Great Morstaybishlia

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The United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard

Flag of Great Morstaybishlia
Flag of Great Morstaybishlia
Coat of arms of MBE.png
Coat of arms
Location of Great Morstaybishlia (dark green)
Location of Great Morstaybishlia (dark green)
LocationMap Location of Great Morstaybishlia (dark green)
Capital
and largest city
Sani Bursil
Official languagesStaynish
Calth
Recognised regional
languages
Justelvardic
Horkalic
Axdan language
Ethalrian
Salovian
Ethnic groups
(2016)
95.4% Human
2.5% Elf
1.2% Vulpine
0.5% Lupine
0.3% Feline
0.1% other
Demonym(s)Morst, Morstaybishlian
Countries of Great MorstaybishliaStaynes
Caltharus
South Staynes
Justelvard
GovernmentFederal parliamentary Constitutional monarchy
• King
Lambertus VII
Franklin Barvata
LegislatureParliament
House of Peers
House of Representatives
Establishment
1515
• Ascendancy of Morstaybishlia over the
Kormistazmic Empire
1575
• Secession of the Norogradian principality from the
Morstaybishlia
1970
• Secession of South Staynes from Staynes
1975
• Acts of Union of Morstaybishlia and South Staynes
1977
• Acts of Union of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard
2016
Area
• Total
5,940,250 km2 (2,293,540 sq mi)
Population
• 2019 census
Increase 479,569,512 (2nd)
• Density
81/km2 (209.8/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$14.435 trillion
• Per capita
$30,100
Gini (2018)0.36
low
HDI (2018)0.94289
very high
CurrencyKirib (♅/KRB)
Time zoneUTC (Toransloe Mean
Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+7 to +11 (Morstaybishlian Summer Time)
Date formatDD/MM/YYYY
Driving sidethe left
Calling code+75
ISO 3166 codeGMO
Internet TLD.GM

The United Kingdoms of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard, commonly known as Great Morstaybishlia (MBE) is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country in Aurora and southeast Yasteria. Great Morstaybishlia includes Staynes, Caltharus, South Staynes and Justelvard, as well as other islands. Great Morstaybishlia shares land borders with fourteen countries (from left to right); Axdel, Valerica, RosalicaAsilica, DurentrusVothetriaKothalria, Thalria, Nolova, Tuvaltastan, Volova, Baykalia and Tivot. Justelvard shares no land borders except on one island with Peregrinia and a Tivot district whilst neighbouring the Kohatu Isles. The Morstaybishlian Sea lies between the north coasts of Staynes and Caltharus and the south coast of Justelvard. The Caven Sea sits north of Justelvard, and the Azure Sea sits south of South Staynes. The Packilvanian Ocean starts at the left coastline of Staynes and the north-westernmost island in Justelvard.

Great Morstaybishlia is a Constitutional monarchy with a two-House parliament system. The current monarch is Lambertus VII, who has reigned since 1991 and the heir apparent is Rosamund. The capital is Sani Bursil, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 50 million in 2019, the largest in Aurora, largest in the United Nations of the Auroran Continent and largest in Urth. Other major urban areas in Great Morstaybishlia include Redrugus, Aeternum, Lambertupol, Fort Vitaryn, Fort Staynes, Labius, Kirdintayos, Port Makuh, Fort Jubrayn, Toransloe and Firanoute. The nearby Frorkstolm and Necraties Islands are not part of Great Morstaybishlia, being Crown dependencies with the government responsible for defence and international representation.

The relationships among the countries of the Great Morstaybishlia have changed over time. In 1515, Lambertus III united the thrones of Staynes and Caltharus which formed the United Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharus, which went on to become the sovereign state of the Morstaybishlian Empire. Justelvard was annexed by the Morstaybishlian Empire after the Morsto-Justelvardic War in 1604. Justelvard declared independence from the Empire in 1967, but was not recognised until 1975. South Staynes seceded from Staynes in 1975 which saw it obtain status within Great Morstaybishlia two years later under the Acts of Union and in 2016 Justelvard entered a political union with Great Morstaybishlia under the Acts of Union of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard. The Morstaybishlian Empire is one of the last reminders of colonial times. There are seventeen Overseas Territories of Great Morstaybishlia. These are the remnants of the Morstaybishlian Empire which, at its height in the 1800s, encompassed almost a tenth of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. Morstaybishlian influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies.

Great Morstaybishlia has the world's largest economy by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), and the second-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It has a relatively high-income economy and a very high human development index rating, ranking 6th in the world. It was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The MBE remains a superpower, with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a recognised nuclear weapons state and is first in military expenditure in the world.

Great Morstaybishlia has been a member state of the United Nations of the Auroran Continent since its formation in 2017; the successor union to both the Auroran Continental Assembly, where the MBE was a member state, and the Auroran Union. The MBE's council representative of the UNAC is Fischan Rhye who was appointed in December 2017. Great Morstaybishlia is also a Special Member of the North Shield Treaty Organization and has Observer Status in the Alliance of Northwest Gondwana and the League of Novaris.

Etymology and terminology

The 2016 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard", though the new state is also referred to in the Acts as the "Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia", "United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia" and "Great Morstaybishlia".

Although Great Morstaybishlia as a sovereign state is a country; Staynes, Caltharus, South Staynes and Justelvard are also regarded as countries, though they are not sovereign states. The Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe Great Morstaybishlia.

The term "MBE" was a historic acronym for the Morstaybishlian Empire, though today it is more commonly synonymous with Great Morstaybishlia. MBE is the standard country codes for Great Morstaybishlia and are consequently used by international organisations to refer to Great Morstaybishlia, replacing GM in 1959. Additionally, Great Morstaybishlia's Olympic team competes under the name "Great Morstaybishlia" or "Team MBE".

The term "Morstaybishlian Empire", in politics, is used to describe Great Morstaybishlia and all Overseas Territories.

The adjective "Morstaybishlian" is commonly used to refer to matters relating to Great Morstaybishlia and rarely as a synonym for Great Morstaybishlia. The term has no definite legal connotation, but is used in law to refer to Great Morstaybishlia citizenship and matters to do with nationality. People of Great Morstaybishlia use a number of different terms to describe their national identity and may identify themselves as being Staynish, Calthian, South Staynish, Justelvardic; or as being Laulian, and still in some cases Horkalic, except Horkalic refers to the ethnic group Horkalans. A growing minority of people have identified themselves with Morstaybishlian nationality after the Acts of Union 1977, likely a patriotic spur.

After the Union of the Thrones in 1515, the two kingdoms were briefly known as the "United Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharus" and subsequently their empire was known as the "Staynish-Caltharus Empire" until it was formally dubbed the "United Kingdom of Morstaybishlia" in early 1517.

The Acts of Union 1977 decreed the United Kingdom of Morstaybishlia in political unification with South Staynes. By extension of Kingdom territory, the region of "Morstaybishlia" was given the epithet "Great", short for "Greater".

The Acts of Union 2016 decreed the United Kingdom of Morstaybishlia in political unification with Justelvard to ratify the earlier 2016 Treaty of Union and so unite the two kingdoms.

In 2017, a new design of Morstaybishlian passport was introduced. Its first page shows the long form name of the state in Staynish, Calth, Justelvardic and Horkalic.

History

Background

Main articles: History of Staynes, History of Caltharus, History of South Staynes, History of Justelvard

Grengan dolmen, a neolithic megalith 3.8 miles from Horilan, Horkalo Province.

The earliest traces of human life in what is now any part of Aurora began in what today consists of areas in Staynes and Caltharus approximately 1.7 million years ago. During this period, the Strathepolic Ridge connected the continents of Aurora to Yasteria across the Morstaybishlian Sea. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climates. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. Caltharus has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era. At the end of the last glacial period (10,000 BCE), the climate became milder; from approximately 8,000 BCE, this part of North Aurora entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary. By the end of the region's prehistoric period, the earliest known Auroran culture had developed and is thought to belonged, in the main, to a culture termed Strathepolic.

After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 5th and 4th millennia BCE, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 4th millennium, initially working gold, copper and bronze, and later iron. Morstaybishlia has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period. The Strathepolic culture would refine itself in the 3rd millennium BCE. Culutral groups across Morstaybishlia existed, separated into three distinct groups; the Stanks, the Kalts and the Vals. The Ethalried conquest into what is now South Staynes in 109 CE saw the Ethalried Empire annex all of the land south of the Zycannes in one fell swoop, and then in 159 CE led an series of campaigns above the Zycannes into the Kingdoms of Kostaen, the Kingdom of Hortaen and the Kingdom of Burtael which made up modern Staynes. The Stanks, the collective ethnicity of the three kingdoms, fought with determination and resilience, but faced a superior, professional army, and it is likely that between 400,000 and 650,000 may have perished in the conquest period.

Ethalried influence reclined after 1152. (tbc)

Union of the Thrones

Caltharus Throne War
Part of Caltharus Conflicts
Lambertus the Great after claiming Caltharus.jpg
Lambertus the Great marching through Lambertupol after defeating the rebellion.
Date Conflict involving Staynes began and ended in 1515, but was a result of earlier implications.
Location Staynes, Caltharus
Result Staynish victory
  • Unification of Staynes and Caltharus to form the United Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharus (later United Kingdom of Morstaybishlia)
  • Coronation of Lambertus III as High-King
  • Deaths of many significant Caltharusian figures
Participants
Staynes flag.png Staynes
Caltharus flag 4.8.png Caltharusian loyalists
Republic of Caltharus (1513-1515).png Republic of Caltharus
Commanders and leaders
Staynes flag.png Lambertus III
Caltharus flag 4.8.png Berbatov Haligan †
Republic of Caltharus (1513-1515).png Gretargius Ballistra †
Republic of Caltharus (1513-1515).png Crow Jusa †
Strength
Staynes flag.png ~40,000
Caltharus flag 4.8.png ~28,000
Republic of Caltharus (1513-1515).png ~59,000
Casualties and losses
Staynes flag.png ~11,000
Caltharus flag 4.8.png ~13,000
Republic of Caltharus (1513-1515).png ~25,800

The Caltharus Throne War was the war which saw the United Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharus come into being after the surrender of the Republic of Caltharus to the Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharusian loyalists, as well the resurrection of the Caltharusian Throne, which was incorporated into the Staynish Throne on the 29th of December 1515.

