices. The coup d'etat was swift, and the police leadership was also ascertained, both without casualties.
On 1 August, a group of crossbench politicians from the two provinces declared a new 'State of Morstaybishlia' as independent from Great Morstaybishlia. Pro-Kalmington politicians had quickly rallied overnight and attempted to organise a resistance. The streets of Redrugus and other large cities entered a week of civil unrest. Until the seperatist forces (which by now had consolidated a disproportionate section of the Morstaybishlian Armed Forces, including 90% of the Imperial Navy's Home Fleet) managed to mobilise defensive lines on the Burren mountains and the Anker River, many thousands evacuated and general anarchy proliferated the cities.
The Morstaybishlian government acted swiftly, though critics argue there were obvious signs a military coup d'etat of Redrugus and Horkalo was happening under their noses months before it happened. Before separatists gained air superiority, Morstaybishlian long-range bomber aircraft disabled several naval vessels, including MBS Horkalo, a Litop-class IIA destroyer. The surrounding waters of Xenliada saw naval engagement, where ships under MBE scrambled to escape State control and disabled targets where they could. Four ships under the MBE's control were sank, including two Aeternum-class frigates, MBS Walverdon and MBS Torrin, claiming a total of 787 crew. Seperatists were fought back to the Heldon Bridge, where they destroyed it, thus forming the line of control that would remain until Great Morstaybishlia invaded two years later.
With his declaration as President of the State of Morstaybishlia and Supreme Commander of its armed forces, George Vermana set out by enacting martial law. To suppress what opposition existed to their self-declared independence, regular stop checks began and curfew was set at 20:00. Vermana's government sought to legitimise their status as an independent nation by continuing the sale of goods, such as grain and oil to importing customers of Great Morstaybishlia, the latter via the Redrugan Oil Reserve (Morstaybishlia's third largest). The MBE responded by patrolling blue waters in the West Sea with components from other fleets, enacting an embargo and seizing ships that tried to leave, or enter. The State responded in kind, and patrolled their own waters. Open sea warfare to remove the blockade begun, and the State, operating the Home Fleet and backed by the Redrugan Oil Reserves, was able to fight indefinitely until all of their ships were damaged or sunken.
Morstaybishlia successfully whipped the ACA (the predecessor of the UNAC) into condemnation of the State by September 2003. A condemnation by the International Forum in January 2004 followed. Both the State and the MBE had rapidly mobilised forces for the advent of war. RedBank departments and cash machines were shut down and disabled across Aurora (where the banks entire operations were conducted), and assets were frozen when economic data showed that the State of Morstaybishlia was a recipient of several of their loans worth billions of Kiribs.
George Vermana was shot and killed by MIB agents operating undercover at his stately home on 18 October 2004 in what the Morstaybishlian Government codenamed Operation Fox Hunt. His death was applauded in main streets like Oswald Place and Palace Street. On the same day, MBE forces penetrated the defense lines of the State and began its invasion. From Kalmington, King Lambertus VII officially declared hostilities, the first time the Morstaybishlian government had done so since the advent of the Auroran Imperial War. In Redrugus, Zecrod Furista was sworn in as President.
Morstaybishlian Secession War
In an interview with the MBC in 2014, Franklin Barvata described how success in Operation Fox Hunt falsely alluded the Morstaybishlian government into believing that the State would collapse because of a fragile leadership system, and that in the vacuum left by the death of George Vermana would allow the Morstaybishlian Armed Forces an easier path to victory against a stunned and chaotic State military command.
No such government or military command collapse occurred, and Zecrod Furista was sworn in as the second president the same day. Kalmington hopes of civil unrest and internal conflict against the Furista government was not met. Morstaybishlian forces crossed the border on 18 October 2004 and was met by fierce resistance, though as the conflict progressed, lightning tactics were employed to encircle State units to force a quicker victory. However, George Vermana had predicted this in his tenure and had planted explosives on every road across the border. When these eplosives were detonated, the Morstaybishlian fast attack strategies were useless. Warfare on the ground continued slowly, and battles were mainly fought in the air and at sea.
In the north, the MBE's delayed landings as a result of the 2004 Packilvanian Ocean Typhoon season's Typhoon Ariezoe made continual permanent territorial gains as forces on land pushed south. In the east, State forces fought hardest and territorial gains were harder come by. The capture of Skaul, Queenschester and Fort Staynes had Zecrod Furista on the defensive. By April 2005, as Kalmington was preparring for the 2005 genral election, forces aboard the Baltassar-class MBS Baltassar (the lead ship of her class) mutinied, and surrendered to the Morstaybishlian Fleet. Further waves of surrendering forces saw morale in Furista's government fall dramatically. Several politicians and members of State High Command either attempted unsuccessfully or successfully to leave to seek refuge in Morstaybishlia and avoid imprisonment by revealing sensitive strategies or secrets which could help the war effort. Only two out of six high ranking politicians and military command managed this feat.
During fierce combat in the Battle of Kasilly Point, MBS Roumont, under command of the State, was sunk and destroyed by a Vezra GE-25 fourth-generation fighter. Other smaller vessels on both sides were sunk.
At some point during 16 to 20 September 2005 Zecrod Furista fled the country, and on 24 September 2005 the State of Morstaybishlia surrendered. The new Prime Minister Walter Johannes travelled to Redrugus on 26 September and declared 'the people are free, and this dark chapter of Morstaybishlia's history is over'.
Preliminary talks in early 2005 between Great Morstaybishlia, Axdel (who's political relationship with Morstaybishlia had improved drastically since the Lyrevale Continuation War nineteen years before) and the Republic of Ethalria would form the basis of the Western Auroran Pact (WAP), which would become the precursor of the Intercontinental Regional Security Accords (IRSA). A main proponent to the groups formation was unity against secessionist movements, which all parties had partial issues with.
Acts of Union
Justelvard faced continuous trouble with a language and cultural divide since it was colonised in the early 17th century. Justelard, who seceded from Morstaybishlia upon the closure of the Auroran Imperial War was bound by the Port Makuh Agreement, signed by former Prime Minister Delores Gastrell and the first Prime Minister of Justelvard Jamesina Sefera, which stated that "if at any stage it is clear that a majority of constituencies in Justelvard hold pro-Morstaybishlian seats, then a referendum for Morstaybishlian reunification would be considered" and that, under these terms, "a Morstaybishlian reunification would see Justelvard become a functioning member state of Great Morstaybishlia as opposed to territory of the crown". After the 2014 Justelvard General Election, the new Prime Minister Wiley Gordwin was elected but led a minority government, his opposition could not form a government but which formed for the first time a majority for pro-Morstaybishlia. Gordwin controversially ignored this clause in the Port Makuh Agreement, and had a huge backlash from politicians and the general public. At the time, Gordwins' opinion polls dropped to 23 percent, the lowest of any Justelvardic Prime Ministers ever. A general election was called after a vote of no confidence. The Liberal League of Justelvard lost ten seats in the 2015 Justelvard General Election and the Justelvardic Unionist Party was voted in. His successor, and the new Prime Minister Arran Samsey, held a referendum on 16 December 2015 which saw a 65 percent vote for Morstaybishlian reunification, though no constituency in the Western Outliers voted to leave. Samsey flew to Sani Bursil on as many as eleven occasions to discuss with Walter Johannes an agreement. One year later to the day, on 16 December 2016, the United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard came into being, the result of Acts of Union being passed by the parliaments of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard and so unite the two kingdoms.
See also: Auroran-Pacific War
After loyalists to the Ethalrian Monarchy illegitimately seized the government of the Republic of Ethalria in May 2017 to form the Greater Ethalrian Empire, the Morstaybishlian Government would call an emergency meeting between world leaders at Sani Bursil Royal Palace resulting in an allegiance of half a dozen countries to fight the new Auroran threat. Tensions rose across the world for a few weeks. The Royal Parade was not cancelled despite the best efforts of Prime Minister Walter Johannes, who deemed it 'unsafe in the current political climate'. During the parade around Sani Bursil, an assassination attempt on King Lambertus VII failed but resulted in the death of the heir apparent Prince Thadeus. It was soon thereafter discovered that the plot was orchestrated by operatives of the Matriarchy of Ethalria working for Amalda Harimann and Great Morstaybishlia declared war on the Matriarchy the same day.
With Stratarin's Premier Viktor Drugov losing his position of power to Mikhail Starikov, Great Morstaybishlia lost one of its great allies. Starikov made his intentions known and became allies with the Matriarchy of Ethalria, the Greater Ethalrian Empire and Kostromastan, forming the axis. Stratarin played a vital role in military armament and funding of the axis; in particular Kostromastan, who had used this aide to push an invasion deep into Nocturne. Kostromastan and Stratarin would aim to push deep into Barbarus and Laulia Provinces to ambush the vastly spread and deeply entrenched allied forces in their battle over north Ethalrian cities, and a planned Strataric naval invasion on the beaches of Aurus and Laulia Provinces was narrowly prevented when their naval routes were cut off by the Oan Isles, which began the Pacific Theater of War. Great Morstaybishlia immediately amassed a force with Lokania and Kuthernburg to invade both Ethalrias. Facing fierce opposition, the allies narrowly secured victories in Arkenvel and Avenai in late June and July, later beating the Matriarchy of Ethalria in the battle for Karinthus and later Ribenstadt, the Ethalrian capital which would lead Harimann into hiding and see the Ethalrian Vice Matriarch sign the Instrument of Surrender on the 24th of October. In the west the allies were repelled into Valeria, with bombing of cities Leriad, Burleron and Kovaro killing millions of people, but upon the surrender of the Matriarchy of Ethalria, the Greater Ethalrian Empire caved into pressure on all sides from the allies, herself surrendering soon thereafter. Immediately following the war, Great Morstaybishlia, as well as Axdel, Tuvaltastan and the Oan Isles saw the fragmentation of both Ethalria's and occupied each zone which became the six Ethaln countries.
Since the Auroran-Pacific War
Walter Johannes lost the 2019 Great Morstaybishlia General Election to Labour's fielded candidate Franklin Barvata, ending the 14 year Johannes administration and subsequently stepped down as Conservative leader.
Kyrloth's annexation of Izria saw the Embask oil rigs off the coast of the Undirnor and Slodhir Islands unlawfully and illegally signed away by King Tegura IV to Sinter Tass sparking controversy and outrage. Barvata failed to negotiate with Tass and the latter sent a blockade of corvettes to the oil rigs. Norgsveltian Prime Minister Sverdrup hosted a meeting between Tass, Barvata and Kuthern leaders. Meanwhile during this meeting one of the oil rigs was blown up on order of Artun Sotarikos and sunk the destroyer MBS Dovia. The incident was known as the The Lion of Taren Incident, and in Norgsveldet the outcome of this meeting saw the Kyrlot Government pay a sum of 20 billion Kiribs (5% of their GDP) for the oil rigs and compensation to the workers and the dead workers' families. Barvata later sacked Secretary of State for Foreign and Oversea Territory Affairs Janietta Rubis from the cabinet for her poor handling of the situation, replacing her with Ron Wehrasbi.
Walter Johannes successor Berowalt Ase accused his party of a 'witch hunt' after being forced to resign for alleged continuous racism, being succeeded by Benjamin Wardola. This leadership change rippled in the Democratic Party and its leader Paddy Lukamortz was replaced by Osbourne Saudaran in the 2020 MBE Democrats Leadership Election.
In May 2020, Great Morstaybishlia joined the The Anti-Alyunthian Coalition, and participated in open political isolation against Alyunthia, but unlike the lead member Rodenia who had declared hostilities, Great Morstaybishlia decided to remain neutral.
In the defence of peace, Great Morstaybishlia, Meremaa and Norgsveldet signed the Riberoe Pact, a non-aggression treaty over the tensions in the territorial waters of Meremaa and Dalmaghar that have existed since the Meremaa Civil War.
On 25 June 2020 Prime Minister Franklin Barvata made a speech advocating de-escalating Arcturia after large political blocs including the NSTO, UCA and LN condemned Rodenia for their military intervention into Puntalia. The Morstaybishlian Government deployed the Home Fleet to Lambombay Naval Base, New Calth; a 200 vessel strong theater-level component command led by aircraft carrier MBS Glasgore to provide humanitarian aid and to promote de-escalation with their presence. A day later the home fleet was split into three. MBS Jarsdel was sent to lead a force to the west coast of Rodenia, MBS Sinkasa was sent with a group to the east coast and MBS Glasgore led a group on the north coast. Barvata scrutinised Prime Minister Johanna Sverdrup of Norgsveldet for her “lack of professionalism and cooperation” following a telephone conversation between the two where he tried to establish meaningful cooperation and to de-escalate and overcome the tensions in Arcturia. Barvata reached out to Packilvania for support in blockading the naval maritime border between a NSTO-UCA coalition and Rodenia. The addition of Packilvania alongside Great Morstaybishlia plateaued rising troop deployment from the NSTO and UCA.