In March 1513, the Kingdom of Caltharus was overthrown by a military coup which established the Republic of Caltharus. Haligar II, the King of Caltharus and father of Princess Katerina was executed. Princess Katerina was married to Lambertus III and was the second in line to the Caltharusian throne but was exiled to Staynes as the risk of capture and execution was too great. She lost contact with her younger siblings and cousins and they were presumed dead. The Republic caused conflict and fractured the nation into two factions. The Republic and loyalists to the King and Kingdom. Katerina returned to Caltharus to lead the war between the Republic and Kingdom loyalists but the loyalists continued to loose ground until they were confined to north-west and west Caltharus.

In November 1514, Chancellor of the Republic, Gretargius Ballistra, had his prisoners of war and two of Katerina's six siblings executed. Katerina discovered the news later the same month and convinced Staynes to intervene. It was not only a personal loss to Katerina as they were distantly related by previous marriage to Lambertus III. After their execution, the Republic was unable to make friendship with either the Ethalrian's or the Molgov Dynasty despite previous talks.

From the 12th of January 1515 to the 29th of December the same year, Lambertus III led Staynes and the Caltharusian loyalists into battle against the new Republic of Caltharus for control over the rights to rule. The conflict lasted through many strategically implemented episodes during 1515, however there was fighting between Caltharusian loyalists and the Republic before and after this period between the belligerents.

With the initial execution of Halligar II's two children and another one child, Lambertus amassed an army of 140,000 Staynish and 240,000 Caltharusian loyalist soldiers that stormed the major cities until Lambertupol, pushing the Republic's forces back where they held their ground for two months days until the 29th of December when they fell.

Their victory in Lambertupol concluded the end of the war. The monarchy was re-established and Lambertus III was crowned High-King of the United Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharus, later the Kingdom of Morstaybishlia, on the 29th December. The remaining four siblings and cousins of Katerina who had fled to the both the Ethalrian Empire and Molgov Dynasty returned from exile. A feast on the 11th January began in Lambertupol to mark the victories. This day is celebrated annually around the world as Unity Day.

After the republic was defeated and control fell into Staynish hands, New Calth became the first major colony of the new Morstaybishlian Empire.

Lambertus did not return back to Bursil until 1519, establishing order and peace in Caltharus. He faced some challenges from both the Ethalrian Empire and the Molgov Dynasty, both looking to expand their territory. He defended the border for a year and a half until a mutual agreement was held. The conflict led to heavy bloodshed on both sides. It remains the most gruesome conflict in pre-modern Auroran history.

Western Auroran Crusades

Main article: Western Auroran Crusades

Between the years 1519 and early 1522, Lambertus IV was apart of an expedition to find more gold for the young Morstaybishlian Empire. He had discovered the largest-yet deposit of natural gold ore in Aurora during June 1522 and sent his older brother and then king Slev III an official report which enclosed information regarding both the geopolitical position and the status of the gold. Slev set out to take control of the supply lanes of the gold from the Kormistazic Empire and within a week had amassed an army of 3,000 men, 250 horses and battery equipment. The army left on the morning of the 25th of October 1522. They camped at many locations during their trek towards Fort Montekaan but the most prominent was in the small village of Harrow. A merchant from Soltan called Kaledus saw the army and reported the impending attack to Delphus Faithful the day before the battle took place, which gave them enough time to rally troops and plan an ambush.

Slev and his forces reached the fortress in the early hours of the summer solstice (21st December). He divided his forces into two fronts; the assault and support. The trebuchets acting as the support was ambushed soon into the battle. The fortress had two portcullis' where the ambush captured Slev and his soldiers inside. Reportedly, Delphus Faithful had all but one prisoner, excluding Slev, shot, and had the king later beheaded.

News reached Lambertus IV on the 5th of January, in which he immediately ascended the throne. He was officially crowned King of the Morstaybishlian Empire on the 6th of April at Syllester Abbey, Redrugus. During the next few months, Lambertus and his council thought of ways to take control of Fort Montekaan. During early September, Lambertus sent his cousin Amet to important cities and towns in Caltharus to amass a large army for the upcoming war. Amet returned to Fort Redrugus a month and a half later with a strength of 70,000 men with a promise of another fifty to seventy thousand in the next five to ten years.

It was during late 1523 that Lambertus suffered betrayal from two members of his privy. He did not know of this, and this betrayal actually lent an advantage during the next battle of Fort Montekaan. Lambertus ordered the immediate forced conscription of 45,000 young Morstaybishlian men into the already 40,000 strong army.

Lambertus IV led the second Battle of Fort Montekaan on the 2nd of January 1524. The forces did not travel in the lowland valleys in the Zycannes and instead travelled directly through them. This led to the deaths of several hundred soldiers and half a dozen horses. 24,500 soldiers camped at the base of the Zycannes for an hour before attacking the fort in the early hours of the morning. The walls were breached around 5AM, the same time the soldiers attacked the fort. It is known that Lambertus IV had a duel and won against Honoluras Faithful once the battle was won.

On the first day of February the same year, Morstaybishlia amassed a sizable fleet in Redrugus and set off for Andel. A lengthy siege ensued.

(wip)

Redrugus V annexed the Kormistazmic Empire as a Principality during the Western Auroran Crusades, which lasted 52 years, from 1523 to 1575.

Colonialism

Early Colonialism

Main article: Morstaybishlian Empire

Painting of the last Golden-tipped owl, named "Lucy". c.1974
Auroran settlement in east Arcturia between 1001 and 1515

Morstaybishlian colonialism began as early as the 11th century with Caltharusian territories in Arcturia. Arcturia saw a surge of Staynish and Caltharusian early settlements in eastern Arcturia from 1001 to 1515; these trading outposts were generally not unified into one territory until the Morstaybishlian Empire formed after the Union of the Thrones and trading outposts were led by Viceroys.

Staynes led an expedition in 1444 and found the Necraties and Frorkstolm under Admiral Wince Ledkeat. The islands were not inhabited by any sentient species and became a pivot point for Staynish naval projection and trade prowess. Perdaé, the Necraties' capital, began life as a port town until the late 16th century, where Lambertus V designated its port to be shared for naval affairs. It was first used for this purpose when it rallied galleons in 1604 to invade Justelvard.

Many species endemic to the Necratie Isles were pushed to extinction from the arrival of people and pests. Gold-tipped owls were a species of owl that was hunted for their feathers and rendered extinct in the wild in the latter of the 18th century. Despite persistent attempts to re-introduce the captive populations into the wild, the species was declared fully extinct in 1974.

The Necraties, Frorkstolm, the Morstaybishlian West Pacific Territories and in particular the Arcturian Territories saw a spur of piracy in the mid to late 16th to mid 19th centuries. Rebels and pirates saw these trading outposts and islands as perfect hiding places in the war against piracy, as well as perfect areas to manoeuvre the pirating business to its greatest heights between 1660 and 1730. Pirates were a common pest in the several bodies of water until the Imperial Navy killed the last of seven Pirate Captain in the Battle of Valna Bay in 1821. Continuous efforts by the navies of the southern Yasterian and north Auroran nations saw to the eventual demise of pirates in and around the Morstaybishlian Sea.

Morsto-Justelvardic War

The earliest record of Justelvard in Morstaybishlian history was a written document signed by Lambertus V on the 10th of January 1602, agreeing to install the necessary components for a full scale invasion and planned annexation of Justelvard and Kistelvard, which made up the Strathepole archipelago; and to greatly enlarge the size of the standing Morstaybishlian Army to defend the ever-expanding Auroran empire. In the latter of the same month, a letter left Fort Staynes on horseback and arrived in Fort Jubrayn on the 5th of February to Francesci Morston, the then current Military Overseer. It demanded the production of one hundred ships-of-the-line and a million trained soldiers in two years.

Mount Surraine with the village of Buraine over the ruins of the historical fortress town.

In January 1603, Lambertus V received an imperative tactical map from a Jussie called Dorghold. The drawing showed relevant information such as towns, docks, ships and more. The meeting concluded with the promise to allow Dorghold some undisclosed form of power of his homeland after the war.

Some time in 1603, Francesci Morston was either murdered or committed suicide. He was replaced with Ledwin Dinged, who managed to complete the 100 ships of the line but not the million soldiers. The invasion was led by Admiral Pennisine, thought to be one of the best Admirals in Morstaybishlian history. They set sail from Fort Jubrayn on the 19th of September 1603, arriving at Perdaé in the Necraties three days later. They used Fallace Bay as a halfway point and did not set sail until the 1st of January 1604. They arrived at Justel's Brow in Justelvard one day later. During bombardment of the Justelvardic defence, Dorghold assassinated the leader Nordin and the Justelvardic forces were split between Nordin's followers and Dorghold's followers. It began a 2v1 battle that was quickly decided. A group of Nordin's followers retreated into the country to Mount Surraine, where they rallied with another powerful Justelvardic man called Surrot.

The Morstaybishlian troops followed the Jussies to Mount Surraine and laid siege to the town. Morstaybishlian forces won and Surrot was executed. In the next year, proceedings to bring Justelvard and Kistelvard into the Empire was underway, and it was formally incorporated as the first Overseas Colony of the Empire. Dorghold became a familiar icon in Justelvardic history, with many statues of him being erected. An island chain between Justelvard and Peregrinia was named after him, but his legacy is also frowned upon by Jussies who believe in independence.

Battle for Luxaria

Lambertus Castle, Dogrugan

After success in Justelvard, Lambertus V asserted himself as a more confident leader among his privy council. He set his sights westwards to Arcturia, an already known and landed continent by both Staynes and Caltharus as well as other kingdoms Kormistazm and Ethalria. After finding out the Ethalrian Empire had united a nearly 200 kilometer coastal colony a decade prior and with a flair to compete, he sent a ship to send a letter to the Viceroys of each trade outpost for the provisions to form a unified colony southwards of New Calth, but the ship never returned. He later found out the Ethalrian soldiers had seized the ships and executed the soldiers. Frustrated by this, he amassed a fleet of warships and sent them to defeat the Ethalrian Armada. The fleet came back victorious, but the Ethalrian Empire sent their own fleet and reclaimed the small Gronmund Port.

In 1615, Lambertus V ordered a larger fleet of nearly thirty warships to invade the Ethalrian port town. A brutal bloodbath ensued, with the crippled Morst fleet victorious. After receiving a letter from King Lothair I of Ethalria, the two Empires devised a treaty to divide the land according to the Lothair Line; north of which would be controlled by Ethalria and south of which would be controlled by Morstaybishlia, despite who was already living there. The nations agreed, and Luxaria became the second colony on Arcturia.

A castle was erected in Gronmund Port, Teriloe Port and Dogrugan Port to defend against any future attacks. Lambertus Castle in Dogrugan Port is the sole survivor to this day, the others falling into disarray and ruin.

In later years following the Auroran Imperial War, the native population of Luxaria was granted independence during planned decolonialism which would go on to become Lokania. The area that retained its integrity within the Empire would be called Louzaria.

Taking over Kormistazic Arcturia

During the Western Auroran Crusades, the Kormistazic Empire fled to its colonies rather than surrendering as a last resort against the Morstaybishlian Empire. The Morstaybishlian Empire, led by King Redrugus V eventually conquered the Kormistazic strongholds in Arcturia and claimed the Kormistazic ports as their own. From the late 1500s to the early 1600s Morstaybishlia established seven other trade outposts to bolster its oversea’s economy.

In 1628 Morstaybishlia began a campaign to push further into Arcturia to unite the port towns and claim more land for agriculture. The Vivanish resisted the expansion of the Morstaybishlian settlement which began the First Morsto-Vivanan War. After one year the Vivanish people retreated further inland to the Delcanian mountains. Florence I signed the Finalem Charter which saw Morstaybishlia’s first unified territories as Vivania in 1631.

Colonising the South Concordian Ocean

The two biggest naval battles of the Morsto-Cukish War; the Battle of Dáker Island (left) and the Battle of Karuna (right)

After successfully beating the Ethalrian Empire over Gronmund Port, Morstaybishlian influence would begin to soar over the lands which made up modern day Luxaria. Within less than five years, due to a strong embargo on the Kingdom of Luzura, their influence waned, and eventually it was assimilated into the Morstaybishlian Empire.

Upon the ascension of Florence I, the oppressed peoples of South Peragen began to prefer the idea of Morstaybishlian intervention in the Concordian Ocean, which would upset the powerful influence the Commonwealth held on the nation. With more trading aligned to the Morstaybishlian Empire, South Peragen became a wealthier trade hub; and in 1629 the aristocracies of South Peragen started a revolt against the Commonwealth, which was supported by the Erranzan separatists and the Morstaybishlians. A three year war passed, after which South Peragen won and gained independence in 1632, and with Commonwealth forces retracted, the Empire sought to expand their influence into the prosperous South Concordian Ocean.

At this point the pretensions of Morstaybishlia well public knowledge as they had traded with South Peragen and helped it becoming independent from the Commonwealth. Shoneria followed the same path as South Peragen as it saw a prosperous path of trade and wealth, and started small rebel cells which became an overwhelming national rebellion in 1635. The daughter of the old king of Shoneria, Estelo, became aware of the rebellion and organised a coup on the throne, but her vessel who hosted her, the king pretender and his only son sank and all lives lost.

Morstaybishlia send aid, setting out a clear set of objectives to conquer its first territory in the South Concordian Ocean, and the Shonerian leaders accepted Morstaybishlian occupation. Commonwealth forces had been stretched thin because of the repression in its empire, reached and were victorious over the current occupation. Morstaybishlia retaliated by sending a blockade to the capital Privétia. Morstaybishlia rallied the support of South Peragen and more of their own forces for a full scale invasion of New Leganés, but the Commonwealth occupation of Shoneria retreated to defend their homeland, effectively leaving Shoneria to Morstaybishlia. The Commonwealth had a narrow victory against the coalition of Morstaybishlia and South Peragen, but the Commonwealth had suffered a long siege and suffered extensive damage. Six years of wars over the seas and the Commonwealth ensued, and fearing losing their autonomy, Queen Cristalina IV began negotiations with their enemies and in 1641 the Treaty of Arsal was signed and ratified by the three independent nations. The treaty saw Morstaybishlia take control of the already occupied Shoneria and also control over Oblivion Islands, as well as the Commonwealth dissolved so that the queen would retain power in the New Leganés and retain great trade and a presence of exploitation within the South Concordian Ocean. Morstaybishlia henceforth had huge economic control over the nations of New Leganés and South Peragen which lasted for over 276 years.

Ambitions past the Pacific Ocean

With action dwindling in the South Concordian Ocean and a decisive victory looming over the Commonwealth, the Morstaybishlian Empire set its eyes eastwards to the Pacific Ocean and beyond. It set out three vessels in 1639 to find new land and economic opportunities. They landed on an island named Draegia. Over a year later, one ship returned. Morstaybishlia would seek out more lands in this direction and send more vessels to the unknown east, where they landed and were greeted by natives. The explorer Marten Vhengar interpreted the native’s name for their land as “Vanoru”.

(wip)

Posolic Wars

Caven Wars

A painting of MBS Queen Aprille in Credita docks circa 1698

In the year 1688, Captain Kerden discovered an island in the Packilvanian Ocean and established a settlement a year later called Queensport. For another five years the Morstaybishlian Empire would build up their settlements with the prospects to use it as a military naval port and trading hub to Yasteria. Communications to the island abruptly ceased to which a vessel was sent and discovered that the Caven Empire had set up their own port on the other side of the island and had fought and won the Staynish port.

Now Commodore, Kerden was sent to claim back the small prospective trading hub and did so in a short-lived Battle of Queensport. A Caven ship survived and sent the news back to the Caven Empire after which there was no obvious retaliation.

Over the next four years, merchant ships leaving Aeternum and other ports in north Caltharus and Staynes were going missing and businesses in these ports were closing down from a loss of income. It was explored by the Morstaybishlian navy but there was no explanation until by chance MBS Queen Aprille was mistaken as a merchant vessel and attacked by a Caven warship but survived. Morstaybishlia later declared war on the Caven Empire.

In secret, Commodore Kerden was sent to Perigrinia, the rival of Caven in the north to formulate a plan to destabilise the Caven Empire as to both Morstaybishlia and Perigrinia’s gain. Perigrinia would fund Morstaybishlian armament and naval ship production for Morstaybishlia’s full scale invasion into Cavens’ south province of Wachovia, starting the Caven Wars.

Morstaybishlia had a strong starting advance in the war, pushing the Caven forces far back. Morstaybishlia would strategically siege Caven port towns of Truzcon, Merna and Libertyburg and cut off trading routes into the Caven Sea from the north. It held a strong advance into Caven and Verlot for about two years, pushing past the Izumi mountains, but fearing encirclement they were pushed back over the mountains to the Wachovia borders where the two forces reached a stalemate. There would be some victories on either side, but after six years in 1704 the Caven Empire surrendered its occupied lands to the Morstaybishlian Empire to end the war. With a suffering economy and a large famine, Peregrinia, who had remained neutral during the conflict, upheld its side of the agreement and began humanitarian aid, promising the people of Caven better fortunes. After fifteen years, Peregrinia had managed to integrate the Caven provinces of Dominionland, Termino, Trioni and Verlot.

Colonies in the Northern Hemisphere

Morstopackia and the Great War

Morstopackia (dark green) with Morstaybishlia's surrounding territories (light green)
Rare picture of King Thadeus I of Morstaybishlia and Sultana Zerah Demir IV of Packilvania touring Hoopland around July 1917, a month before his death

In 1897, Thadeus I married Zerah Demir IV, Sultana of the Caliphate. The two superpowers were united under marriage and for 20 years remained so, until the death of the Morstaybishlian King in 1917.

Trade between the two superpowers rose to unimaginable heights. This legacy is still visible in trade between the two superpowers to this day, with Morsto-Caliphate trade being the strongest and largest trade between two sovereign states in the world.

The two countries, having been married under political union for 18 years, decided that they would go through a legal process to form a permanent sovereign state with the alias "Morstopackia". The idea was taken quite radically in two fashions; some thousands of politicians and activists endorsed the idea whilst an equal number despised it. When the King of Morstaybishlia abruptly died of liver failure after the war in August 1917 it sparked an international crisis. At age 16 a young and inexperienced Thadeus II, the future sole inheritor to Morstopackia, fought against his mother for control of the throne. His mother escaped Sani Bursil back to Bingöl and immediately terminated any such legal administrative actions which would have ultimately united the two countries and thus the Acts of Union, prepared and written for 1918 never became legitimate.

Throughout the war existed a movement for the establishment of democratic rule. It did not take off until after end of the Great War in July and the death of the King on the 1st of August. Both political wings formed the Parliamentarian forces and stormed the Royal Palace on the 17th of August demanding a signatory from the young King Thadeus II on the Great Charter of the Liberties to sign over his right to absolutism. Agreeing to this, the Parliamentarians and the Crown agreed for the continuance of the monarchy constitutionally. The parliamentarians gave a purdah where constituencies were created and an election period began. On the 11th of October 1917, Orson Klarass led the Conservative Party into the first Morstaybishlian Government.

With a fragile year in the royal family came a major political rift. Both the far reaches within the fatherland of Morstaybishlia and Packilvania saw large far-left groups emerge. The latter fell to a communist uprising in the years following with Queen Zerah Demir IV's assassination in 1936 and the far-left groups in Morstaybishlia would eventually be the precursor to Norogradian Independence.

Norograd Secession to the Auroran-Imperial War

Young Norogradian revolutionary Kiet Narvga

With the death of Thadeus I and the recession of Packilvania-Morstaybishlia relations, separatists in the Principality of Kormistazm formed the Kormistazic Republican Army and began attacking police stations and government buildings within the major cities in a minor bid to take control. In 1920, the armed forces were deployed to deal with the KRA and attacks ceased. This action was incredibly well publicised, and in the time afterwards socialist newspapers in the region became significantly more popular, especially those promoting anti-imperial Noroist socialism. By the turn of the decade, most separatist groups and militias had become Noroist.

In 1943, a small Noroist group known as the Jilkania Revolutionary Front launched a surprise attack on the Barque city council hall. They captured it swiftly and with little resistance, taking several hostages including the mayor of the city at the time, Ferdinand Smithson. Police were unable to safely retake the hall, coming under fire and threats that the hostages would be killed. The JRF demanded that Jilkaan be allowed to secede from the Empire as its own state, and encouraged other groups to take action against the regional authority. The stand off lasted a week before the first hostage was eventually killed. Soon after, the Morstaybishlian Armed Forces were sent in to retake the structure without killing the hostages. However, the JRF were warned of the attack beforehand and a major firefight emerged, with major casualties on both sides. The city hall was eventually retaken, though Ferdiand Smithson was shot several times and died of blood loss and internal bleeding whilst being transported to hospital. In the aftermath, Lord Nelson of Jilkaan decided to enhance police liberties when dealing with rebellion to prevent further need for the armed forces and to root out separatist groups in the region. King Thadeus II then extended this law to all of the Principality in 1945 due to the increased number of protests and riots.