On 10 July 2020 Great Morstaybishlia hosted a conference of nation states involved in the Puntalian Crisis. The 2020 PCT Sani Bursil Summit saw the end of hostilities from Rodenia, the NSTO and UCA with the Puntalian Cooperation Council (PCC) erected to maintain the clauses of the Puntalian Compromise Treaty. In accordance to the clauses laid out in the treaty, Great Morstaybishlia and Packilvania ended its maritime occupation and blockade to prevent an outbreak of war between nations involved. Great Morstaybishlia was a listed member of the Puntalian Cooperation Council and will lead in the establishment of PCC military installations in both New Puntalia and Puntalia.
Terrorists co-ordinated two attacks that took place on 24 July 2020 in Barbarus and Jomsgord Provinces, Caltharus, Great Morstaybishlia. Beginning at 08:36, one Khadgar tank operated by terrorists alongside 37 terrorists shot and blew up the side of the Barbarus police headquarters building before committing a mass shooting. At 9:06 another tank and gunmen committed a second mass shooting on the Khauser police headquarters. Both mass shootings resulted in a standoff with police. 67 civilians were killed and another 71 injured. 67 of the suspected 81 attackers were killed. Since the attacks, nobody has taken responsibility. Prime Minister Franklin Barvata initiated a state of emergency which was declared across Great Morstaybishlia to help fight terrorism, involving the banning of public demonstrations, and allowing the police to carry out searches without a warrant, put anyone under house arrest without trial and block websites that encouraged acts of terrorism. Calthia, Laulia, Aurus, Barbarus, Jomsgord provinces of Caltharus were put on Black Alert with a curfew of 21:00, football matches and pubs were also closed and non-essential travel became prohibited. The July 2020 Caltharus attacks were the deadliest in Great Morstaybishlia since the Auroran Imperial War.
A day later, violent riots in major cities of Nocturne Province began in Fort Nocturne against the military presence and changes implemented following the terror attacks. The rioting escalated into over twenty minutes of armed conflict between the join occupying police and military presence and freedom fighters, claiming the lives of six police, two soldiers and 29 freedom fighters. Immediately following the conflict the Prime Minister tightened restrictions but rioting, arson, looting and other violent crimes ensued continuously for another four days, until 29 July. Since then, rioting has continued but more sporadically and no engagements between armed forces and freedom fighters have occured.
The August 2020 Caltharus police attack saw a drone bomb attack into a meeting of chief constables in Kola House, Nocturne provincial police headquarters, eastern Caltharus, Great Morstaybishlia; that happened at 14:05 and claimed the lives of six chief constables, one deputy chief constable and one site engineer. No one has claimed responsibility for the attack, although in a nation addressed Prime Minister Franklin Barvata insisted that the same group responsible for the July 2020 Caltharus attacks are to blame.
The prime minister denied a proposed independence referendum by MP Berinter Fokes for the city of Aegis in Valeria that was set out in a clause of the Aegis Area Agreement of 1975 and 1977. The Supreme Court of Great Morstaybishlia ruled his denial of the clause unlawful. The prime minister flew to Andel, the capital of Axdel and conferred with President Diego Corbinn where they ruled out the clause as void due to the clause not bring brought over from signatory state Norograd to Axdel. After the prime ministers' address, many South Staynish Labour MPs organised a faction within the party, known as Valerian Labour, which would fight for better representation for the constituent country and for a more appropriate national identity. The Valeria Secretary of State Nellie Hermin resigned and conveyed a public speech to millions of viewers, prompting for the resignation of the prime minister.
On 9 March 2021, four coordinated terrorist attacks and a fifth foiled attack occurred in Joralesia between 13:03 and 13:39. Including two perpetrators, 354 people died and 881 were injured, 109 of which critically. Vothetrian Prime Minister Clauzia Sarohart was a victim of the second bombing. The prime minister called a TRIDENT meeting and initiated Black Alert over all Joralesia, which was given Royal Assent at 04:00 on 10 March, three hours after the attack (as Sani Bursil is twelve time zones in front). The 2021 Joralesian attacks were later discovered to be conducted by members of the Ravenspaw and Greypike cartels, two listed terrorist organisations. By evening on the same day of the attacks, protests and later riots throughout Joralesian cities took place.
In Parliament, the prime minister attempted to amend the Anti-Terrorism Act, passed controversially in 2020 to give amnesty to actions taken by Joralesian police, including unsanctioned arrests for anyone affiliated with the ongoing protests. This was met with heavy criticism across the House and the amendment historically failed, with three Cabinet members voting against the government. Barvata refrained from forcing their resignations against convention. Barvata called for and the House voted on an early general election, which failed. When the House voted on a second amendment to the Act, it failed by two votes, leading to Barvata circumnavigating the Fixed-terms Parliamentary Act of 1999 which requires a two-thirds supermajority in order for an election to take place by passing the Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2021, which only required fifty percent. King Lambertus VII gave Royal Assent to the Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2021 on the afternoon of 10 March 2021 and parliament dissolved at 00:01 on 11 March 2021.
The general election was the first in 23 years to result in a hung parliament. The abstentionist Marislian Independence Party had its greatest ever victory. Labour remained in power after forming a minority government with inner-party agreements with the Valerian Labour faction. Two days later, MARIP leader Romilda von Anzitter forwarded a strong demand for independence live on MBC.
Great Morstaybishlia has an area of 5,940,250km² (or 2,293,542 square miles). The mainland part of Great Morstaybishlia is made up of Staynes, Caltharus and Valeria which are collectively referred to as Morstaybishlia. Justelvard is an archipelago located in the Caven Sea that forms the metropolitan part of the Great Morstaybishlia along with Morstaybishlia. This article will refer to the metropolitan part of the MBE unless it specifically refers to one, some or all of its numerous overseas territories.
Great Morstaybishlia is the third biggest nation and largest transcontinental empire on Urth. At its height, it was the largest nation on the planet, with an empire that comprised what currently forms the Kuthernburg Commonwealth, most of the Gordic Council and other territories. It has a diverse range of ecosystems. Its metropolitan area goes through five timezones.
The average elevation is 845 m (or 2772 ft). The highest elevation is the summit of Mount Kersivius which is 7,405 m (or 24,294 ft). The lowest elevation is the Nepiditras Depression in Caltharus (at 79 m below sea level). The longest river is Stayn River with a length of 5,216 km (or 3241 miles). The largest lake by surface area is Morsa Lake with an area of 129,850 km² (or 50,135 square miles). It is the second largest lake by surface area on Urth.
The geology of Justelvard and Morstaybishlia are different. Justelvard was formed from volcanic activity and as such it has igneous rock with a base of basalt rock. Morstaybishlia has sedimentary rock with high amount of metals such as iron, aluminium and silicate minerals, precious metals such as silver, rhodium, palladium, platinum and gold, semi precious and precious stones such as sapphire, ruby, garnet, emerald and red beryl, and fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal.
Biodiversity and environment
Great Morstaybishlia as a whole comprises largely varying ecosystems. Justelvard has an entirely tropical climate and over 65% of the land is made up by the Flizon rainforest. The Flizon is recognised as being one of the greatest biological diversity sites in the world and is a lot more species rich than the Jubrione evergreen rainforest despite its higher level of biodiversity to other evergreen rainforests, caused by large annual rainfall from Morsa Lake which extends all the way to the Agners mountains and the Staynes-Caltharus border.
Small regions of Moorlands and the Great Savanna form a natural barrier around the Jubrione evergreen rainforest to the temperate deciduous forests in Staynes. The Great Savanna offers one of the most unusual landscapes in the world, with rivers, waterfalls and gorges, deep and vast valleys, impenetrable jungles and savannahs that host large numbers and varieties of plant species, a diverse fauna and the isolated table-top mesas. The Great Savanna extends all the way from the western Staynish coast to the centre-north Caltharusian coast, though it is split into western and eastern regions. Much of it has been turned into agriculture or settlement by humans over millennia, though considerable amounts have been protected as national parks today.
Much of the Horkalic, and some of the Redrugan Provinces make up the Horkalic Basin; a large shallow inland sea. If present today, it would completely isolate over half of Horkalo from continental Aurora. Today though it acts as a drainage basin for multiple large rivers including the longest Staynish river the Anker to the West Sea. The Staynish interior including the Horkalic Basin also has areas of seasonal wetlands and large deposits of crude oil from ancient marine organisms of the former Maltervenic Sea. The northern regions of the basin, and a large part of the north-west coast are made of mangrove swamps.
The Zycannes is one of the worlds largest mountain ranges by area, the largest on Aurora, and is the worlds longest. The mountains form the natural border between several nations, including Staynes and Valeria to an extent. Staynes and a small region of Valeria that is north of the mountain range is on the windward side and sees luscious vegetative growth whilst Valeria is on the leeward side and is a long belt hot semi-arid land which makes up the Sperran Desert. There are two mountain ranges adjacent to the Zycannes; the Burren mountains and the Oesan mountains. Between the Burren and Zycannes there's a semi-arid region known as the Jersian Desert and between the Oesan and Zycannes there's a small semi-arid region called the Oeser Desert.
Within the hot semi-arid climate of the Sperran Desert lies a small belt of cold desert climate that forms a boundary. Valeria experiences a mixture of temperate coniferous forests and grasslands on relatively flat areas or rolling hills. The region south of the cold desert belt has a continental climate with cold winters and warm summers.
In part of being split by two mountain ranges, the Zycannes and the Kalivian mountains; Caltharus is split into three different regions. The north of the Zycannes is windward and hosts a mixture of temperate climates, present in the north and north west is an oceanic climate and closer to the Zycannes is a typical continental climate. Immediately below the Zycannes is a narrow belt of cold desert called the Waron Desert and the Versuben mountains which connects to the Zycannes in two places and forms a segregated low area of hot arid land known as the Versubish Desert. Between the Waron Desert and the Kalivian mountains there are areas of large precipitation and thus forms a large wet temperate forest region. North of the Kalivian mountains is windward and south of the mountains is leeward, giving the provinces of Nocturne and some of Barbarus and Jomsgord a mixture of steppe and a semi-arid deserts.
In the seas surrounding Great Morstaybishlia, Justelvard is host to some 25 deep-water corals primarily in the Western Outliers Province but also in the Dorghold Islands chain between Sinerus Island and Varness. The largest deep-water corals are Pannagar corals which extends over a length of about 43 kilometers (27 mi), and has a width of up to 6.9 kilometers (4.3 mi) and Kenure corals which extends over a length of about 31 kilometers (19.2 mi), and has a width of up to 5 kilometers (3.1 mi). The deep-water corals belong to the Phylum Cnidaria and are mostly stony corals, but also include black and horny corals. The black and horny corals aren't present in the 4 deep-water corals off the coast Caltharus and Staynes respectively. Off the coast of Valeria and encompassing most of the continental waters in the Azure Sea lies a kelp forest.
Metropolitan Morstaybishlia is divided into three regions that vary dramatically in climate and soils, though it is largely temperate, oceanic, monsoon and semi-arid; these regions are divided by the Zycannes which due to the tundra climate is widely inhospitable, though the wetlands and foothills host over 20 percent of all Morstaybishlian flora species, including 411 angiosperm, 5 gymnosperm and 15 fern species.
Staynes and Caltharus make up the Morstia region as their climates, flora and fauna are very dissimilar. The Morstia region hosts the most plant species in metropolitan Morstaybishlia. The Jubrione evergreen rainforest is a deciduous broadleaf, wet, high diversity rainforest; and as such contains over 50 percent of all plant species in metropolitan Morstaybishlia. The Maple is found in the Jubrione and is Morstaybishlia's national tree; it has since been exported around the world through the Morstaybishlian Empire. Although a broad leaf forest, coniferous trees make up over ten percent and are invasive, non-native species introduced from Gondwana in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The rest of Morstia is typically inhabited by deciduous forest, plains and moorland with a diverse pattern of vegetation. As with most of Aurora, prehistoric Morstaybishlia was covered with forest and swamp. Clearing began around 5,000 BCE and accelerated in medieval times. Despite this, Morstaybishlia retained its primeval forests and evergreen rainforest longer than most of Aurora due to its size, and wood shortages were not a problem until the 17th century. By the 18th century, around 50 percent of Morstaybishlian forests were consumed for shipbuilding or manufacturing charcoal and the nation was forced to import lumber from Arcturia. Today, most forest land in Morstaybishlia is maintained by state forestation programmes. Almost all land outside urban areas is farmland. However, relatively large areas of forest remain in north and south-west Staynes, north Caltharus and south-eastern Valeria. The most common trees in Morstaybishlia are beech, silver birch, elm and pedunculate oak. Natural forests in Morstaybishlia consist mainly of Maple or Oak. Farmland hosts a variety of semi-natural vegetation of grasses and flowering plants. Woods, hedgerows, mountain slopes and marshes host heather, wild grasses, gorse and bracken. Morstaybishlia has several national flowers, including the Hydrangea, Daffodil and the Morst Rose.
Valeria consists primarily of semi-arid desert, oceanic and temperate. The creosote bush is the dominant plant species on gravelly and occasional sandy soils in valley areas within the Sperran Desert. The other species creosote bush is found with depend on factors including the soil type, elevation, and degree of slope. Desert or arid grasslands comprise 20% of this desert and are often mosaics of shrubs and grasses, the most famous of which is the purple three-awn.
Justelvard is rich and varied, with habitats ranging from tidal swamps at sea level to alpine conditions. In low-lying coastal areas, various species of mangroves form the main vegetation, together with the beautiful casuarina, sago, and palm. Most of the country is covered by tropical and savanna rain forest, in which valuable trees such as kwila and cedar are found. Orchids, lilies, ferns, and creepers abound in the rain forests. There are large stands of pine at elevations of 910 to 1,220 m (3,000–4,000 ft). At the highest altitudes, mosses, lichens, and other alpine flora prevail.
The fauna of Morstaybishlia has many endemic species found nowhere else on Urth. Morstaybishlia shares a great deal of its fauna with the rest of the Auroran continent. An estimated 360 species of mammals characterize the fauna of the continental MBE. There are more than 600 species of bird and more than 65,000 species of insects. There are 272 known reptiles, 222 amphibians and 953 known fish species.
Justelvard comprises a much smaller land area within the MBE, yet supports nearly an equal percentage of biodiversity, and constitutes nearly 5 percent of the recognised world vertebrates; ranging from an estimated 3 percent of the world's lizards and mammals to about 8 percent of the world's fish species.
There are animals that exist in all of the continental Morstaybishlia; some of which includes the Yastaurian sparrowhawk, the common kestrel, the Auroran stoat, Auroran rabbit, wild boar, black rat, black rat snake, Auroran common frog and noble false widow. However, generally it is split similarly to the flora regions; that is the Morstia, Abergwerin, Valerian, Jubrione and Marislian regions.
Huge parts of the country with the most distinctive indigenous wildlife are protected as national parks. In 2020, the MBE had more than 4910 national parks or protected areas, all together more than 1,523,210 km². The first national park was the Jubrione National Park in Jubrionas Province, recognised and established by Royal Charter in 1799. Jubrione National Park is widely considered to be the finest megafauna wildlife habitat in the MBE. There are 64 species of mammal in the park, including the Auroran cheetah, Auroran jaguar and the threatened brown bear.
Of the native fauna to Abergwerin perhaps the most notable are the Wild boars, hunting of whom was a common manhood ritual amongst early Calthian societies. Though now days surpassed by the Calth Lion in cultural importance, in the Kingdoms of Calthia and Laulia it was a common theme in crests and flags.
Another notable part of Abergwerin Fauna is the Calth Puma, nicknamed Calth lion, which in turn is found in so many Calhtarusian symbols. The Calth Puma along with black bears is often considered the apex predator of the Abergwerin area. Though other notable predators include the Dotted Calth lion and the wolf. Biologists have for years advocated for years for changing the common name of the dotted Calth lion, because it is based on a centuries old misunderstanding that thought it was much closer than the actual Calth lion, but so far the name has stuck
Abergwerin is home ot numerous snake species that populate it’s beaches and forrest. Luckily for the population however, most of the snakes while numerous are not deadly venomous, a dubious honour which goes only to the Forest Devil and the Green Viper species. Notably both of the species only bite in self defense, but are easily aggravated resulting in a large number of bites, especially to unwary hikers, each year.
The ecoregions and ecology found in the Morstia region is extremely varied as it extends from the Molvian Corridor in the south-west to the border with Tivot and Blueacia in the north-east. The region has a diverse climate that influences the inhabiting fauna; a humid continental climate in the southern provinces, a humid subtropical climate in the middle provinces of mainly Staynes but also a small area of Caltharus, and tropical wet and dry climate in the north of Staynes and over 90 percent of the Morstia region in Caltharus. There are densely forested areas found in southern and central Staynes which have mostly species adapted to living in temperate climates, while northern Staynes excluding the Jubrione region and all of Caltharus in this region have a fauna resembling its position in the subtropic and tropics.
The western coast of Staynes varies from a warmer-to-colder climate from north to south. Several species live throughout the coast, though mostly avian and fish species such as the Yastaurian sparrowhawk which inhabits the Bolmertheton Isles and Montinay Island, but also the grey buzzard, Auroran anchovy, yellowfin tuna, black marlin, swordfish and shiny bird squid. In most of the Morstia region are various deer species like the velvet red deer and fallow deer; speckled ground squirrel, common badger, red fox, buzzards and several species of snakes and lizards are common.
Many species of mega fauna and large carnivorous mammals that lived in the Morstian savanna have been hunted for their meats, skins and ivory, and many have been pushed to extinction as a result. The brown bear once spanned all of northern Aurora but was hunted for its fur and because it was a dangerous predator; today it lives in pockets of the Morstian region across northern Staynes and Caltharus. Some common species in the savanna include the giant anteater, giant armadillo, ocelot, spotted paca, widow monkey, cock-of-the-rock and tango pitviper. Many amphibians live in wet areas, including the golden belly frog and black bumped toad. Capybara are also found in the savanna and is the provincial animal of Horkalo and Jubliak.
In the mangroves on the northern coast the Morstaybishlian crocodile lives in great number but are a protected species since their decline in the 19th century where crocodile leather fashion was at an all time high. Other species that inhabit the mangrove includes the mangrove black hawk, common snapping turtle, roseate spoonbill, mangrove tree crab, tropical gar and the mummichog killfish; but they are most famous for holding the most anole species of any place in the world with 114 accepted species. The most notable of which are the blue-headed anole, blue-throated anole and the giant anole - the largest species of anole in the dactyloidae family.
The Jubrione region was mapped separately from the Morstia region in 1902 to separate the evergreen rainforest with the rest of Morstia. It encompassed a region approximately 390,693 km². This land, which eventually became only seven constituencies in 1917 was protected as a nature reserve as the Jubrione National Park. The national park is home to a plethora of fauna, including species that overlap with those found in the Morstia region such as the wild boar, velvet red deer, brown bear, and the Morstaybishlian crocodile which inhabits several freshwater river systems.
Many native fauna also make the Jubrione Rainforest their home, including Morstaybishlia's national animal the Auroran jaguar and two other big cats; the Auroran cheetah and a subspecies of the ocelot found exclusively in fringe parts of the west and south near the savanna. Hunting these big cats for their furs were a traditional sport until it was banned in the 1940s - the numbers of the Auroran cheetah came as low as 450 mating pairs in the wild, though breeding and reintroduction programs have increased their native population tenfold. Many other animals have experienced the same problem and have had reintroduction programs, such as the panther genet and the nocturnal pigmy hippopotamus.
Other mammals in the Jubrione region include the aforementioned big cats, the little spotted cat, brown throated sloth, black-and-white colobus, greater spot-nosed monkey, red-bellied monkey, lesser bush baby, Jubrionas bushbaby, giant anteater, orange-furred honey bear, red brocket, agile gracile opposum, white-bellied slender opossum, and the grey-bellied caenolestid. The Jubrione region is host to many water-borne mammals like the endemic north Auroran manatee, Jubrionas river dolphin, pygmy sperm whale, southern sea lion, neotropical river otter, pantropical spotted dolphin and the common bottlenose dolphin.
Some species of rodent mammals in the Jubrione region are Mesomys spiny tree rat, woolly-headed spiny tree-rat, neotropical pygmy squirrel, white-footed climbing mouse, Jubrione forest climbing mouse, yellow-bellied climbing mouse, black rat and Capybara; though another 38 species of rodent exist or are endemic to the region.
The Jubrione region is home to 119 species of Chiroptera, the most bat species in any one region in all of the southern hemisphere and which over a third are endemic. Some of its more well known are the silver-tipped myotis, black myotis, small big-eared brown bat and the Auroran ghost bat; a relatively rare, completely white, insectivorous bat, with an unusual sac at the base of its tail.Morstian flamingo, grey tinamou, puna tinamou, fulvous whistling-duck, white-faced whistling-duck, black-bellied whistling-duck, comb duck, ruddy duck, blue-throated piping-guan, rufous-headed chachalaca, nocturnal curassow, titicaca grebe, band-tailed pigeon, eared dove, croaking ground dove, smooth-billed ani, pavonine cuckoo, squirrel cuckoo, oilbird, pong-tailed potoo, common nighthawk, common pauraque, spot-tailed nightjar, lesser swallow-tailed swift, fiery topaz, buff-tailed sicklebill, koepcke's hermit, brown violetear, ruby-topaz hummingbird, speckled hummingbird, limpkin, spotted rail, sora, killdeer, snowy plover, blackish oystercatcher, Jubrionas avocet, red knot, surfbird, greater yellowlegs, lesser yellowlegs, black skimmer, black-legged kittiwake, Morstian pelican, roseate spoonbill, Morstian condor, blue-crowned trogon, broad-billed motmot, green kingfisher, purplish jacamar, brown nunlet, scarlet-banded barbet, golden-collared toucanet, collared aracari, scarlet-backed woodpecker, fasciated antshrike, rufous antpitta, vilcabamba tapaculo, short-tailed antthrush, common miner, ruddy-tailed flycatcher, cinnamon manakin-tyrant, turquoise jay, purplish jay, black-capped donacobius, and many, many others.
There are many seabirds associated with the Jubrione region, and many are endemic here. Some of these seabirds include the grey gull, kelp gull, common tern, red-tailed tropicbird, grey-headed albatross, white-bellied storm-petrel, wood stork, magnificent frigatebird, blue-footed booby, neotropic cormorant, rufescent tiger-heron and little blue heron.
The Jubrione region hosts dozens of bird of prey and owls, some of the more well known or recognised are the red-throated caracara, orange-breasted falcon, semiplumbeous hawk, black-faced buzzard, cinnamon screech-owl and great horned owl. The osprey, brown barn owl and white barn owl are found here but also across vast parts of the world.
There are few parrot species remaining in the region as several dozen have been hunted to extinction, some include the bronze-winged parrot, white-eyed parakeet, cobalt-winged parakeet and the grey-cheeked parakeet.
The Jubrione region has many insect and terrestrial gastropod molluscs. The raspberry crazy ants, longhorn crazy ants and fire ants are widely distributed here. The Jubrione region has over six hundred bee species, but only one of them make honey; the red dwarf honey bee, and is native across the rest of Aurora. banana slugs, six-spotted tiger beetles and goldenrod soldier beetles are endemic to the Jubrione Rainforests.
The fauna of the Zycannes, the largest mountain range of Aurora that stretches across the Staynes-Valeria border and divides northern and southern Aurora, is large and diverse, containing many different animal species.
With almost a thousand species, of which roughly ⅔ are endemic to the region, the Zycannes are the most important region in the world for amphibians. The diversity of animals in the Zycannes is high, with almost 650 species of mammals (15 percent endemic), more than 1,800 species of bird (about 30 percent endemic), more than 650 species of reptiles (about 48 percent endemic) and 420 species of fish (around 35 percent endemic).The Zycuna can be found living in the Zycannes plateau, the widest part of the mountain range and are similar to camelids in Yasteria and Gondwana. Few predators exist here, but those that do are the brown bear, Zycannes cat and the golden-throated marten - a widely distributed omnivore whose sources of food range from fruit and nectar to small deer; they also play an important role in local folklore and Zycandean culture. The nocturnal chinchillas, two threatened members of the rodent order, inhabits the Zycannes' alpine regions and are widely domesticated. Mara and the Zycannes mountain cavy. Other wild mammals found in the relatively open habitats of the high Zycannes include the Zycandean deer and foxes in the genus Pseudalopex.
The Zycandean condor, the largest flying land-bird in the southern hemisphere, occurs throughout much of the Zycannes but generally in very low densities. Numerous other birds are found in open habitats of the Zycannes, including certain species of tinamous (notably members of the genus Nothoprocta), Zycandean moa, Zycandean goose, torrent duck, giant coot, Zycandean flicker, diademed sandpiper-plover, miners, Zycandean-finches and diuca-finches.
A few species of hummingbirds, notably some hillstars, can be seen at altitudes above 4,000 m (13,100 ft), but far higher diversities can be found at lower altitudes, especially in the humid Zycandean forests ("cloud forests"). Other birds of humid Zycandean forests include quetzals of the trogon family, whilst mixed species flocks dominated by tanagers and ovenbirds are common sights, in contrast to some vocal but typically cryptic species of rhinocryptidae, grallariidae and wrens.
There are many freshwater and saline lakes, and even some hypersaline lakes. Each host several threatened endemics, including grebes in the rollandia genus (white-tufted grebe and short-winged grebe), aquatic frogs such as those in the telmatobius genus and Orestias fish. Although the foothill and lower mountain rivers and streams are relatively rich in fish, only a few species are found in higher areas, and such are dominated by only a few catfish in the trichomycteridae genus. There are a few Zycandean crustacean, like the boeckella palustris and the branchinecta brushi, but the largest, the aeglids, can occur as high as 3,500 m (11,500 ft). In addition to pollution and habitat loss, smaller aquatic natives in the Zycannes are often threatened by introduced, non-native species.
Great Morstaybishlia has a climate that varies. Most of Morstaybishlia is temperate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. The temperature varies with the seasons seldom dropping below −5 °C (23 °F) or rising to 42 °C (107.6 °F) in the north, and dropping below -15 °C (5 °F) or rising to 24 °C (75.2 °F) in the south. The southern regions of Valeria often has prevailing winds which bears frequent spells of mild and wet weather from the Azure Sea, although the northern parts are mostly sheltered from this wind since the majority of the rain falls over the southern regions and therefore the midland regions including the Sperran Desert are the driest. Packilvanian currents, warmed by the Oceanus Stream, bring mild winters; especially in the west where winters are dry. Summers are warmest in the north of Morstaybishlia being closest to the tropics but also in the several deserts within the rain shadow of the Zycannes, and coolest in the south. Heavy snowfall can occur more southerly in winter and early spring on high ground, and occasionally settles to great depth away from the hills.