A Norogradian Taurus 1 MBT storming Monnedura, a small town in Corstania Province during the Auroran Imperial War

By the late 1950's, the counterculture movement emerged across Aurora, and with it, and increased number of protests and riots within Kormistazm, as well as the Emberwood and Quartz fern regions. Primarily Noroist socialist separatist groups became significantly more prolific, especially in higher education and universities. with the turn of the 60's, the largest underground Noroist resistance group, the Norogradian peoples liberation party, made links with the government of Ethalria (Disambiguation) and East Cerdani. This allowed them to begin stockpiling arms and manufactured weapons, as well as giving them the resources needed to semi-covertly begin manufacturing weapons of their own design by the end of the decade. When the Auroran Imperial War broke out, the NPLP organised soldiers across the principality, coordinating with other smaller groups, and soon after launched a coup of the regional government. Armed with a vast supply of arms, vehicles, ships, and aircraft, the NPLP successfully gained control of the Kormistazic principality within three days, announcing its independence as the republic of Norograd and joining Ethalria against the Morstaybishlian Empire. This was further solidified by the use of high yield thermobaric weaponry by the Royal Air Force during an NPLP assault on an army base, which killed many soldiers of both sides.

With the close of the Auroran Imperial War, Lyrevale, Emberwood Coast, and Quartz Fern Coast had seceded from Norograd. Every new nation had its independence guaranteed at the post-war Weyrcliff summit and were officially recognised as separated from the Morstaybishlian Empire.

From Succession to Union

High-King Galfridus in 1990, aged 63, a year before his death.

Years of tension between the central government and many local councils and authorities led to a snap referendum for independence at the end stages of the Auroran Imperial War. The legitimacy of the referendum was questioned, and on the 6th of June that year, the poll saw 54% of the population vote to the South Staynes Sucession Act of 1975. Greta Vardem was declared President and South Staynes declared independence as a sovereign state from Morstaybishlia. The initial first few weeks saw lots of infighting. Soldiers and people loyal to the Morstaybishlian Empire were told to leave, whilst politicians were given a week. Guerrilla infighting between Morstaybishlian loyalists and the new South Staynish Army ensued creating a large shift in the opinion polls of Galfridus. Thousands of people were killed in the streets. This gave Morstaybishlia yet another problem to add to their list. At the point of the referendum, the Auroran Imperial War had started a ceasefire period. Greta Vardem saw this time to establish a non-aggression pact with her Axis neighbours, as well as a reluctant Morstaybishlia.

Being unable to prevent this loss of fatherland, Galfridus was severely criticised and his position was labelled weak by the devolved government. Wince Lavin, Prime Minister, saw this time to rally the power of the people to force the King in handing over executive power to Parliament. His plan succeeded, and on the 16th of July, the parliament replaced the throne as the main decision making body of Morstaybishlia.

After gaining independence, South Staynes struggled to find international recognition. Many other sovereign states declared the referendum was not legitimate and that Greta Vardem and Wince Lavin had collaborated to replace the throne with parliament. This resulted in many of the Empires' allies turning a blind eye to the situation; unable to find adequate reason to support either the Empire or South Staynes. Furthermore, Morstaybishlia did not recognise the new sovereign state. However, many opposing the Morstaybishlian Empire did. Norograd and Ethalria (Disambiguation) recognised the new state immediately and began their own relations with the country.

Greta Vardem in 1975

For the first few months, Greta Vardem made many decisions that would grow South Staynes as a power and which pushed themselves more onto the world stage. They signed recognition and alliances with many Auroran countries except Morstaybishlia. Under Greta Vardem, South Staynes' economy grew by a record breaking 4% in its first year.

In 1976 however, in one of the most controversial moments in history, a gunman in a police disguise was mistakenly identified as Labius Deputy Police Officer Hans Drekker and was allowed on set during a live broadcast on national television where the President was filming. The gunman, Fred Greidman, fired and shot Greta several times in the chest and stomach before shooting himself. Immediately following the incident, Vice President Morgan Lugin seized control of the senate and began his oppressive doctrine. The people grew angry and soon infighting resumed in the major cities. The armed forces was dispatched and under Morgan Lugin was ordered to fire live ammunition at violent protesters. Hundreds upon hundreds died. This action sent the country into civil war and Lugin lost the trust of Delores Sofura and other Auroran allies. With infighting reaching extreme heights, Lugin was forced to resign by his own council and later jailed. After a recession, the interim government ran by seven members of the Vardem Committee believed it was in the national interest to league with Morstaybishlia. The committee flew to Sani Bursil to sign the Acts of Union 1977, forming a political union with the United Kingdom of Morstaybishlia to create the United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia.

Between the two Auroran Wars

Lyrevale Civil War

A period of geopolitical tension between Norograd and Morstaybishlia and their respective allies began immediately following the Auroran Imperial War, and lasted until the dissolution of Norograd in 1996. There was no large-scale fighting directly between the two powers, but they engaged in proxy wars such as the Lyrevale Civil War.

Meremaa Civil War

A small section of a 60,000 person riot in Kirdintayos soon after Robert Delari announced that Great Morstaybishlia was going to war with Meremaa, the slogan "We Won't Fight Another Rich Man's War!" became very popular throughout the country

On 15 April 1990, Grand Duke Telvi II of Meremaa ordered the military to fire at a labour strike organised by Democratic Socialist political organisations in the city of Morzk. Immediately after the actions ordered by Telvi II, Meremaan news outlets and papers began glorifying their leader and exerting an approach relating to their foreign policy which gave Prime Minister Robert Delari an unclear future for Dalmaghar. This concerned Robert Delari, who retaliated by condemning the actions of the Grand Duke. Meremaa declared their intentions to align further with Norgsveldet economically despite their independence less than a decade before.

Delari viewed this negatively, and made public his views on how Meremaa has lost its sovereignty and how the Morstaybishlian Government no longer viewed the government of Meremaa as legitimate. As civil unrest grew into civil war, Delari endorsed the Democratic Socialist movement, led by Tyr Vaines, which branded itself as the Republican Forces of Meremaa, whilst simultaneously sending its Pacific Fleet to protect the Morstaybishlian asset of Dalmaghar.

Norgsveldet viewed the newfound Morstaybishlian naval presence in Dalmaghar as hostile. However, they initially laid off any form of support to Meremaa as Morstaybishlia had not officially sided with the republicans.

AH-1 Viper firing on Meremain units (left), MBS Fort Staynes firing a Sea Dart SAM off of the coast of Dalmaghar (right)

On 22 May 1990, Robert Delari declared war on Meremaa, and revealed his new deal with the Republican Forces was to help install a democratic foundation in the region. The same day, media coverage of Republican Forces attacking an Asatru temple went global, and this coupled with the already public dissent against war began a month long riots across all of Great Morstaybishlia. Delari’s opinion polls dropped dramatically as he guided a Morstaybishlian landing on the Meremain coast.

Soon thereafter, Norgsveldet declared their intentions to back the Meremain government and send troops to reinforce the already strong Meremain forces. Over the next year, Morstaybishlia sent over 82,000 troops to the campaign. The Meremain forces were well dug in and the Morstaybishlian’s lost 12,481 men. A hopeful campaign on 21 February 1991 laid out a plan to wipe out one of the main entrances of Norgsveltian troops into Meremaa. Morstaybishlian saw a quick naval bombardment and subsequent attack of the city, but over an ensuing ten days was blocked by a fiercely dug in Meremain defence line. The battle lasted 26 days, until 19 March, where the Morstaybishlian forces retreated to Dalmaghar. It was during this retreat that the MBS Augustine, the first Augustine-class aircraft carrier completed two months before was sunk.

The Horror of War; Urth's Picture of the Year 1993. It depicts a Meremain woman after losing her home and family in a mortar strike

Parliament immediately motioned a vote of no confidence against Delari’s administration, and no less than two weeks later Morstaybishlia had a hung parliament. The Conservative Party led by Rupert Sinkasa formed a confidence-and-supply coalition government with the Liberal Party. His party promised to end the war, but the Liberals, their only feasible coalition partner, would go on to make that reality very difficult. Through votes in government, the Liberals denied Conservative majorities on de-escalation.

Sinkasa immediately faced more riots in Sani Bursil and other major urban conurbations as he failed to find a de-escalation solution. Meremaa and Norgsveldet pushed a firm counter attack into Dalmaghar, with a continuous air strike campaign on military and civilian targets. Morstaybishlia was forced to deploy a second fleet to Dalmaghar stoked with fresh supplies and troops when Norgsveltian forces began accumulating in the Isles of Hel for a land invasion. This deterred Norgsveldet from commencing an attack.

Morstaybishlia sent over 124,000 troops from April 1991 to October 1992 to Morzk where they fought a huge series of campaigns to take the capital, Kalaborgdurg. Initially the campaigns went well, establishing a strong defence line halfway between Morzk to Kalaborgdurg, and gaining ground as close as Dzimspilsēta, but after some time Meremaa and Norgsveldet began to push them back. Morstaybishlia over this next year of retreat would lose 43,305 men. At the same time, the Republican Forces of Meremaa lost over 110,000 troops and became increasingly unpopular among the population of Meremaa for violent attacks on Asatru temples despite the Morstaybishlian’s best curveball attempts.

By the beginning of 1993, the two sides had reached a stalemate at a natural defence line in the far east of Meremaa. Morstaybishlia and the Republican Forces of Meremaa agreed that any future campaign of Kalaborgdurg would be unsuccessful and agreed on forming a splinter state known as the Republic of Morzk. From January to April was a period of relative peacetime. This was interrupted when Norgsveltian submarines sank a Morstaybishlian supply lane which would mark the beginning of a Norgsveltian campaign to choke the mostly unrecognised republic.

Norgsveldet fought and won a decisive naval battle against an unprepared Morstaybishlian defence which would establish a blockade around the republic. Meremaa and Norgsveldet began a full assault into the region of Morzk which lasted until 23 October 1994 when the Republican forces surrendered. Rupert Sinkasa flew to Burdels, Lessau, and signed a peace treaty with Grand Duke Telvi II of Meremaa and Prime Minister Margete Kverheim of Norgsveldet which saw non-aggression between the three nations and Morstaybishlian recognition of Meremaa.