In most of the Flizon Jungle and parts of the Jubrione, there is no dry season. The Flizon has an average precipitation value of at least 60 mm (2.4 in) per month whilst the Jubrione has around 304 mm (12 in) per month. Tropical rainforests and tropical evergreen rainforests have no summer or winter; it is typically hot and wet throughout the year and rainfall is both heavy and frequent and in the Jubrione very unpredictable. One day in these climates can be very similar to the next, while the change in temperature between day and night may be larger than the average change in temperature during the year. The Jubrione is considerably temperate, between 16 °C and 22 °C or 60.8 °F and 73 °F degrees. The northern Jubrione coast is the hottest, at an average of 23 °C. The Jubrione maintains annual humidity levels of 77%. The Flizon Jungle in Justelvard maintains an average heat of 28 °C and annual humidity levels between 78% and 80%.
The location of the Zycannes, as well as the great variations in their elevations and exposure, give rise to very large differences in climate, not only among separate ranges but also within a particular range itself. Because of their central location in Aurora, the Zycannes are affected by four main climatic influences: from the north and west flows the relatively mild, moist air of the Packilvanian; cool or cold polar air descends from southwestern Aurora; continental air masses, cold and dry in winter and hot in summer, dominate in the east; and, to the south, dry Azure air flows northward. The average temperature in the foothills of the Zycannes is around 13 °C to 18 °C.
The highest recorded temperature was during the 2018 summer in the Staynish interior when the mercury hit 47.5 °C (117.5 °F) in Iron Valley, Jersia Desert, whilst the lowest recorded was during the Great Freeze of 1943 (the most brutal winter Aurora had seen in over three centuries), where during the blizzard filled night of 26 June the temperature was recorded at -24 °C (-11.2 °F) over the town of Keltucka, Valeria.
Territories and dependencies
Great Morstaybishlia has sovereignty over seventeen territories which do not form part of the MBE itself: fifteen Morstaybishlian Overseas Territories and two Crown dependencies.
The nineteen Morstaybishlian Overseas Territories are remnants of the Morstaybishlian Empire: they are Andomi, Eskomia, Neptentia Islands, Detention Islands, Louzaria, New Calthia, the Seligeze Islands, Morstaybishlian Rotantic Territories, Joralesia, Rosamund Island, Dalmaghar, Buzela, Bolize, New Celidizia, Morstaybishlian West Pacific Territories, Salisar, Balidar, Kystland and Saint Matilda. Collectively Morstaybishlia's overseas territories encompass an approximate land area of 828,243 square kilometers (319,786 sq mi), with a total population of 106.144 million. A 2001 MBE government white paper stated that: "[The] Overseas Territories are Morstaybishlian for as long as they wish to remain Morstaybishlian. Morstaybishlia has willingly granted independence where it has been requested; and we will continue to do so where this is an option." Self-determination is also enshrined in the constitutions of several overseas territories and three have specifically voted to remain under Morstaybishlian sovereignty (Buzela in 1996, Joralesia in 2001 and New Celidizia in 2010).
The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crown, as opposed to overseas territories of the MBE. They comprise two independently administered jurisdictions: the Necraties Islands and Frorkstolm. By mutual agreement, the Morstaybishlian Government manages the islands' foreign affairs and defence and the MBE Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf. Internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which Great Morstaybishlia is responsible". The power to pass legislation affecting the islands ultimately rests with their own respective legislative assemblies, with the assent of the Crown. Since 2005 each Crown dependency has had a Lieutenant Governor as its head of government.
The Morstaybishlian dependencies all use the same currency as Great Morstaybishlia, the Kirib.
The politics of Great Morstaybishlia take place in the framework of a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. The monarch and head of state of Great Morstaybishlia is Lambertus VII. The monarch occupies a largely symbolic position with limited powers. In practice the monarch is limited to the following powers: receiving diplomats, signing laws without the power to veto them and signing treaties without the power to ratify them, and opening sessions of the legislature. The Constitution of Great Morstaybishlia is a supreme legal document that keeps checks and balances within government. Parliament can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Act of Parliament, and thus has the political power to change or abolish almost any written element of the constitution. No Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.
A body of aristocrats and distinguished people, called the Privy Council, advises the monarch on the exercise of their duties with some committees such as the Cabinet, having taken over much of the work of ruling from the Crown.
The Morstaybishlian parliamentary government is based on the Kalmington system that is emulated in some former colonies after 1917 and instated in 4 out of 6 nations in the Ethalns after the Auroran-Pacific War. The government is divided into two branches: an elected House of Representatives and an appointed House of Peers. All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law.
The position of prime minister is the head of government of Great Morstaybishlia. The position belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Representatives; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber. By convention, the monarch respects the prime minister's decisions of government.
The cabinet is drawn from members of the prime minister's party or coalition and mostly from the House of Representatives but always from both legislative houses, the cabinet being responsible for both. The work is divided according to topics called portfolios occupied by Ministers of the Crown. Other executive officials may attend cabinet meetings but may not vote. Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet, all of who are sworn into the Privy Council of Great Morstaybishlia, and become Ministers of the Crown. The current Prime Minister is Franklin Barvata who has held office since 23 September 2021. Barvata is also the leader of the Labour Party. For elections to the House of Representatives, the MBE is divided into 1,794 constituencies, each electing a single member of parliament (MP) by simple plurality. General elections are called by the monarch when the prime minister so advises. The Fixed-tern Parliaments Act 1946 required that a new election must be called no later than seven years after the previous general election.
The government is heavily centralised in Sani Bursil and handles matters such as defence, currency, trade, treaties, property rights, public health care, education, and land management. Territorial governments such as Louzaria and Joralesia are restricted to issues such as housing, water, power, sanitation and local roads. The national government has a large degree of control over their internal affairs.
The Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Democrats have, in modern times, been the MBE's three major political parties, representing the Morstaybishlian traditions of conservatism, socialism and liberalism, respectively. Most of the remaining seats were won by parties that contest elections only in one party of the MBE: Justelvard Unionist Party and Justelvard Independence Party (Justelvard only); and the Nocturnian Independence Party (Nocturne only). In accordance with party policy, no elected Nocturnian Independence Party members of parliament have ever attended the House of Representatives to speak on behalf of their constituents because of the requirement to take an oath of allegiance to the monarch.
History of constituencies
In 1917, Morstaybishlia converted from absolutism to parliamentary democracy and the first mention of constituencies were made. After the Great War, Morstaybishlia's territory looked very different; Axdel, Lyrevale and Emberwood Coast were apart of the Empire, whilst the lands east of the Ider River in Caltharus weren't. The Constituency Administration Committee were established to draw up the first constituency maps. The first iteration in 1917 had 1,214 constituencies and gave the Principality of Norograd representation for the first time under the Morstaybishlian Empire with 170 seats. During the interwar period the constituencies remained unchanged until 1975 when the Norogradian Principality gained independence as Norograd and the land east of the Ider River came back under control of Morstaybishlia. The Constituency Administration Committee was re-established and produced a second map that overhauled most of the work from the first, producing 1,742 constituencies. This remained until the Acts of Union of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard which saw 52 new constituencies added to make the final iteration of 1,794.
The history of local government in Great Morstaybishlia differs between Staynes, Caltharus, Valeria (Valeria before the 13th century) and Justelvard, and the subnational divisions within these which have been called provinces have varied over time and by purpose. The province has formed the upper tier of local government over much of Great Morstaybishlia at one time or another, and has been used for a variety of other purposes, such as for Lord Lieutenants, land registration and postal delivery.
All of the 10 provinces in Staynes are based off of historic countries during the First Interregnum Period. Over Staynes' history these provinces saw major reforms in 1621, 1784 and 1897, but were reverted back to the ten provinces in 1955. The provinces in Valeria were established in 1977 based on the historic divides during the administration of the Kingdom of Valeria prior to 1256; Valeria has the most provinces of any constituent country at 27 but since 1989 there have been calls to simplify these provinces down to 22. Caltharus has 22 provinces which are based off of the smaller kingdoms that existed before the unification of Caltharus in the 8th century.
Law enforcement and crime
Great Morstaybishlia does not have a single legal system as the 1515 Treaty of Union provided for the continuation of Caltharus's separate legal system. Today the MBE has three distinct systems of law: Staynish law, Caltharus law and Valerian law. The Supreme Court of Great Morstaybishlia came into being in 1917 to replace the Royal Courts, which had been previously used since 1036. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, including the same members as the Supreme Court, is the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth countries, the Morstaybishlian Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies.
Both Staynish law, which applies in Staynes and Justelvard, and Valerian law are based on common-law principles. The essence of common law is that, subject to statute, the law is developed by judges in courts, applying statute, precedent and common sense to the facts before them to give explanatory judgements of the relevant legal principles, which are reported and binding in future similar cases (stare decisis). The courts of Staynes and Justelvard are headed by the Senior Courts of Staynes and Justelvard, consisting of the Appeals Court, the Justice High Court (for civil cases) and the Royal Court (for criminal cases). The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in Staynes, Valeria and Justelvard and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often having a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions.
In Staynes, Valeria and Justelvard, The Court of Magistrates conduct trials. They are ranked according to the affairs and geographical area over which their jurisdiction extends. In order of least to highest, they are as follows: ward (or parish), borough (or shire), county (or district), then region (or province).
Caltharusian law is a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles. The chief courts are the Conclave, for civil cases, and the Jurat High Court, for criminal cases. The Supreme Court of Great Morstaybishlia serves as the highest court of appeal for civil cases under Caltharusian law. Sheriff courts deal with most civil and criminal cases including conducting criminal trials with a jury, known as sheriff solemn court, or with a sheriff and no jury, known as sheriff summary Court. The Caltharusian legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts for a criminal trial: "guilty", "not guilty" and "not proven". Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal.
Each province possesses a police force under the authority of the provincial government. The national government controls law enforcement agencies that deal with particularly complex or multijurisdictional cases and provides support to province police. Some larger cities, such as Sani Bursil, Aeternum and Kirdintayos maintain their own police forces. Generally the law enforcement is disciplined and impartial. In recent years, more pressure has been put on policing in the MBE as staffing shortages have increased, which has led to breaches in security such as the Assassination of Prince Thadeus. As recently as 2016 this policing shortage has been called a national emergency.
Crime in Staynes, Valeria and Justelvard increased in the period between 1976 and 1983, and then again between 1993 and 1997, though since that peak there has been an observed fall of 39 per cent in recorded crime from 1997 to 2007, according to crime statistics. However, as crimes have increased since 2016, the prison population of Great Morstaybishlia has increased to 2 million, giving the MBE the highest rate of incarceration in the southern hemisphere at 388 per 100,000. The Royal Prison Service (RPS), which reports to the Ministry of Justice, manages most of the prisons within metropolitan MBE, whilst the Justelvard Prisons Committee (JPC) is independent. The murder rate in Great Morstaybishlia has increased in the second half of the 2010s with a murder rate around 3 per 100,000 which is double the peak in 2008, the highest year in that decade. Morstaybishlia's prisons are overcrowded and the prison population is increasing.
Although many nations have abolished capital punishment, it is sanctioned in the MBE for certain civilian and military crimes, though this excludes Justelvard. Executions are not commonplace, thought to be due to long prison sentences, good education and supplementary social welfare programs. Since 2000, there have been 159 executions. In recent years the number of executions and presence of capital punishment statute on whole has trended down nationally.
Great Morstaybishlia has an established structure of foreign relations. The MBE has a seat on the International Forum Security Council. The MBE is a permanent member of the United Nations of the Auroran Continent, where Sani Bursil holds secondary and tertiary functions for the Auroran Parliament, Auroran Commission and Council of the UNAC. Historically, the Bank of Staynes issued the legal tender of the UNAC's predecessor, the Auroran Continental Assembly. Almost all countries have embassies in Sani Bursil or Aeternum, and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host Morstaybishlian diplomatic missions.
Great Morstaybishlia has a "Special Relationship" with Kuthernburg, bolstered by being a Special Member of the North Shield Treaty Organization. The MBE observes close relationships with Axdel, The Oan Isles, Kurandia, and to a lesser extent Packilvania. As a member of the Intercontinental Regional Security Accords, the MBE works closely with its fellow members on military and security issues. The MBE heads the Morstaybishlian Economic Sphere and Morstaybishlian Commonwealth. It is a Permanent Invitee to the OFAC, and has Observer Status in the Alliance of Northwest Gondwana and the League of Novaris.
Morstaybishlia exerts a large global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements. Historically, Rodenia was the MBE's closest ally in Arcturia, though this changed since Kirk Santon seized power.
Main article: Royal Armed Forces of the Empire
The Royal Armed Forces of the Empire (RAFOTE), also known as His Majesty's Armed Forces (HM's Armed Forces), Morstaybishlian Armed Forces and the MBE Armed Forces form the military of the MBE and its Oversea Territories. They are made up of three branches: the Navy, Army and Air Force. The forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence and controlled by the Defence Council, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence; currently Mikhail Sankuda. The Commander-in-Chief is the Morstaybishlian monarch, to whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance. The Armed Forces are charged with protecting Great Morstaybishlia and its overseas territories, promoting Great Morstaybishlia's global security interests and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. They are active and regular participants in the UNAC Defence Force. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained in Packilvania, Blueacia, Kuthernburg, Axdel, Mexregiona, Lokania, Yor, Nacata and Atiland, as well as in Overseas Territories of New Calth, Louzaria, Joralesia, the Inuit Isles, Frorkstolm, the Morstaybishlian West Pacific Territories, Detention Island, Rosamund Island, Dalmaghar, New Celidizia and Neptentia Island. The Morstaybishlian armed forces played a key role in establishing the Morstaybishlian Empire as the dominant world power in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. By emerging victorious from conflicts, Morstaybishlia has often been able to decisively influence world events. Since the comedown of the Morstaybishlian Empire, Great Morstaybishlia has remained a major military power.
The Imperial Navy controls three sub branches: the Imperial Marines (an amphibious infantry), the Imperial Coast Guard (a maritime law enforcement branch) and the Imperial Missile Force. The Army forms the land component. It controls another sub branch called the Gendarmerie, a paramilitary force. The Imperial Air Force forms the air branch and controls the air defence sub branch. The Redplate Guard are a fourth branch of the Armed Forces with its origins coming from the Union of the Thrones in 1515, it is typically the size of a brigade, of which there is a battalion called the Palatine Guard that is for service of the sovereign and their royal residencies.
The military has a total active manpower of 2.74 million soliders and a reserve manpower of 1.81 million soldiers. The Army has 1.3 million active soldiers in total. The Air Force has 720K airmen and women in total. The Navy has 798K sailors in total. The total budget of the military is 577.4 million SHD in 2019. The Army receives ... KRB. The Air Force receives ... KRB. The Navy receives ... KRB. Operational expenses take up ...% of the budget. Procurement takes up ...% of the budget.
The main standard issue infantry rifle is the SC-AR4. The main marksmanship rifle given to special forces is the MR10. The primary air superiority fighter is the Vezra GE-55. The most used main battle tank is the Colonarius mk2. The primary multi purpose jet is the Vezra GE-35. The ground attack fighter is the A-121 Rook. The primary combat helicopter is the Mospher AH-1 Viper. The military intelligence has electronic reconnaissance capabilities.
The navy has 254 commissioned ships, which include submarines and auxiliary ships. The composition of the 254 commissioned ships include 14 air craft carriers (with three under construction, in development or planned); the navy also has two amphibious assault docks, 15 ballistic missile submarines (which maintains the MBE's nuclear superiority), 44 nuclear fleet submarines, 6 guided missile cruisers, 57 guided missile destroyers, 55 frigates, 25 patrol boats and 11 mine countermeasures, plus 27 ships of the Imperial Fleet Auxiliary (IFA); the IFA replenishes Imperial Navy warships at sea. Women and homosexuals are allowed to join the armed forces. They are trained in Krav Maga hand to hand combat.
Great Morstaybishlia has a partially regulated market economy. Based on market exchange rates, Great Morstaybishlia is today the largest economy in the world. HM Treasury, led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy. The Kirib, which is the legal tender, originated in Great Morstaybishlia. Historically, the Kirib was issued by the Bank of Staynes in Sani Bursil, Staynes, but is presently issued by the Auroran Central Bank in Tarov, Tivot, printed by the Staynish Bank Note Company and minted by the Royal Staynish Mint. The Bank of Staynes is the MBE's central bank and continues to act as a central bank in other respects such as regulating the banking sector, acting as a lender to banks and managing the nation's gold reserves. Great Morstaybishlia has gold reserves of 172 billion KRB. The Kirib is the world's second-largest reserve currency (after the SH Dollar). Since 1995 the Bank of Staynes' Monetary Policy Committee, headed by the Governor of the Bank of Staynes, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Chancellor each year.
Great Morstaybishlia follows a free market model. Intellectual and physical property rights are respected. Businesses operate freely. There are some regulations to protect small businesses and poor households. Collective bargaining is legal. Overtime and leave days are guaranteed. There are laws to protect consumers from scams, unsafe products and excessive prices. There are taxes on the wealthy. There are some welfare programs to support the poor.
Great Morstaybishlia has a GDP of 15.47 trillion KRB. Great Morstaybishlia has a GDP per capita of 30 thousand KRB. The unemployment rate is at 6%, with the unemployment in Valeria at 9%. The inflation rate is at 2.1%. The growth rate is at 1.8%. the MBE remains the top destination in Aurora for foreign direct investment at 412,650 million. The total value of investments made by Great Morstaybishlia to other nations is 345,150 million KRB. The MBE government recorded a government debt equivalent to 97 percent of the country's Gross Domestic Product in 2017. Poverty is defined as people who are in relative low income (less than 60 per cent of the national median average, or 18,002 KRB). The poverty rate is 14.07%. The Gini coefficient is 0.36 points.
The agricultural industry makes up 3% of the economy. The biggest sectors are grain, meat and dairy. The manufacturing industry makes up 17% of the economy. The biggest sectors are transportation equipment, industrial machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, electrical machinery, office machines and data processing equipment, power-generating machinery, organic chemicals, precision instruments, and iron and steel. The mining industry makes up 4% of the economy. The biggest manufacturer of electronics in the world, Primrose Inc., originates from Fort Staynes in Great Morstaybishlia. The services sector makes up 52% of the economy. The biggest sectors are creative industries, education, health and social work, financial and business services, hotels and restaurants, public administration and defence, transport, storage and communication, wholesale and retail trade, real estate and renting activities and tourism. Great Morstaybishlia has the biggest financial sector in the world, Sani Bursil. The second largest bank in the world, LabiaTurtle Bank, originates from Great Morstaybishlia.
Great Morstaybishlia's biggest trade partners are the Caliphate, Axdel, Kuthernburg, the Gordic Council, The Oan Isles, Norgsveldet, East Malaysia, New Leganes, Mexregiona, Tuvaltastan and Aivintis. The biggest export products are petroleum products, chemicals, weaponry, automobiles, agricultural foodstuff, beverages (such as Hobsti Tea and Hobsti Wine), clay and timber. The biggest import products are scientific apparatus, optic fibres, uranium, pharmaceuticals, gold and sanitary.
Science and technology
Great Morstaybishlia spent about 1.1% of its GDP (approximately ♅170 billion) on research and development in 2022, with the world's highest budget. It ranked first worldwide in the number of scientific publications in 2022, with roughly 8.2 million papers. Great Morstaybishlia is typically considered to produce high quality scientific research in a major 2020 survey of international scientists, and has made many integral scientific discoveries leading to hundreds of Fidal Prizes in physics, chemistry, and medicine, the most recent awarded to Dame Rosamund Rothgerus for experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities and pioneering quantum information science.
Great Morstaybishlia is furthermore home to the headquarters of numberous global technology firms. It has one of the highest levels of access to the Internet in the world, with more than 494.7 million users, equivalent to around 95.9 percent of its total 2021 population.
The railway network of Morstaybishlia, which as of 2019 stretches 265,847 kilometres (165,190 mi) is the most extensive in Aurora. The rail network was privatised between 2005 and 2009, which was followed by a rapid rise in passenger numbers following years of decline, although the factors behind this are disputed. There's 3,945 kilometers (2,451 mi) of rail network in Justelvard and railways in Justelvard are operated by JV Railways, a subsidiary of state-owned TrainLink. High-speed trains include the Aurostar, the BURAET and Ethaline trains, which travels at 320 km/h (199 mph) in commercial use. Since privatization in 2005 to 2009, dozens of Staynish railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets. Some 300 high-speed bullet trains connect major cities and these trains are known for their safety and punctuality. Great Morstaybishlia also has the LOOP, a hyperlink trainline that connects across Aurora and is the largest continuous train line ever built.
The Aurostar runs all across Aurora; BURAET literally means Bursil to Aeternum and connects the two capitals whilst also travelling through other major conurbations. Rail connections exist to all other neighboring countries in Aurora, except Dragonia. Intra-urban connections are also well developed with both underground services (Sani Bursil, Redrugus, Kirdintayos, Aeternum, Lambertupol, Fort Jubrayn) and tramway services (Sani Bursil, Eskrador, Valeron, Imbazdu, Kasidura and others) complementing bus services.
There are approximately 9,265,190 kilometres (5,757,122 mi) of serviceable roadway in Morstaybishlia, ranking it the most extensive network in the world. The Sani Bursil region is enveloped with the most dense network of roads and highways that connect it with virtually all parts of the country. Morstaybishlian roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighboring North Ethalria, Durentria, Sarentria, Tivot, Volova, Tuvaltastan, Valerica, Rosalica and Asilica. The MBE has an annual motoring taxation; however, most motorways are free to use. The new car market is dominated by domestic brands such as Audelli (18% of cars sold in Morstaybishlia in 2010), Kentora (17.5%) and Mambeck (15.2%). Over 65% of new cars sold in 2013 had diesel engines, far more than contained petrol or LPG engines.
There are 4,176 airports in Great Morstaybishlia. Fort Jubrayn Airport, located on the outskirts of Fort Jubrayn, is the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic and connecting to virtually all major cities across the world. Morstaybishlian Air is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services such as Jubrayn Airlines and Limhay Travel. Great Morstaybishlia handled a total of 1.256 billion passengers in 2018. There are twelve major ports in Great Morstaybishlia, the largest of which is in Fort Jubrayn Aeternum, which also are the second and third-largest bordering the Morstaybishlian Sea behind Tarov. 110,349 kilometres (68,567 mi) of waterways traverse Morstaybishlia including the Anker River, which connects many of the interior Staynish cities to the West Sea, and the Jubliak River which connects Sani Bursil to the Morstaybishlian Sea.
In 2021, Morstaybishlia was one of the most visited countries in the world, recording 104 million tourists which marked the sixth consecutive year of record-beating numbers.
Morstaybishlia's geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant cultures, and excellent infrastructure has made the country's international tourist industry among the largest in the world. The most visited city is Sani Bursil, with popular landmarks such as the Sani Bursil Royal Palace, Kalmington Palace (legislature) and Abingdon Tower. Syllester Abbey is the most visited landmark in the MBE outside of the capital.
In 2014, Great Morstaybishlia was the world's second-largest consumer of energy and the largest producer. The MBE is home to a number of large energy companies, including one oil and gas "supermajor" – Embask. In 2018, 37 per cent of the MBE's electricity was produced by gas, 35 per cent by nuclear power, 20 per cent by coal and 8 per cent by wind, hydro, biofuels and wastes.
Morstaybishlia produces a surplus of nuclear power for its own energy usage. Thus, the MBE produced about 25 percent of the UNAC's electricity. The MBE is set to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions by investing in hydroelectric dams, to be constructed between the mid to late 2020s and early 2030s.
Water supply and sanitation
Access to improved water supply and sanitation in the MBE is universal. It is estimated that 97.1 per cent of households are connected to the sewer network. According to the Government Agency for the Environment (GAE), total water abstraction for public water supply in the MBE was 126,750 megalitres per day in 2009. Drinking water standards and wastewater discharge standards in the MBE are formerly determined by the UNAC.
In metropolitan MBE, water and sewerage services are provided by 37 private regional water and sewerage companies and 29 mostly smaller private "water only" companies. In Justelvard water and sewerage services are provided by a single public company, Justelvard Water.
Great Morstaybishlia held a population census in May 2021 and recorded 515,889,582 people, making it the second most populous country in the world behind Packilvania. It has an urban population of 437,990,255 (83.90%), of which 179,576,005 (41%) is urban cities and 187,897,819 (42.9%) is urban towns. Barkoln is the most populous province, as the mean centre of Great Morstaybishlia's population has consistently shifted to the Cradle of Aurora. Sani Bursil is the most populous city, followed by Aeternum and Kirdintayos. Great Morstaybishlia has a rural population of 83,058,222 (16.10%).
The total fertility rate in Great Morstaybishlia estimated for 2020 is 2.4 children per woman, which is above the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1. The Great Morstaybishlia Census Bureau shows a population increase of 3% for the twelve-month period ending in September 2014. This is considerably high by industrialised country standards, being above the world average annual rate of 1.1%.
There were about 274.16 million females in Great Morstaybishlia in 2020. The number of men was 205.4 million. At age 85 and older, there were almost twice as many women as men (6.1 million vs. 3.3 million). People under 21 years of age made up over 101.66 million of the MBE's population (27.2%), and people age 65 and over made up 69.53 million (14.5%). The national median age was 38.2 years in 2020.
Whites constitute the majority of Great Morstaybishlia's population, with a total of 438.94 million or 91.53% of the population as of 2020. Non-Ethal or Non-Kostuv whites make up 76% of the country's population. Despite major changes due to immigration since the 1950s, and the higher birth-rates of nonwhites, the overall current majority of Morstaybishlian citizens are still white, and Staynish-speaking, though regional differences exist.