After the war, it was judged that during the Kalaborgdurg campaign Morstaybishlian and Meremain Republican forces were responsible for over twenty thousand civilian murders and somewhere between one thousand and two thousand five hundred rapes.

Acts of Union

Prime Minister Walter Johannes of Great Morstaybishlia (left) and Prime Minister Arran Samsey of Justelvard (right) after signing the Acts of Union of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard in 2016

Justelvard faced continuous trouble with a language and cultural divide since it was colonised in the early 17th century. Justelard, who seceded from Morstaybishlia upon the closure of the Auroran Imperial War was bound by the Port Makuh Agreement, signed by former Prime Minister Delores Gastrell and the first Prime Minister of Justelvard Jamesina Sefera, which stated that "if at any stage it is clear that a majority of constituencies in Justelvard hold pro-Morstaybishlian seats, then a referendum for Morstaybishlian reunification would be considered" and that, under these terms, "a Morstaybishlian reunification would see Justelvard become a functioning member state of Great Morstaybishlia as opposed to territory of the crown". After the 2014 Justelvard General Election, the new Prime Minister Wiley Gordwin was elected but led a minority government, his opposition could not form a government but which formed for the first time a majority for pro-Morstaybishlia. Gordwin controversially ignored this clause in the Port Makuh Agreement, and had a huge backlash from politicians and the general public. At the time, Gordwins' opinion polls dropped to 23 percent, the lowest of any Justelvardic Prime Ministers ever. A general election was called after a vote of no confidence. The Liberal League of Justelvard lost ten seats in the 2015 Justelvard General Election and the Justelvardic Unionist Party was voted in. His successor, and the new Prime Minister Arran Samsey, held a referendum on 16 December 2015 which saw a 65 percent vote for Morstaybishlian reunification, though no constituency in the Western Outliers voted to leave. Samsey flew to Sani Bursil on as many as eleven occasions to discuss with Walter Johannes an agreement. One year later to the day, on 16 December 2016, the United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard came into being, the result of Acts of Union being passed by the parliaments of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard and so unite the two kingdoms.

Auroran-Pacific War

See also: Auroran-Pacific War

Ethalrian bombing of a Caltharusian town.

After loyalists to the Ethalrian Monarchy illegitimately seized the government of the Republic of Ethalria in May 2017 to form the Greater Ethalrian Empire, the Morstaybishlian Government would call an emergency meeting between world leaders at Sani Bursil Royal Palace resulting in an allegiance of half a dozen countries to fight the new Auroran threat. Tensions rose across the world for a few weeks. The Royal Parade was not cancelled despite the best efforts of Prime Minister Walter Johannes, who deemed it 'unsafe in the current political climate'. During the parade around Sani Bursil, an assassination attempt on King Lambertus VII failed but resulted in the death of the heir apparent Prince Thadeus, Duke of Horkalo. It was soon thereafter discovered that the plot was orchestrated by operatives of the Matriarchy of Ethalria working for Amalda Harimann and Great Morstaybishlia declared war on the Matriarchy the same day.

With Stratarin's Premier Viktor Drugov losing his position of power to Mikhail Starikov, Great Morstaybishlia lost one of its great allies. Starikov made his intentions known and became allies with the Matriarchy of Ethalria, the Greater Ethalrian Empire and Kostromastan, forming the axis. Stratarin played a vital role in military armament and funding of the axis; in particular Kostromastan, who had used this aide to push an invasion deep into Nocturne. Kostromastan and Stratarin would aim to push deep into Barbarus and Laulia Provinces to ambush the vastly spread and deeply entrenched allied forces in their battle over north Ethalrian cities, and a planned Strataric naval invasion on the beaches of Aurus and Laulia Provinces was narrowly prevented when their naval routes were cut off by the Oan Isles, which began the Pacific Theater of War. Great Morstaybishlia immediately amassed a force with Lokania and Kuthernburg to invade both Ethalrias. Facing fierce opposition, the allies narrowly secured victories in Arkenvel and Avenai in late June and July, later beating the Matriarchy of Ethalria in the battle for Karinthus and later Rivendale, the Ethalrian capital which would lead Harimann into hiding and see the Ethalrian Vice Matriarch sign the Instrument of Surrender on the 24th of October. In the west the allies were repelled into South Staynes, with bombing of cities Leriad, Burleron and Kovaro killing millions of people, but upon the surrender of the Matriarchy of Ethalria, the Greater Ethalrian Empire caved into pressure on all sides from the allies, herself surrendering soon thereafter. Immediately following the war, Great Morstaybishlia, as well as Axdel, Tuvaltastan and the Oan Isles saw the fragmentation of both Ethalria's and occupied each zone which became the six Ethaln countries.

Since the Auroran-Pacific War

One of the twelve oil rigs owned by Embask and later purchased by the Kyrlot Government.

Walter Johannes lost the 2019 Great Morstaybishlia General Election to Labour's fielded candidate Franklin Barvata, ending the 14 year Johannes administration and subsequently stepped down as Conservative leader.

Kyrloth's annexation of Izria saw the Embask oil rigs off the coast of the Undirnor and Slodhir Islands unlawfully and illegally signed away by King Tegura IV to Sinter Tass sparking controversy and outrage. Barvata failed to negotiate with Tass and the latter sent a blockade of corvettes to the oil rigs. Norgsveltian Prime Minister Sverdrup hosted a meeting between Tass, Barvata and Kuthern leaders. Meanwhile during this meeting one of the oil rigs was blown up on order of Artun Sotarikos and sunk the destroyer MBS Dovia. The incident was known as the The Lion of Taren Incident, and in Norgsveldet the outcome of this meeting saw the Kyrlot Government pay a sum of 20 billion Kiribs (5% of their GDP) for the oil rigs and compensation to the workers and the dead workers' families. Barvata later sacked Secretary of State for Foreign and Oversea Territory Affairs Janietta Rubis from the cabinet for her poor handling of the situation, replacing her with Ron Wehrasbi.

Walter Johannes successor Berowalt Ase accused his party of a 'witch hunt' after being forced to resign for alleged continuous racism, being succeeded by Benjamin Wardola. This leadership change rippled in the Democratic Party and its leader Paddy Lukamortz was replaced by Osbourne Saudaran in the 2020 MBE Democrats Leadership Election.

In May 2020, Great Morstaybishlia joined the The Anti-Alyunthian Coalition, and participated in open political isolation against Alyunthia, but unlike the lead member Rodenia who had declared hostilities, Great Morstaybishlia decided to remain neutral.

In the defence of peace, Great Morstaybishlia, Meremaa and Norgsveldet signed the Riberoe Pact, a non-aggression treaty over the tensions in the territorial waters of Meremaa and Dalmaghar that have existed since the Meremaa Civil War.

On 25 June 2020 Prime Minister Franklin Barvata made a speech advocating de-escalating Arcturia after large political blocs including the NSTO, UCA and LN condemned Rodenia for their military intervention into Puntalia. The Morstaybishlian Government has since deployed the Home Fleet to Lambombay Naval Base, New Calthia; a 200 vessel strong theater-level component command led by aircraft carrier MBS Glasgore to provide humanitarian aid and to promote de-escalation with their presence. A day later the home fleet was split into three. MBS Jarsdel was sent to lead a force to the west coast of Rodenia, MBS Sinkasa was sent with a group to the east coast and MBS Glasgore led a group on the north coast. Barvata scrutinised Prime Minister Johanna Sverdrup of Norgsveldet for her “lack of professionalism and cooperation” following a telephone conversation between the two where he tried to establish meaningful cooperation and to de-escalate and overcome the tensions in Arcturia. Barvata reached out to Packilvania for support in blockading the naval maritime border between a NSTO-UCA coalition and Rodenia. The addition of Packilvania alongside Great Morstaybishlia plateaued rising troop deployment from the NSTO and UCA.

On 10 July 2020 Great Morstaybishlia hosted a conference of nation states involved in the Puntalian Crisis. The 2020 PCT Sani Bursil Summit saw the end of hostilities from Rodenia, the NSTO and UCA with the Puntalian Cooperation Council (PCC) erected to maintain the clauses of the Puntalian Compromise Treaty. In accordance to the clauses laid out in the treaty, Great Morstaybishlia and Packilvania ended its maritime occupation and blockade to prevent an outbreak of war between nations involved. Great Morstaybishlia was a listed member of the Puntalian Cooperation Council and will lead in the establishment of PCC military installations in both New Puntalia and Puntalia.

Violent protests against the Black Alert restrictions in West Noctana, Fort Nocturne

Terrorists co-ordinated two attacks that took place on 24 July 2020 in Barbarus and Jomsgord Provinces, Caltharus, Great Morstaybishlia. Beginning at 08:36, one Khadgar tank operated by terrorists alongside 37 terrorists shot and blew up the side of the Barbarus police headquarters building before committing a mass shooting. At 9:06 another tank and gunmen committed a second mass shooting on the Khauser police headquarters. Both mass shootings resulted in a standoff with police. 67 civilians were killed and another 71 injured. 67 of the suspected 81 attackers were killed. Since the attacks, nobody has taken responsibility. Prime Minister Franklin Barvata initiated a state of emergency which was declared across Great Morstaybishlia to help fight terrorism, involving the banning of public demonstrations, and allowing the police to carry out searches without a warrant, put anyone under house arrest without trial and block websites that encouraged acts of terrorism. Calthia, Laulia, Aurus, Barbarus, Jomsgord provinces of Caltharus were put on Black Alert with a curfew of 21:00, football matches and pubs were also closed and non-essential travel became prohibited. The July 2020 Caltharus attacks were the deadliest in Great Morstaybishlia since the Auroran Imperial War.

A day later, violent riots in major cities of Nocturne Province began in Fort Nocturne against the military presence and changes implemented following the terror attacks. The rioting escalated into over twenty minutes of armed conflict between the join occupying police and military presence and freedom fighters, claiming the lives of six police, two soldiers and 29 freedom fighters. Immediately following the conflict the Prime Minister tightened restrictions but rioting, arson, looting and other violent crimes ensued continuously for another four days, until 29 July. Since then, rioting has continued but more sporadically and no engagements between armed forces and freedom fighters have occured.

The August 2020 Caltharus police attack saw a drone bomb attack into a meeting of chief constables in Kola House, Nocturne provincial police headquarters, eastern Caltharus, Great Morstaybishlia; that happened at 14:05 and claimed the lives of six chief constables, one deputy chief constable and one site engineer. No one has claimed responsibility for the attack, although in a nation addressed Prime Minister Franklin Barvata insisted that the same group responsible for the July 2020 Caltharus attacks are to blame.

The prime minister denied a proposed independence referendum by MP Berinter Fokes for the city of Aegis in South Staynes that was set out in a clause of the Aegis Area Agreement of 1975 and 1977. The Supreme Court of Great Morstaybishlia ruled his denial of the clause unlawful. The prime minister flew to Andel, the capital of Axdel and conferred with President Diego Corbinn where they ruled out the clause as void due to the clause not bring brought over from signatory state Norograd to Axdel. After the prime ministers' address, many South Staynish Labour MPs organised a faction within the party, known as Valerian Labour, which would fight for better representation for the constituent country and for a more appropriate national identity. The South Staynes Secretary of State Nellie Hermin resigned and conveyed a public speech to millions of viewers, prompting for the resignation of the prime minister.

Geography

Map showing the Morstaybishlian Empire at its territorial maximum, with former territories, protectorates and other forms of governance in light green and text in red, and the current formulation in dark green with text in black

Great Morstaybishlia has an area of 5,940,250km² (or 2,293,542 square miles). The mainland part of Great Morstaybishlia is made up of Staynes, Caltharus and South Staynes which are collectively referred to as Morstaybishlia. Justelvard is an archipelago located in the Caven Sea that forms the metropolitan part of the Great Morstaybishlia along with Morstaybishlia. This article will refer to the metropolitan part of the MBE unless it specifically refers to one, some or all of its numerous overseas territories.

Great Morstaybishlia is the third biggest nation and largest transcontinental empire on Urth. At its height, it was the largest nation on the planet, with an empire that comprised what currently forms the Kuthernburg Commonwealth, most of the Gordic Council and other territories. It is currently the second largest country on the planet. It has a diverse range of ecosystems. Its metropolitan area goes through five timezones.

Mount Kersivius is the tallest mountain in Aurora at 7,405 m

The average elevation is 845 m (or 2772 ft). The highest elevation is the summit of Mount Kersivius which is 7,405 m (or 24,294 ft). The lowest elevation is the Nepiditras Depression in Caltharus (at 79 m below sea level). The longest river is Lamberta River with a length of 5,216 km (or 3241 miles). The largest lake by surface area is Lake Lamberta with an area of 129,850 km² (or 50,135 square miles). It is the second largest lake by surface area on Urth.

The geology of Justelvard and Morstaybishlia are different. Justelvard was formed from volcanic activity and as such it has igneous rock with a base of basalt rock. Morstaybishlia has sedimentary rock with high amount of metals such as iron, aluminium and silicate minerals, precious metals such as silver, rhodium, palladium, platinum and gold, semi precious and precious stones such as sapphire, ruby, garnet, emerald and red beryl, and fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal.

Biodiversity and environment

Flizon rainforest (left), inside the Jubrione evergreen rainforest (right)
The hot semi-arid Sperran Desert (left) and dunes of the hot arid Versubish Desert (right)

Great Morstaybishlia as a whole comprises largely varying ecosystems. Justelvard has an entirely tropical climate and over 65% of the land is made up by the Flizon rainforest. The Flizon is recognised as being one of the greatest biological diversity sites in the world and is a lot more species rich than the Jubrione evergreen rainforest despite its higher level of biodiversity to other evergreen rainforests, caused by large annual rainfall from Lake Lamberta which extends all the way to the Agners mountains and the Staynes-Caltharus border.

Moorlands form a natural barrier from the Jubrione evergreen rainforest to temperate deciduous forests in Staynes. The flat lands of the Staynish interior once formed a large shallow inland sea similar to the Sea of Alva and acts as a drainage basin for multiple large rivers including the longest Staynish river the Anker to both the West Sea and Lake Lamberta. The Staynish interior also has areas of seasonal wetlands and large deposits of crude oil from ancient marine organisms of the former Maltervenic Sea.

Rolling green hills, acommon sight across varying regions of Morstaybishlia
An aerial view of a region of the Zycannes
Sea thrift, a pink flowering plant that grows on the north Staynish coast

The Zycannes is one of the worlds largest mountain ranges by area, the largest on Aurora, and is the worlds longest. The mountains form the natural border between several nations, including Staynes and South Staynes to an extent. Staynes and a small region of South Staynes that is north of the mountain range is on the windward side and sees luscious vegetative growth whilst South Staynes is on the leeward side and is a long belt hot semi-arid land which makes up the Sperran Desert. There are two mountain ranges adjacent to the Zycannes; the Burren mountains and the Oesan mountains. Between the Burren and Zycannes there's a semi-arid region known as the Jersian Desert and between the Oesan and Zycannes there's a small semi-arid region called the Oeser Desert.

Within the hot semi-arid climate of the Sperran Desert lies a small belt of cold desert climate that forms a boundary. South Staynes experiences a mixture of temperate coniferous forests and grasslands on relatively flat areas or rolling hills. The region south of the cold desert belt has a continental climate with cold winters and warm summers.

In part of being split by two mountain ranges, the Zycannes and the Kalivian mountains; Caltharus is split into three different regions. The north of the Zycannes is windward and hosts a mixture of temperate climates, present in the north and north west is an oceanic climate and closer to the Zycannes is a typical continental climate. Immediately below the Zycannes is a narrow belt of cold desert called the Waron Desert and the Versuben mountains which connects to the Zycannes in two places and forms a segregated low area of hot arid land known as the Versubish Desert. Between the Waron Desert and the Kalivian mountains there are areas of large precipitation and thus forms a large wet temperate forest region. North of the Kalivian mountains is windward and south of the mountains is leeward, giving the provinces of Nocturne and some of Barbarus and Jomsgord a mixture of steppe and a semi-arid deserts.

Pannagar Deep-water coral found off the coast of Turtle Shoal in the Western Outliers Province, Justelvard

In the seas surrounding Great Morstaybishlia, Justelvard is host to some 25 deep-water corals primarily in the Western Outliers Province but also in the Dorghold Islands chain between Sinerus Island and Varness. The largest deep-water corals are Pannagar corals which extends over a length of about 43 kilometers (27 mi), and has a width of up to 6.9 kilometers (4.3 mi) and Kenure corals which extends over a length of about 31 kilometers (19.2 mi), and has a width of up to 5 kilometers (3.1 mi). The deep-water corals belong to the Phylum Cnidaria and are mostly stony corals, but also include black and horny corals. The black and horny corals aren't present in the 4 deep-water corals off the coast Caltharus and Staynes respectively. Off the coast of South Staynes and encompassing most of the continental waters in the Azure Sea lies a kelp forest.

Climate

Dazman Beach, Redrugus, on the hottest Day in 2018

Great Morstaybishlia has a climate that varies. Most of Morstaybishlia is temperate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. The temperature varies with the seasons seldom dropping below −5 °C (23 °F) or rising to 42 °C (107.6 °F) in the north, and dropping below -15 °C (5 °F) or rising to 24 °C (75.2 °F) in the south. The southern regions of South Staynes often has prevailing winds which bears frequent spells of mild and wet weather from the Azure Sea, although the northern parts are mostly sheltered from this wind since the majority of the rain falls over the southern regions and therefore the midland regions including the Sperran Desert are the driest. Packilvanian currents, warmed by the Oceanus Stream, bring mild winters; especially in the west where winters are dry. Summers are warmest in the north of Morstaybishlia being closest to the tropics but also in the several deserts within the rain shadow of the Zycannes, and coolest in the south. Heavy snowfall can occur more southerly in winter and early spring on high ground, and occasionally settles to great depth away from the hills.

In most of the Flizon Jungle and parts of the Jubrione, there is no dry season. The Flizon has an average precipitation value of at least 60 mm (2.4 in) per month whilst the Jubrione has around 304 mm (12 in) per month. Tropical rainforests and tropical evergreen rainforests have no summer or winter; it is typically hot and wet throughout the year and rainfall is both heavy and frequent and in the Jubrione very unpredictable. One day in these climates can be very similar to the next, while the change in temperature between day and night may be larger than the average change in temperature during the year. The Jubrione is considerably temperate, between 16 °C and 22 °C or 60.8 °F and 73 °F degrees. The northern Jubrione coast is the hottest, at an average of 23 °C. The Jubrione maintains annual humidity levels of 77%. The Flizon Jungle in Justelvard maintains an average heat of 28 °C and annual humidity levels between 78% and 80%.

Morstaybishlian army troops clearing snow from a railway cutting, 1943

The location of the Zycannes, as well as the great variations in their elevations and exposure, give rise to very large differences in climate, not only among separate ranges but also within a particular range itself. Because of their central location in Aurora, the Zycannes are affected by four main climatic influences: from the north and west flows the relatively mild, moist air of the Packilvanian; cool or cold polar air descends from southwestern Aurora; continental air masses, cold and dry in winter and hot in summer, dominate in the east; and, to the south, dry Azure air flows northward. The average temperature in the foothills of the Zycannes is around 13 °C to 18 °C.

The highest recorded temperature was during the 2018 summer in the Staynish interior when the mercury hit 47.5 °C (117.5 °F) in Iron Valley, Jersia Desert, whilst the lowest recorded was during the Great Freeze of 1943 (the most brutal winter Aurora had seen in over three centuries), where during the blizzard filled night of 26 June the temperature was recorded at -24 °C (-11.2 °F) over the town of Keltucka, South Staynes.

Territories and dependencies

Great Morstaybishlia has sovereignty over seventeen territories which do not form part of the MBE itself: fifteen Morstaybishlian Overseas Territories and two Crown dependencies.

The fifteen Morstaybishlian Overseas Territories are remnants of the Morstaybishlian Empire: they are Andomi; Eskomia; Neptentia Islands; Detention Islands; Louzaria; New Calthia; the Seligeze Islands; Morstaybishlian Rotantic Territories; Joralesia; Rosamund Island, Dalmaghar; Buzela; Bolize; New Celidizia and Morstaybishlian West Pacific Territories. Collectively Morstaybishlia's overseas territories encompass an approximate land area of 716,016 square kilometers (276,455 sq mi), with a total population of 96.3 million. A 2001 MBE government white paper stated that: "[The] Overseas Territories are Morstaybishlian for as long as they wish to remain Morstaybishlian. Morstaybishlia has willingly granted independence where it has been requested; and we will continue to do so where this is an option." Self-determination is also enshrined in the constitutions of several overseas territories and three have specifically voted to remain under Morstaybishlian sovereignty (Buzela in 1996, Joralesia in 2001 and New Celidizia in 2010).