The Morstaybishlian population almost quadroupled during the 20th century—at a growth rate of about (?)% a year—from about 90.2 million in 1900 to 381 million in 2000. It reached the 300 million mark in 1978, and the 400 million mark on the 26th of May 2007. According to the Census Bureau's estimation for 2015, 29.7% of Morstaybishlian children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.
Other Aurorans accounted for 24% of the national population growth of 4 million between the 1st of September 2011, and the 1st of September 2012.
The Census Bureau projects a MBE population of 500 million in 2025, a (?)% increase from (?) ((?) million).
The average population density of Great Morstaybishlia is 81 people per square kilometer. On average, Justelvard and Valeria are the densest constituent countries with 102.99 and 98.13 people per square kilometer respectively. On the other end of the spectrum Caltharus and Staynes are less dense with 80.61 and 69.12 people per square kilometer. The Sani Bursil metropolitan area is the densest region of the MBE with 9,859.37 people per square kilometer and the province of Jubrionas is the sparsest with 6.87 people per square kilometer. Six of the top ten largest provinces by population density are from Valeria, including Kladnes, which has a population density of 655.77 people per square kilometer and Kalidest, which has a population density of 645.46 people per square kilometer; the latter is where the capital Kirdintayos of Valeria is. Justelvard observes the most even spread of population density by province, the densest province is Isekaiou with 534.51 people per square kilometer and the sparsest is the Western Outliers with 73.36 people per square kilometer.
Historically, indigenous Morstaybishlian people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled around the north coast of Aurora around 40 to 50 thousand BC: the Jubrites, Maltites and Kosites, who are thought to be the direct descendants of the Strathepolic people and the oldest ethnic group in the Aurora. A 2012 genetic study shows that more than 35% of the Morstaybishlian gene pool contains Salovian Y and Ethalrian Y chromosomes. Another 2015 genetic analysis indicates that "about 73% of the traceable ancestors of the modern Staynish population had arrived in the Staynish lands by about 10 thousand years ago, at the start of the Maltervenian Neolithic or Stone Age", and that the Staynish broadly share a common ancestry with the Axdelian people. A separate study conducted in Valeria found that only 30% of the gene pool contains the broad plethora of Morstaybishlian genes, with the rest coming from either West or East Aurora. Valeria was one of the last areas on Aurora to be truly inhabited by humans as the Zycannes prevented the immediate habitation and thus the descendants from the Kosites who traveled eastward eventually migrated to the Southern-Central Auroran coast and more specifically Valeria.
Justelvard sits on the remaining land area of the Strathepolic archipelago and it is believed that over 90% of Auroran's ancestry originate here. A large land bridge extending from west-Justelvard to Bai Lung and then to the Staynish-Caltharusian border became the premier travelway of the two continents after the early submerging of a land bridge from Peregrinia through the Morstaybishlian West Pacific Territories and the Oan Isles connecting to the easternmost Auroran coastline. The Strathepolic people mainly lived in and around the northern Strathepolic ridge but migrated southwards during its erosion to strong Pacific currents. A study found that Jussie genes are closely comparable of those genes thought to be pure-Morstaybishlian.
Since the mid to late 19th century and the early 20th century substantial immigration from the Gordic Council and the Kuthern Commonwealth, the Caliphate, and Overseas Territories has been a legacy of ties forged by the Morstaybishlian Empire. Migration from UNAC (formerly ACA) member states in Western and Eastern Aurora since 2017 has resulted in growth in these population groups, although some of this migration has been temporary. Since the 2000s, there has been substantial diversification of the immigrant population, with migrants to the MBE coming from a much wider range of countries than previous waves, which tended to involve larger numbers of migrants coming from a relatively small number of countries.
Ethnic diversity varies significantly across Great Morstaybishlia. Just over 26% (11 million) of Sani Bursil's population and 25% of Aternum's was estimated to be non-white in 2017, whereas less than 5% of the populations of western-Caltharus, north Valeria and central Staynes were from ethnic minorities, according to the 2017 census. In 2016, 28.8% of primary and 26.4% of secondary pupils at state schools in Staynes were members of an ethnic minority. The 1997 census was the first MBE census to have a question on ethnic group. In the 1997 MBE census 92.8% of people reported themselves as being White Morstaybishlian or White Other with 7.2% of people reporting themselves as coming from other minority groups.
During the early 20th century at the outbreak of the Great War, Packilvanian migrants came in waves amounting up to nearly five million. After the war, Ethalrian and Salovian migrants numbered nearly 920,000. Staynes has had small Ulvriktru community for many centuries, subject to occasional expulsions, but Staynish Ulvriktru's numbered fewer than 16,000 at the end of the 1910s. During the Noroist Movements pre-independent Norograd, then part of the Empire, resulted in nearly two million people migrating to the fatherland. After the Auroran-Imperial War, there was significant immigration from the colonies and newly independent former colonies, many from Lokania and independent Valeria, partly as a legacy of empire and partly driven by labour shortages.
Great Morstaybishlia is a highly urbanised country, with its top ten largest cities (in terms of metropolitan area population in 2021) being Bursil (17,450,424), Aeternum (12,771,347), Celidizia (9,615,493), Kirdintayos (8,968,446), Lambertupol (6,712,896), Verhana (6,530,211), Gersega (5,632,889), Valeron (5,121,347), Redrugus (4,618,192) and Fort Jubrayn (4,568,118). Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century.
Largest cities or towns in Great Morstaybishlia
|10||Fort Jubrayn||Jubliak||4,568,118||20||Jersia City||Jersia||2,649,287|
Great Morstaybishlia's de facto official language is Staynish and Calth. As a first language, it is estimated that 90.7 percent of the MBE's population speak Staynish, whilst 3.5 percent speak Ethalrian, 3 percent speak Calth, 0.7 percent speaks Horkalic, 0.7 percent speaks Salovian, 0.3 percent speak Axdelian and 1.1 percent speak other languages as a first language.
4 percent of the population are estimated to speak languages brought to the MBE as a result of relatively recent immigration. Yasterian languages, including Packilvanian, Wachovian, Codexian and Asendavian, are the largest grouping and are spoken by 2.5 percent of the MBE population. According to the 2017 census, Ethalrian is the largest non-Morstaybishlian-Auroran language spoken in Morstaybishlia and has 14.3 million speakers.
There are two recognized regional languages spoken across Great Morstaybishlia: Horkalic and Justelvardic. They are recognized as regional or minority languages, by the United Nations of the Auroran Continent, under the Auroran Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. As it is a UNAC member state, this therefore obliges the Great Morstaybishlian government to provide them specific measures of protection and promotion.
In the 2017 Census over a forth (25.6%) of the population of the Province of Horkalo said they could speak Horkalic, an increase from the 2007 Census (23%). In addition it is estimated that about 200,000 Horkalese speakers live elsewhere in Staynes. Over 492,000 people in Justelvard (just 3% of the population) had varying Reoa language ability, including 66% of those living on the eastern islands. The number of schoolchildren being taught through minority languages are increasing.
It is compulsory for Staynish and Caltharusian pupils to study the Staynish and Calth languages up to the age of 16 in their respective countries, whilst only Staynish is taught in Valeria and Justelvardic is taught with Staynish in Justelvard. During Sixth Form is it optional to learn a foreign language, Kostuvian and Axdelian are the two most commonly taught foreign languages in Staynes and Caltharus.
Thaerism has dominated religious life in what is now Great Morstaybishlia for over 1200 years. Although a majority of citizens still identify with Thaerism in many surveys, regular temple attendance has fallen dramatically since the late 19th century, while immigration and demographic change have contributed to the growth of other faiths, most notably Paxism. This has led some commentators to variously describe Great Morstaybishlia as a multi-faith or secularised.
In the 2019 census 65.2 per cent of all respondents indicated that they were Thaerists, with the next largest faiths being Paxism (4 per cent), Akronism (3.2 per cent), Varism (0.6 per cent), Ulvriktru (0.3 per cent), Ademarism (0.2 per cent) and all other religions (0.3 per cent). 20.8 per cent of respondents stated that they had no religion, with a further 5.4 per cent not stating a religious preference. Vaerism holds a religious stronghold in the Nocturne province of Caltharus with over 87% of Morstaybishlians practicing Vaerism living there.
The state recognises religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making. Certain groups are considered cults and therefore do not have the same status as recognised religions in Great Morstaybishlia. Cults are considered a pejorative term in Great Morstaybishlia.
Education in Great Morstaybishlia is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system.
Considering the four systems together, about 40 per cent of Great Morstaybishlia's population has a university or college degree, which is the highest percentage in Aurora, and among the highest percentages in the world. Great Morstaybishlia trails only to South Hills in terms of representation on lists of top 100 universities.
A government commission's report in 2014 found that privately educated people comprise 8% of the general population of the MBE but much larger percentages of the top professions, the most extreme case quoted being 70% of senior judges.
In Staynes, Caltharus and Valeria, it is compulsory for all primary and secondary schools to have a uniform, whilst in Justelvard most schools do not have a compulsory uniform policy in place. A school uniform typically consists of a blazer in the school colours or a white shirt or blouse; a tie, trousers or skirt in a black, grey, or blue and black shoes. It could also be a shirt, sweater, and tie or a polo shirt and a sweatshirt.
Healthcare in Great Morstaybishlia is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health care, together with alternative, holistic and complementary treatments. Public healthcare is provided to all MBE permanent residents and is mostly free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. The UNAC, in 2019, ranked the provision of healthcare in Great Morstaybishlia as 3rd in Aurora and 12th in the world. Since 1975 expenditure on healthcare has been increased significantly to bring it closer to the highest world standards. The MBE spends around 7 per cent of its gross domestic product on healthcare, which is about one and a half percentage points lower than the average of the United Nations of the Auroran Continent.
Regulatory bodies are organised on a MBE-wide basis such as the General Medical Council, the Nursing and Midwifery Council and non-governmental-based, such as the Royal Colleges. However, political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives; healthcare in Staynes and Caltharus is the responsibility of the Morstaybishlian Government; healthcare in Valeria is the responsibility of the South Staynish Assembly, and healthcare in Justelvard is the responsibility of the Justelvardic Assembly.
The culture of Great Morstaybishlia has been influenced by many factors including: the nation's Auroran status; its history as a western liberal democracy and as a superpower; as well as being a political union of four countries with each preserving elements of distinctive traditions, customs and symbolism. As a result of the Morstaybishlian Empire, Morstaybishlian influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former and current colonies including Kuthernburg, Louzaria, New Calth, Axdel, Joralesia, Atiland, Lokania, Vivancantadia, Rodenia and parts of East Malaysia and The Oan Isles. The substantial cultural influence of Great Morstaybishlia has led it to be described as a "cultural superpower". A global opinion poll for the MBC saw Great Morstaybishlia ranked the third most positively viewed nation in the world (behind West Cerdani and East Malaysia) in 2014 and 2015.
Freedoms and rights
Great Morstaybishlia has been considered a progressive country, having adopted legislation in the past one hundred years which have encouraged and supported women's rights, minority rights, species rights and LGBTQ rights. Women began campaigning for their right to vote after the first general election in 1917 as they were disallowed, later succeeding with legislation in 1925 and 1931. The Woman's Rights League, formed in 1917, also successfully campaigned for women's right to education, the right to work, and other gender equality policies. Voting ages for both genders have decreased since 1917. It was originally 30 for when only men were allowed the vote, later lowered in 1931 to 25 for both genders. In 1940 it was lowered again to 20, and then lowered to 18 in 1982, which continues to this day. Campaigning for species suffrage first took off in the 1960s, and by 1978 had equal voting rights to humans.
In 2007, Morstaybishlian law was amended to grant absolute primogeniture to the Morstaybishlian throne, meaning that the eldest child, regardless of gender, takes precedence in the line of succession. This means that for those born before the year 2007 it shall be the case that a male shall take precedence over a female; although this does not change the current setup which sees Princess Rosamund as the heir apparent.
In regard to LGBTQ rights, Morstaybishlia enacted an anti-discrimination law protecting the rights of gays and lesbians in 1985. In 1989, under the same government, Morstaybishlia legalised civil union partnerships for same-sex couples under the Civil Partnership Act 1989. In 2008 Morstaybishlia legalised same-sex marriage, and in 2015 legalised inter-species marriage and civil unions.
The earliest Morstaybishlian literature dates from the early Middle Ages during the Second Interregnum Period, when what is now known as modern Staynes did not have a single, uniform language. There was several languages and dialects, and writers used their own spelling and grammar. During the Middle Staynish language period, most literature was written in the same language except for splinter dialects in what is now Horkalo and Valeria.
Much medieval Staynish poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of Pip the Gallant and his predecessors in the Kingdom of Staynnica. Other medieval poetry and literature hailing from Caltharus depicts the legendary Colonarius and other historical military figures.