The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crown, as opposed to overseas territories of the MBE. They comprise two independently administered jurisdictions: the Necraties Islands and Frorkstolm. By mutual agreement, the Morstaybishlian Government manages the islands' foreign affairs and defence and the MBE Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf. Internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which Great Morstaybishlia is responsible". The power to pass legislation affecting the islands ultimately rests with their own respective legislative assemblies, with the assent of the Crown. Since 2005 each Crown dependency has had a Lieutenant Governor as its head of government.

The Morstaybishlian dependencies all use the same currency as Great Morstaybishlia, the Kirib.

Politics

See also: Parliament of Great Morstaybishlia, Cabinet of Great Morstaybishlia, Prime Ministers of Great Morstaybishlia

Lambertus VII, Monarch since 1991
Franklin Barvata, Prime Minister since 2019

The politics of Great Morstaybishlia take place in the framework of a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. The monarch and head of state of Great Morstaybishlia is Lambertus VII. The monarch occupies a largely symbolic position with limited powers. In practice the monarch is limited to the following powers: receiving diplomats, signing laws without the power to veto them and signing treaties without the power to ratify them, and opening sessions of the legislature. The Constitution of Great Morstaybishlia is a supreme legal document that keeps checks and balances within government. Parliament can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Act of Parliament, and thus has the political power to change or abolish almost any written element of the constitution. No Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.

A body of aristocrats and distinguished people, called the Privy Council, advises the monarch on the exercise of their duties with some committees such as the Cabinet, having taken over much of the work of ruling from the Crown.

Government

The Morstaybishlian parliamentary government is based on the Kalmington system that is emulated in some former colonies after 1917 and instated in 4 out of 6 nations in the Ethalns after the Auroran-Pacific War. The government is divided into two branches: an elected House of Representatives and an appointed House of Peers. All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law.

The position of prime minister is the head of government of Great Morstaybishlia. The position belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Representatives; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber. By convention, the monarch respects the prime minister's decisions of government.

Prime Ministers since the First Parliament of 1917

The cabinet is drawn from members of the prime minister's party or coalition and mostly from the House of Representatives but always from both legislative houses, the cabinet being responsible for both. The work is divided according to topics called portfolios occupied by Ministers of the Crown. Other executive officials may attend cabinet meetings but may not vote. Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet, all of who are sworn into the Privy Council of Great Morstaybishlia, and become Ministers of the Crown. The current Prime Minister is Franklin Barvata who has held office since 27 February 2019. Barvata is also the leader of the Labour Party. For elections to the House of Representatives, the MBE is divided into 1,794 constituencies, each electing a single member of parliament (MP) by simple plurality. General elections are called by the monarch when the prime minister so advises. The Fixed-tern Parliaments Act 1946 required that a new election must be called no later than seven years after the previous general election.

The Palace of Kalmington, seat of both houses of the Parliament of Great Morstaybishlia

The government is heavily centralised in Sani Bursil and handles matters such as defence, currency, trade, treaties, property rights, public health care, education, and land management. Territorial governments such as Louzaria and Joralesia are restricted to issues such as housing, water, power, sanitation and local roads. The national government has a large degree of control over their internal affairs.

The Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Democrats have, in modern times, been the MBE's three major political parties, representing the Morstaybishlian traditions of conservatism, socialism and liberalism, respectively. Most of the remaining seats were won by parties that contest elections only in one party of the MBE: Justelvard Unionist Party and Justelvard Independence Party (Justelvard only); and the Nocturnian Independence Party (Nocturne only). In accordance with party policy, no elected Nocturnian Independence Party members of parliament have ever attended the House of Representatives to speak on behalf of their constituents because of the requirement to take an oath of allegiance to the monarch.

History of constituencies

Map of Great Morstaybishlia showing its 65 provinces

In 1917, Morstaybishlia converted from absolutism to parliamentary democracy and the first mention of constituencies were made. After the Great War, Morstaybishlia's territory looked very different; Axdel, Lyrevale and Emberwood Coast were apart of the Empire, whilst the lands east of the Ider River in Caltharus weren't. The Constituency Administration Committee were established to draw up the first constituency maps. The first iteration in 1917 had 1,214 constituencies and gave the Principality of Norograd representation for the first time under the Morstaybishlian Empire with 170 seats. During the interwar period the constituencies remained unchanged until 1975 when the Norogradian Principality gained independence as Norograd and the land east of the Ider River came back under control of Morstaybishlia. The Constituency Administration Committee was re-established and produced a second map that overhauled most of the work from the first, producing 1,742 constituencies. This remained until the Acts of Union of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard which saw 52 new constituencies added to make the final iteration of 1,794.

Provinces

The history of local government in Great Morstaybishlia differs between Staynes, Caltharus, South Staynes (Valeria before the 13th century) and Justelvard, and the subnational divisions within these which have been called provinces have varied over time and by purpose. The province has formed the upper tier of local government over much of Great Morstaybishlia at one time or another, and has been used for a variety of other purposes, such as for Lord Lieutenants, land registration and postal delivery.

All of the 10 provinces in Staynes are based off of historic countries during the First Interregnum Period. Over Staynes' history these provinces saw major reforms in 1621, 1784 and 1897, but were reverted back to the ten provinces in 1955. The provinces in South Staynes were established in 1977 based on the historic divides during the administration of the Kingdom of Valeria prior to 1256; South Staynes has the most provinces of any constituent country at 27 but since 1989 there have been calls to simplify these provinces down to 22. Caltharus has 22 provinces which are based off of the smaller kingdoms that existed before the unification of Caltharus in the 8th century.

Law enforcement and crime

Hamlen House, the location of the Supreme Court of Justice in Great Morstaybishlia.

The judiciary enforces laws, settles disputes and carries out justice. The judiciary is structured according to the following hierarchy:

  • The Supreme Court is the highest court. It makes sure that laws follow the constitution. It is the final court for appeals on any matter. It sits in the capitol.
  • Each province has a High Court which is usually divided among major cities of that province. It receives appeals.
  • Magistrate Courts conduct trials. They are ranked according to the affairs and geographical area over which their jurisdiction extends. In order of least to highest, they are as follows: ward (or parish), borough (or shire), county (or district), then region (or province).

The judicial system follows Staynish common law. A single judge (or group of judges in the case of appellate courts) uses common sense, statutes and precedent to decide on a case. Adversaries (a plaintiff and defendant) present written and/oral evidence and cross examine witnesses to defend or refute a charge. In instances were the province is representing the plaintiff, that party is called the prosecution.

Each province possesses a police force under the authority of the provincial government. The national government controls law enforcement agencies that deal with particularly complex or multijurisdictional cases and provides support to province police. Some larger cities, such as Sani Bursil, Fort Jubrayn and Redrugus maintain their own police forces. Generally the law enforcement is disciplined and impartial.

Foreign Relations

Great Morstaybishlia is a permanent member of the United Nations of the Auroran Continent and the Morstaybishlian Commonwealth, as well as a Special Member of the NSTO. Great Morstaybishlia shares a Special Relationship with Kuthernburg and a close relationship with Axdel, Packilvania and The Oan Isles. Morstaybishlia exerts a large global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements.

Military

Main article: Royal Armed Forces of the Empire

The A-121 Rook is a sixth-generation stealth fighter aircraft which entered service in 2014.
MBS Superior, painted in 1805, is the Flagship of the First Sea Lord. It is the longest serving naval vessel being commissioned in 1775.
MBS Glasgore, a Glasgore-class supercarrier and the flagship of its class

The Royal Armed Forces of the Empire (RAFOTE), also known as His Majesty's Armed Forces (HM's Armed Forces), Morstaybishlian Armed Forces and the MBE Armed Forces form the military of the MBE and its Oversea Territories. They are made up of three branches: the Navy, Army and Air Force. The forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence and controlled by the Defence Council, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence; currently Mikhail Sankuda. The Commander-in-Chief is the Morstaybishlian monarch, to whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance. The Armed Forces are charged with protecting Great Morstaybishlia and its overseas territories, promoting Great Morstaybishlia's global security interests and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. They are active and regular participants in the UNAC Defence Force. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained in Packilvania, Blueacia, Kuthernburg, Axdel, Mexregiona, Lokania, Yor, Nacata and Atiland, as well as in Overseas Territories of New Calthia, Louzaria, Joralesia, the Inuit Isles, Frorkstolm, the Morstaybishlian West Pacific Territories, Detention Island, Rosamund Island, Dalmaghar, New Celidizia and Neptentia Island. The Morstaybishlian armed forces played a key role in establishing the Morstaybishlian Empire as the dominant world power in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. By emerging victorious from conflicts, Morstaybishlia has often been able to decisively influence world events. Since the comedown of the Morstaybishlian Empire, Great Morstaybishlia has remained a major military power.

The Imperial Navy controls three sub branches: the Imperial Marines (an amphibious infantry), the Imperial Coast Guard (a maritime law enforcement branch) and the Imperial Missile Force. The Army forms the land component. It controls another sub branch called the Gendarmerie, a paramilitary force. The Imperial Air Force forms the air branch and controls the air defence sub branch. The Redplate Guard are a fourth branch of the Armed Forces with its origins coming from the Union of the Thrones in 1515, it is typically the size of a brigade, of which there is a battalion called the Palatine Guard that is for service of the sovereign and their royal residencies.

Two AH-1 Viper's landing on an amphibious assault ship.

The military has a total active manpower of 2.74 million soliders and a reserve manpower of 1.81 million soldiers. The Army has 1.3 million active soldiers in total. The Air Force has 720K airmen and women in total. The Navy has 798K sailors in total. The total budget of the military is 577.4 million SHD in 2019. The Army receives ... KRB. The Air Force receives ... KRB. The Navy receives ... KRB. Operational expenses take up ...% of the budget. Procurement takes up ...% of the budget.

The main standard issue infantry rifle is the SC-AR4. The main marksmanship rifle given to special forces is the MR10. The primary air superiority fighter is the Vezra GE-55. The most used main battle tank is the Colonarius mk2. The primary multi purpose jet is the Vezra GE-35. The ground attack fighter is the A-121 Rook. The primary combat helicopter is the Mospher AH-1 Viper. The military intelligence has electronic reconnaissance capabilities.