After the printing press was introduced in Caltharus and later Staynes in 1475, vernacular literature flourished. During this period, theatrical playwrights portrayed romances, tragedies, comedies and histories became very common. Morstaybishlian literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries where things like arts, sciences, languages and philosophy were very popular as well as children's fairy tales becoming widespread. The age of reason bought with it a rational and scientific approach to religious, social, political and economic issues that promoted a secular view of the world and a general sense of progress and perfectibility. Led by the philosophers who were inspired by the discoveries of the previous century they sought to discover and to act upon universally valid principles governing humanity, nature, and society. They variously attacked spiritual and scientific authority, dogmatism, intolerance, censorship, and economic and social restraints. They considered the state the proper and rational instrument of progress. The extreme rationalism and skepticism of the age led naturally to deism and also played a part in bringing the later reaction of romanticism.
The Romantic period was one of major social change in Staynes (at the time included Valeria) and Caltharus, because of the depopulation of the countryside and the rapid development of overcrowded industrial cities, that took place in the period roughly between 1750 and 1850. The movement of so many people in Staynes and Caltharus was the result of two forces: the Agricultural Revolution, that involved the Enclosure of the land, drove workers off the land, and the Industrial Revolution which provided them employment. Romanticism may be seen in part as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, though it was also a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, as well a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.
During the reigns of Florence II, Frederick III and Rosamund II (1810-1897) the novel became the leading literary genre in Staynish. Women played an important part in this rising popularity both as authors and as readers. Satirical novels and plays were very common. Poetry of this era was heavily influenced by the romantics, but also went off in its own directions. Particularly notable was the development of dramatic monologue, a form used by many poets in this period. Drama changed in this period with a profusion on Bursil stage of farces, musical burlesques, extravaganzas and comic operas.
Morstaybishlian literary modernism developed in the early twentieth-century out of a general sense of disillusionment with previous attitudes of certainty, conservatism and belief in the idea of objective truth. Fine writers still existed into this period.
The modernist movement continued through the 1920s, 1930s and beyond. An important development, beginning in the 1930s and 1940s was a tradition of working class novels actually written by working-class background writers. Post-modernism started in the late 1940s and early 1950s which is a continuation of the experimentation championed by writers of the modernist period (relying heavily, for example, on fragmentation, paradox, questionable narrators, etc.) and a reaction against Enlightenment ideas implicit in Modernist literature. Postmodern literature, like postmodernism as a whole, is difficult to define and there is little agreement on the exact characteristics, scope, and importance of postmodern literature.
Many works published in the twentieth-century were examples of genre fiction. This designation includes the crime novels, spy novel, historical romance, fantasy, graphic novel and science fiction.
On continental Auroran, the architecture of Great Morstaybishlia has a long, rich and diverse history. Every major Auroran style from Maltervenic to Postmodern is represented, including renowned examples of Maltesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Modern and International Style architecture.
Justelvard deviates the most from this theme; it has a wide array of modern colonial architecture and themes of pre-colonial vernacular architecture. The houses are at the centre of a web of customs, taboos, traditional laws, social relations, myths and religions that bind communities together. Pre colonial houses would have provided the main focus for the family and its community, and is the point of departure for many activities of its residents. Villagers build their own homes, or a community will pool their resources for a structure built under the direction of a master builder or carpenter.
Throughout history, large swathes of land separate Great Morstaybishlia into different kingdoms and provinces, causing great regional diversity and favoured vernacular architecture. This made for a heterogeneous and diverse architectural style, with architecture differing from town to town. While this diversity may still be witnessed in small towns, the devastation of architectural heritage in the larger cities of some regions during the Great War and Auroran Imperial War resulted in extensive rebuilding characterised by simple modernist architecture.
For over several thousand years, the Maltervenic Empire in its largest extent encompassed most of modern Staynes, and thus its architecture holds great significance today. In addition to border fortifications such as walls, forts and military camps, the Maltites also built thermae, bridges, and amphitheatres. One of the more famous examples of Maltervenian architecture is Hamasin's Wall, a several-hundred kilometer long wall that extends within the Molvian Corridor from the Montinay, at the West Sea to Mount Molvia.
The Maltesque period, from the 10th to the early 13th century, is characterised by semi-circular arches, robust appearance, small paired windows, and groin vaults.
Gothic architecture flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Maltesque architecture. The first Gothic buildings in Morstaybishlia were built from about 1240, for example Syllester Abbey (c. 1260), which is the most important early Gothic cathedrals in Morstaybishlia and falls into the architectural tradition of the Auroran Gothic.
Renaissance architecture belongs to the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different parts of Aurora and the world, when there was a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Maltervenian thought and culture. In the Staynish provinces of Redrugan, Surbila and Hyridia there are numerous castles and manor houses that made up the Western Style.
Baroque architecture began in the early 17th century, reinventing the humanist vocabulary of Renaissance architecture in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the courts, and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Thaerist Church to reform itself in response to the Vaerist Reformation in the south of the continent.
Classicism arrived in Morstaybishlia in the second half of the 18th century. It drew inspiration from the classical architecture of antiquity and was a reaction against the Baroque style, in both architecture and landscape design.
The distinctive character of modern architecture is the elimination of unnecessary ornament from a building and faithfulness to its structure and function. It developed early in the 20th century and adopted by many influential architects and architectural educators. Although few "modern buildings" were built in the first two thirds of the 20th century, after the Auroran Imperial War it became the dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings for four decades. Almost all skyscrapers are modernist, with some such examples as the Damehowe and Primrose Inc. headquarter buildings.
Throughout its history, Great Morstaybishlia has been a major producer and source of musical creation, drawing its artistic basis from the wealth of music from many cultures across the four constituent countries.
Images of musical instruments begin to appear in Valerian artifacts in 3500 BC or earlier. Beginning around 3000 BC, Valerian (elven) culture began delineating two distinct classes of musical instruments due to division of labour and the evolving class system. Popular instruments, simple and playable by anyone, evolved differently from professional instruments whose development focused on effectiveness and skill. Only few examples from these time periods have been recovered. Even the process of assigning names to these instruments is challenging since there is no clear distinction among various instruments and the words used to describe them. Although Valerian artists mainly depicted ceremonial instruments, historians have distinguished that wind-based and string-based instruments were prominent in earlier Valerian society, creating bow harps, harps and lyres, as well as bone flutes.
During the period of time loosely referred to as the Middle Ages, Staynes and Caltharus developed their own traditions of integrating musical influence from other regions. The first record of this type of influence is in 401 CE, when Staynes (then the second Maltervenian Empire) established an orchestra in its royal court after a conquest in the Kingdom of Corstania. Influences from other Auroran cultures, as well as Yasterian, Arcturian, and other regions followed. In fact, early northern Auroran musical tradition attributes many musical instruments from this period to those regions. Pianos became widely popular after its invention in Ethalria, along with more advanced trumpets, clarinets, flutes, drums, lutes, oboes and cymbals.
Morstaybishlia had a large impact in musical instrument development from the 15th century onwards. Instruments took on other purposes than accompanying singing or dance, and performers used them as solo instruments, especially in the upper echelons of society. Keyboards and lutes developed as polyphonic instruments, and composers arranged increasingly complicated pieces using advances in tablature techniques. Composers also began designing pieces of music for specific instruments. In the latter half of the sixteenth century, orchestration came into common practice as a method of writing music for a variety of instruments. Composers now specified orchestration where individual performers once applied their own discretion. The polyphonic style dominated popular music, and the instrument makers responded accordingly. During this time, Morstaybishlian instrument builders developed features that would endure today. For example, while organs with multiple keyboards and pedals already existed, the first organs with solo stops emerged in the early fifteenth century. These stops were meant to produce a mixture of timbres, a development needed for the complexity of music of the time.Beginning in the seventeenth century, composers began writing works to a higher emotional degree. Bowed instruments such as the violin, viola, baryton, and various lutes dominated popular music. Beginning in around 1755, however, the lute disappeared from musical compositions in favor of the rising popularity of the guitar. As the prevalence of string orchestras rose, wind instruments such as the flute, oboe, and bassoon were readmitted to counteract the monotony of hearing only strings. This period saw the slide trumpet invented in Staynes.
During the Classical and Romantic periods of music, lasting from roughly 1750 to 1900, many musical instruments capable of producing new timbres and higher volume were developed and introduced into popular music. The design changes that broadened the quality of timbres allowed instruments to produce a wider variety of expression. Large orchestras rose in popularity and, in parallel, the composers determined to produce entire orchestral scores that made use of the expressive abilities of modern instruments. New instruments such as the clarinet, saxophone, and tuba became fixtures in orchestras.
The proliferation of electricity in the 20th century lead to the creation of an entirely new category of musical instruments: electronic instruments, or electrophones. The latter half of the 20th century saw the evolution of synthesizers and adoption of samplers.
Each of the four countries of Great Morstaybishlia has its own diverse and distinctive folk music forms. Folk music has existed here since antiquity, and flourished until the era of industrialisation when it began to be replaced by new forms of popular music, including music hall and brass bands. Realisation of this led to academics and amateur scholars taking note of the musical traditions being lost, and over three waves, one in the late-19th century, one in the mid-20th century and one at the start of the 21st century; initiated various efforts to preserve the music of the people. The most notable effort involved was the collection of the texts of over three hundred ballads in the Staynish and Calth traditions, by Alemin Thompson-Fisher (called the Thompson-Fisher Ballads), some of which predate the 15th century. Valerian folklore, which had been a lifeline to their pre-Morstaybishlian kingdom before the 13th century, was widely lost in the industrial revolution, though scholars and amateur scholars preserved many of the vanishing ballads and folk dance songs. Valerian folklore has a revivalist movement which began in the mid 20th century. Overall, folk music as an important sub-culture within Morstaybishlian society.
Forms of popular music, including folk music, jazz, rapping/hip hop, pop and rock music, have particularly flourished in Great Morstaybishlia since the twentieth century. Morstaybishlia has had a large influence on popular music due to its size, and due to its linguistic and cultural links with many countries, particularly Peregrinia and Emberwood Coast and many of its former colonies, and its capacity for invention, innovation and fusion, which has led to the development of, or participation in, many of the major trends in popular music. In the early-20th century, influences from Peregrinia and Free Pacific States became most dominant in popular music, with young performers producing their own versions of South East Yasterian music, including rock n' roll from the late 1950s and developing a parallel music scene. This is particularly true since the early 1960s when the Morstaybishlian Invasion, led by The Swallows, helped to secure Morst performers a major place in development of pop and rock music. Since then, rock music and popular music contributed to a Morst-SEY collaboration, with genres being exchanged and exported to one another, where they tended to be adapted and turned into new movements, only to be exported back again. Genres originating in or radically developed by Morstaybishlian musicians include blues rock, heavy metal, progressive rock, ska, hard rock, punk rock, Bhangra, Morst folk rock, folk punk, acid jazz, trip hop, shoegaze, drum and bass, goth rock, grime, gondoswing, industrial and dubstep.
Fashion and clothing
Dress norms in Great Morstaybishlia are generally consistent with those of post-industrial nations and have become largely informal since the mid-20th century. Clothing in Great Morstaybishlia also depends on a variety of factors including location, venue, and demographic factors such as ethnicity. Jeans are a consistent fashion trend among all classes, with variations being vast in both price and style.
Conspicuous consumption and a desire for quality has led to a strong preference for designer label clothing among many in the middle and upper classes. The tolerance of body expression that deviates from the mainstream, such as complete body tattoos or nudism, is strongly linked to the sub-culture and location in which an individual may find themselves. The tolerance shown for personal expression such as cross-dressing and piercings varies greatly with location and sub-culture, and may be completely appropriate in one venue while being taboo in another.
Cities such as Sani Bursil, Kasidura, Aurus, Credita, Khaeron and Aegis are known for their fashion and cosmetics markets. Smaller, but nonetheless prominent fashion destinations are Montinay, Sperry, Rosamundport, Springsfire, Cavenhelm, Kingsfort, Mathens and Burkash.
Particular regions and cities are known for their specialties, such as Aurus for casual attire and womenswear, Credita and the general north coast for eco-conscious fashion, Kasidura for formal menswear and Montinay for their swimwear. Sani Bursil is known for a variety of fashion categories and is the premier fashion destination in the Morstaybishlian market. Sandals, thinner and airier fabrics and lighter colour and pastels are found more commonly in the north where it is hotter and more humid. Fast-fashion and cosmetics industries have cropped up in many of the more highly urban cities.
Bucket hats are a common summers item, whilst cardigans are common in winter. Besides the south coast, winters are mild and as such thicker and warmer clothes are not as prevalent. Flat caps, wellington boots and silk tweeds, among others, are found across the countryside. Clogs emerged in the Industrial Revolution and are still seen today.
Morstaybishlian art refers to all forms of visual art in or associated with the country, and encompasses Staynish art, Caltharusian art, South Staynish art and Justelvardic art. During the 18th century Morstaybishlia began to reclaim the leading place it had played in Auroran art during the Middle Ages, being especially strong in portraiture and landscape art. Increasing Morstaybishlian prosperity led to a greatly increased production of both fine art and the decorative arts, the latter often being exported. The Romantic period resulted from very diverse talents. The 20th century saw a great diversity of art, and a far bigger quantity created than before.
The training of artists, which had long been neglected, began to improve in the 18th century through government and private initiatives, and greatly expanded in the 19th century. Public exhibitions and the later opening of museums brought art to a wider public, especially in Sani Bursil. In the 19th century publicly displayed religious art once again became popular after a virtual absence for over a hundred years.
The Morstaybishlian contribution to early Modernist art saw some of the most prolific artists appear after the Great War, such as Sir Lucas Moraby and Everett Childs. Since the 1940s Morstaybishlian artists have made a considerable impact on Contemporary art, especially with figurative work. Neo-classicism has also seen a revival in the 20th and 21st centuries. Morstaybishlia remains a key centre of an increasingly globalized art world.
Morstaybishlian cuisine is the heritage of cooking traditions and practices associated with Great Morstaybishlia. Although Morstaybishlia has a rich indigenous culinary tradition, its colonial history has profoundly enriched its native cooking traditions. Morst cuisine absorbed the cultural influences of its post-colonial territories – in particular those of the Concordian Ocean area.
Some traditional meals, such as bread and cheese, roasted and stewed meats, meat and game pies, boiled vegetables and broths, fruit pies, and freshwater and saltwater fish have ancient origins.
Morstaybishlian cooking has been influenced by foreign ingredients and cooking styles since the Middle Ages. Squid baguettes (formerly known as squid breads) were introduced from New Leganes and adapted to Morst tastes from the eighteenth century. Tavari cuisine influenced Morst recipes throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries, most notably Sevišala. After the rationing of the Great War, Packilvanian cuisine became heavily popular, featuring meals which mainly featured rice with easy to cultivate root vegetables and pea variants. Another popular Packilvanian dish was Tajine when meats became more easily available.
Some of the most popular savoury dishes that originated from Great Morstaybishlia include Sausage toad (Frog in the Pit), Roast Lamb with roast roots and coriander, Pasty, and pies of all sorts, including but not limited to Chicken and mushroom pie, Steak and kidney pie, Fish pie and Morst pie.
In addition to its wine tradition, Great Morstaybishlia is also a major producer of beer and whiskey. The three main Morstaybishlian brewing regions are Oglota (55% of national production), Calthia and Surbila. Morstaybishlia produces whiskey via distilleries located on islands such as Frorkstolm, the West Pacific Territories and the Seligeze Islands.
Some popular sweet dishes that originated in Great Morstaybishlia include Hobstiberry pie, Banoffee pie, Trifle and Chocolate and walnut pie. Hobstiberry pie was quick to spread around Urth due to the cultivation of hobstiberries across the Morstaybishlian Empire, and its simplicity to make.
The MBC, founded in 1917, is Great Morstaybishlia's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. It operates numerous television and radio stations in the MBE and abroad and its domestic services are funded by the television licence. Other major players in the MBE media include STV- a media conglomerate of national broadcasters and newspapers, and the CTV, who themselves dominate the media scene in Caltharus since the 1930s. Sani Bursil dominates the media sector in the MBE: national newspapers and television and radio are largely based there, although Aeternum is also a significant national media centre. Kirdintayos and Valeron, and Port Makuh, are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in Valeria and Justelvard respectively. The MBE publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover of around £141 billion and employs around 1.1 million people.
Morstaybishlian philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in the Staynish language, has been extremely diverse and has influenced Auroran philosophy as a whole for centuries, from the medieval scholasticism of Redmund von Kitelrus, through the founding of modern philosophy by Walter Vergassas, to 20th century philosophy of science, existentialism, phenomenology, structuralism, and postmodernism.
SportAssociation football is the most popular sport in Morstaybishlia, varieties of which have been played in Morstaybishlia as far back as Maltervenic times. It has dominated the sport scene since the late 19th century. The Staynish national football team, whose home venue is currently Camp Venna, played and beat Caltharus in the first ever international tournament in 1869. Through its constituent countries, Great Morstaybishlia has hosted the Men's World Cup four times; Staynes hosted it in 1952, 1968 and 1992 and Caltharus hosted it in 1960 and will also host the 2024 World Cup. Staynes has had the most success, winning the world cup three times in 1960, 1964 and 1992, a record that is tied with Asendavia, New Leganes and Masceola.
At club level, Caltharus is recognised by the international football association as the birthplace of club football, due to Whitequeens F.C. being founded in 1852 and thus the world's oldest club. The Football Federation is the oldest governing body in the sport, where it drafted the first recognised football rules in the world in 1860. The FF Cup and The Football League were the first cup and league competitions respectively. In the modern day, the Morstaybishlian Premier League is the world's most-watched football league, most lucrative, and amongst the elite, attracting the highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world.
As is the case throughout the MBE, football in Staynes and Caltharus are notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants. The most successful Morstaybishlian football team in the Auroran Cup is Celidizia F.C. who have won the competition a total of eight times. They are closely followed by Redrugus F.C., who together, alongside Soutbury F.C., Koyden F.C., Abingdon F.C. and Aurus F.C., make up the most decorated clubs across the MBE.
Great Morstaybishlia is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like Royal Redrugus and Kerpten are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Morstaybishlia came first place in the 2019 GT3 Championships in Blueacia and will compete again in the 2021 GT3 Championships. The Morstaybishlian oil and gas company Embask was the lead sponsor for the GT3 Championships from the 2019 season.
Great Morstaybishlia fields a single national rugby team and a single association, the Morstaybishlian Rugby Football Union, governs the sport across the nation. The Morstaybishlian rugby team have played in every Rugby World Cup, winning in 2003 and 2015.
Today, Great Morstaybishlia is a major world sports powerhouse, with major sports in Morstaybishlia including table tennis, tennis, rugby union, rugby league, boxing, martial arts, swimming and other aquatic sports. In their respective provinces, Horkalic Handball and Dovian Cage Orangutan Fighting, the latter which dates back to Maltervenic times, are popular.
Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Morstaybishlian culture, with morning exercises widely practiced, and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs popular across the country.
Staynish Tar Barrels
Staynes typically stages annual national events on the night of 2 November, in a tradition dating from before records began, barrels soaked in tar are set alight and carried aloft through cities and towns by their residents.
The festivities begin in the early evening with children's, youths' and women's events, which culminate in the men's event. The barrels, increasing in size up to 40 kg, are carried through the city or town centre, often packed with onlookers, in an exhilarating and risky spectacle. Only those born in the town, or who have lived there for most of their lives, may carry a barrel. Generations of the same family have been known to compete across the years and it is thought that the event may have originated as a means of warding off evil spirits, similar to other Staynish fire festivals, around this time. In recent years the event has been jeopardised by the need for increasing public liability insurance coverage. Nevertheless, the event continues in many towns and cities with audiences occasionally exceeding well over 20,000 people. During the event all roads in and out of these events are closed for safety reasons with diversions in place.
Oglota Wine Festival
The Oglota Wine Festival is a summer festival primarily in the Oglota Province of Caltharus, though it has since spread to many towns and communities in western and central Caltharus.
These such wine festivals across Caltharusian communities takes place on 21 December, also Summer Celebration Day in Morstaybishlia. The day begins at various times in the mid to late morning, with a parade of people of all ages carrying jugs, bottles, leather wine bottles and other types of containers filled with red wine. Led by the community leader such as a mayor on horseback, the parade usually goes through the market streets of these communities, symbolising riches and good health. A mass is then celebrated at the town centre or community park, or equivalent.
After the mass, the Battle of Wine commences. The participants toss wine on each other until everyone is completely soaked. This is greatly enjoyed by the locals and is tourist friendly. It has been televised on MBC Two since 2009.
After everyone has finished, people get together in couples and dance with grapevines whilst locking arms.
Tea Drinking Championships
On 28 April every year, many towns across Caltharus and Staynes observe a Tea Drinking Championship. An opponent is chosen to out drink the champion of the previous year in each town, from a large jug or from multiple tea cups. If they win, they become the champion. There are many under-card one versus one face offs that take place on a more casual setting at the same event to promote the tradition, whose origins are lost in history. The event doesn't usually last longer than half an hour.
The flag of Great Morstaybishlia is the Empire Flag. It was created in 1517 by culminating the design features from both the Flag of Staynes and the Flag of Caltharus. Being former colonies, Valeria and Justelvard have no unique flag designs and have any option of redesigning the flag to represent the two other nations has been ruled out.
The Golden Rose of Staynes originated as the prominent symbolism of the kings and queens of Staynnica, which later became a symbol for national sovereignty and pride of the Staynish peoples. It's present across flags of the realm as well as in company logos and sport clubs and other advertising and logo styles.
The heraldic lion is quite common around the world, and several countries incorporate it into their national coats of arms. In Calthian heraldry, the lion is first found in the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Caltharus in the later part of the 11th century.
Public holidays and festivals
Public holidays celebrated in Great Morstaybishlia include a mix of religious (Thaerism), national and regional observances. Each country is allowed to declare a maximum of 13 public holidays per year; up to 11 of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. Morstaybishlia's national day (Unity Day) is 11 January, the anniversary of the Union of the Thrones between Staynes and Caltharus and celebrate Lambertus the Great's feast.
There are many festivals and festivities in Morstaybishlia. Some of them are known worldwide, and every year millions of people from all over the world go to Morstaybishlia to experience one of these festivals. The most well known is Week of the Empire, celebrating the achievements of the Morstaybishlian Empire over a period of a week (seven days) between 9 and 15 November.
|New Year's Day||1 January||Celebrates the beginning of the Gregorian New Year|
|Unity Day||11 January||This national holiday was established to celebrate the Union of Staynes and Caltharus and to hold a great feast|
|International Women's Day||8 March||This national holiday was established to commemorate the brave history of women around the world|
|Sovereign Day||26 April||This national holiday was established in 1803 after the death of Rosamund I to celebrate the birthday of the incumbent sovereign, currently Lambertus VII|
|Labour Day||1 May||This national holiday was established to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers across the world|
|Winter Celebration Day||21 June||From 1980, by Royal Proclamation, this day celebrates the winter solstice|
|Thaer's Day||15 August||Traditional common law holiday|
|Prophet Matilda's Day||3 September||Traditional feast day of the Prophet Matilda|
|Peace Day||24 October||Statutory bank holiday from 2018, celebrates peace in Aurora which is marked by the end of the Auroran-Pacific War|
|Summer Celebration Day||21 December||From 1980, by Royal Proclamation, this day celebrates the summer solstice|
|Old Year's Day||31 December||Celebrates the ending of the Gregorian Year|
- MBC, 27th February 2019. Barvata Defeats Johannes. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s45.html#p208859
- MBC, 8th March 2019. Walter Johannes Resigns. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s45.html#p209246
- MBC, 22nd October 2019. Kyrloth Illegally Seizes Embask Rotantic Oil Operations. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s60.html#p217619
- TARA PT4, 7th November 2019. MBE moves MBS Dovia and two frigates to the Lion of Taren Oil Rig. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mr-tass-s-holiday-t-a-r-a-parts-3-4-kyrloth-expans-t16094-s15.html#p218579
- TARA PT4, 7th November 2019. Osfjord Summit. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mr-tass-s-holiday-t-a-r-a-parts-3-4-kyrloth-expans-t16094-s15.html#p218218
- TARA PT4, 7th November 2019. Lion of Taren Oil Rig is detonated, sinks MBS Dovia. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mr-tass-s-holiday-t-a-r-a-parts-3-4-kyrloth-expans-t16094-s15.html#p220069
- MBC, 25th January 2020. Janietta Rubis Sacked. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s60.html#p221623
- MBC, 12th February 2020. Benjamin Wardola Becomes Leader of the Opposition. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s75.html#p223508
- MBC, 4th March 2020. It Has Been Too Long, Democratic Party Says. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s75.html#p225027
- MBC, 13th April 2020. Eliminations in the Democrat Leadership Election. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s75.html#p226733
- MBC, 10th May 2020. Victory for Saudaran. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s75.html#p228468
- MBC, 19th May 2020. Riberoe Talks a Success. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s75.html#p229172
- MBC, 25th June 2020. Barvata's Speech. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s75.html#p231546
- MBC, 25th June 2020. Great Morstaybishlia Deploys the Home Fleet. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s75.html#p231546
- Government Statement, 25th June 2020. Our Response to Rodenia. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/the-puntalian-takeover-t17235.html#p231732
- MBC, 29th June 2020. Great Morstaybishlia Moves its Fleet. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s75.html#p231744
- MBC, 29th June 2020. Sverdrup: "Unreasonable". https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s75.html#p231744
- Released Cabinet Minutes, 29th June 2020. Barvata Discusses Conservation with Norgsveltian prime minister. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/the-puntalian-takeover-t17235-s15.html#p231742
- MBC, 1st July 2020. Unprecedented Moves. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s90.html#p231879
- Released Cabinet Minutes, 30th June 2020. Barvata addresses Cabinet on his communique with Empress Noi of Packilvania. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s90.html#p231879
- MBC, 9th March 2021. Joralesian Terror Attack Worse in its History. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s120.html#p243403
- MBC, 9th March 2021. Early Election Bill Passes Representatives. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s120.html#p243440
- MBC, 10th March 2021. King Lambertus VII Gives Election Act Royal Assent. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s120.html#p243473
- MBC, 1st April 2021. Barvata Retains Office, But Only Just. https://forum.theeastpacific.com/mbc-t3205-s120.html#p244223