The navy has 254 commissioned ships, which include submarines and auxiliary ships. The composition of the 254 commissioned ships include 14 air craft carriers (with three under construction, in development or planned); the navy also has two amphibious assault docks, 15 ballistic missile submarines (which maintains the MBE's nuclear superiority), 44 nuclear fleet submarines, 6 guided missile cruisers, 57 guided missile destroyers, 55 frigates, 25 patrol boats and 11 mine countermeasures, plus 27 ships of the Imperial Fleet Auxiliary (IFA); the IFA replenishes Imperial Navy warships at sea. Women and homosexuals are allowed to join the armed forces. They are trained in Krav Maga hand to hand combat.

Economy

Overview

The Kirib (symbol: ♅; ISO code: KRB) is the official currency of Great Morstaybishlia, the United Nations of the Auroran Continent countries and most former and all current Morstaybishlian colonies

Great Morstaybishlia has a partially regulated market economy. Based on market exchange rates, Great Morstaybishlia is today the largest economy in the world. HM Treasury, led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy. The Kirib, which is the legal tender, originated in Great Morstaybishlia. Historically, the Kirib was issued by the Auroran Bank in Sani Bursil, Staynes, but is presently issued by the Auroran Bank in Tarov, Tivot, printed by the Staynish Bank Note Company and minted by the Royal Staynish Mint. The Bank of Staynes is the MBE's central bank and continues to act as a central bank in other respects such as regulating the banking sector, acting as a lender to banks and managing the nation's gold reserves. Great Morstaybishlia has gold reserves of 172 billion KRB. The Kirib is the world's second-largest reserve currency (after the SH Dollar). Since 1995 the Bank of Staynes' Monetary Policy Committee, headed by the Governor of the Bank of Staynes, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Chancellor each year.

Great Morstaybishlia follows a free market model. Intellectual and physical property rights are respected. Businesses operate freely. There are some regulations to protect small businesses and poor households. Collective bargaining is legal. Overtime and leave days are guaranteed. There are laws to protect consumers from scams, unsafe products and excessive prices. There are taxes on the wealthy. There are some welfare programs to support the poor.

Great Morstaybishlia has a GDP of 14.43 trillion SHD. Great Morstaybishlia has a GDP per capita of 30 thousand SHD. The unemployment rate is at 6%, with the unemployment in South Staynes at 9%. The inflation rate is at 2.1%. The growth rate is at 1.8%. the MBE remains the top destination in Aurora for foreign direct investment at 412,650 million. The total value of investments made by Great Morstaybishlia to other nations is 345,150 million KRB. The MBE government recorded a government debt equivalent to 94.05 percent of the country's Gross Domestic Product in 2017. Poverty is defined as people who are in relative low income (less than 60 per cent of the national median average, or 18,060 KRB). The poverty rate is 14.07%. The Gini coefficient is 0.36 points.

The agricultural industry makes up 3% of the economy. The biggest sectors are grain, meat and dairy. The manufacturing industry makes up 17% of the economy. The biggest sectors are transportation equipment, industrial machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, electrical machinery, office machines and data processing equipment, power-generating machinery, organic chemicals, precision instruments, and iron and steel. The mining industry makes up 4% of the economy. The biggest manufacturer of electronics in the world, Primrose, originates from Fort Staynes in Great Morstaybishlia. The services sector makes up 52% of the economy. The biggest sectors are creative industries, education, health and social work, financial and business services, hotels and restaurants, public administration and defence, transport, storage and communication, wholesale and retail trade, real estate and renting activities and tourism. Great Morstaybishlia has the biggest financial sector in the world, Sani Bursil. The second largest bank in the world, LabiaTurtle Bank, originates from Great Morstaybishlia.

Great Morstaybishlia's biggest trade partners are the Caliphate, Axdel, Kuthernburg, the Gordic Council, The Oan Isles, Norgsveldet, Peregrinia, New Leganes, Mexregiona, Tuvaltastan and Aivintis. The biggest export products are petroleum products, chemicals, weaponry, automobiles, agricultural foodstuff, beverages (such as Hobsti Tea and Hobsti Wine), clay and timber. The biggest import products are scientific apparatus, optic fibres, uranium, pharmaceuticals, gold and sanitary.

Science and technology

Transport

BURAET Bullet train

The railway network of Morstaybishlia, which as of 2019 stretches 265,847 kilometres (165,190 mi) is the most extensive in Aurora. The rail network was privatised between 2005 and 2009, which was followed by a rapid rise in passenger numbers following years of decline, although the factors behind this are disputed. There's 3,945 kilometers (2,451 mi) of rail network in Justelvard and railways in Justelvard are operated by JV Railways, a subsidiary of state-owned TrainLink. High-speed trains include the Aurostar, the BURAET and Ethaline trains, which travels at 320 km/h (199 mph) in commercial use. Since privatization in 2005 to 2009, dozens of Staynish railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets. Some 300 high-speed bullet trains connect major cities and these trains are known for their safety and punctuality. Great Morstaybishlia also has the LOOP, a hyperlink trainline that connects across Aurora and is the largest continuous train line ever built.

The Aurostar runs all across Aurora; BURAET literally means Bursil to Aeternum and connects the two capitals whilst also travelling through other major conurbations. Rail connections exist to all other neighboring countries in Aurora, except Dragonia. Intra-urban connections are also well developed with both underground services (Sani Bursil, Redrugus, Kirdintayos, Aeternum, Lambertupol, Fort Jubrayn) and tramway services (Sani Bursil, Eskrador, Valeron, Imbazdu, Kasidura and others) complementing bus services.

Morstaybishlian Air is one of the biggest airlines in the world

There are approximately 9,265,190 kilometres (5,757,122 mi) of serviceable roadway in Morstaybishlia, ranking it the most extensive network in the world. The Sani Bursil region is enveloped with the most dense network of roads and highways that connect it with virtually all parts of the country. Morstaybishlian roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighboring North Ethalria, Durentrus, Sarentria, Tivot, Volova, Tuvaltastan, Valerica, Rosalica and Asilica. The MBE has an annual motoring taxation; however, most motorways are free to use. The new car market is dominated by domestic brands such as Audelli (18% of cars sold in Morstaybishlia in 2010), Kentora (17.5%) and Mambeck (15.2%). Over 65% of new cars sold in 2013 had diesel engines, far more than contained petrol or LPG engines.

There are 4,176 airports in Great Morstaybishlia. Fort Jubrayn Airport, located on the outskirts of Fort Jubrayn, is the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic and connecting to virtually all major cities across the world. Morstaybishlian Air is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services such as Jubrayn Airlines and Limhay Travel. Great Morstaybishlia handled a total of 1.256 billion passengers in 2018. There are twelve major ports in Great Morstaybishlia, the largest of which is in Fort Jubrayn Aeternum, which also are the second and third-largest bordering the Morstaybishlian Sea behind Tarov. 110,349 kilometres (68,567 mi) of waterways traverse Morstaybishlia including the Anker River, which connects many of the interior Staynish cities to the West Sea, and the Jubliak River which connects Sani Bursil to the Morstaybishlian Sea.

Energy

In 2014, Great Morstaybishlia was the world's second-largest consumer of energy and the largest producer. The MBE is home to a number of large energy companies, including one oil and gas "supermajor" – Embask. In 2018, 37 per cent of the MBE's electricity was produced by gas, 35 per cent by nuclear power, 20 per cent by coal and 8 per cent by wind, hydro, biofuels and wastes.

Water supply and sanitation

Access to improved water supply and sanitation in the MBE is universal. It is estimated that 97.1 per cent of households are connected to the sewer network. According to the Government Agency for the Environment (GAE), total water abstraction for public water supply in the MBE was 126,750 megalitres per day in 2009. Drinking water standards and wastewater discharge standards in the MBE are formerly determined by the UNAC.

In metropolitan MBE, water and sewerage services are provided by 37 private regional water and sewerage companies and 29 mostly smaller private "water only" companies. In Justelvard water and sewerage services are provided by a single public company, Justelvard Water.

Demographics

Cities in Great Morstaybishlia by size

Great Morstaybishlia is estimated to have a population of 479,569,512 as of the 28th March 2020, making it the second most populous country in the world behind Packilvania. It has an urban population of 402,203,446 (83.89%), of which 195,988,627 (40.89%) is urban cities and 206,214,819 (43%) is urban towns. Barkoln is the most populous province, as the mean centre of Great Morstaybishlia's population has consistently shifted to the Cradle of Aurora. Sani Bursil is the most populous city, followed by Aeternum and Kirdintayos. Great Morstaybishlia has a rural population of 77,366,066 (16.11%).

The total fertility rate in Great Morstaybishlia estimated for 2020 is 2.4 children per woman, which is above the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1. The Great Morstaybishlia Census Bureau shows a population increase of 3% for the twelve-month period ending in September 2014. This is considerably high by industrialised country standards, being above the world average annual rate of 1.1%.

There were about 274.16 million females in Great Morstaybishlia in 2020. The number of men was 205.4 million. At age 85 and older, there were almost twice as many women as men (6.1 million vs. 3.3 million). People under 21 years of age made up over 101.66 million of the MBE's population (27.2%), and people age 65 and over made up 69.53 million (14.5%). The national median age was 38.2 years in 2020.

Whites constitute the majority of Great Morstaybishlia's population, with a total of 438.94 million or 91.53% of the population as of 2020. Non-Ethal or Non-Kostuv whites make up 76% of the country's population. Despite major changes due to immigration since the 1950s, and the higher birth-rates of nonwhites, the overall current majority of Morstaybishlian citizens are still white, and Staynish-speaking, though regional differences exist.

Great Morstaybishlian provinces by population density; in this map it is clear which provinces of South Staynes the Zycannes mountain range pass through.

The Morstaybishlian population almost quadroupled during the 20th century—at a growth rate of about (?)% a year—from about 90.2 million in 1900 to 381 million in 2000. It reached the 300 million mark in 1978, and the 400 million mark on the 26th of May 2007. According to the Census Bureau's estimation for 2015, 29.7% of Morstaybishlian children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.

Other Aurorans accounted for 24% of the national population growth of 4 million between the 1st of September 2011, and the 1st of September 2012.

The Census Bureau projects a MBE population of 500 million in 2025, a (?)% increase from (?) ((?) million).

The average population density of Great Morstaybishlia is 81 people per square kilometer. On average, Justelvard and South Staynes are the densest constituent countries with 102.99 and 98.13 people per square kilometer respectively. On the other end of the spectrum Caltharus and Staynes are less dense with 80.61 and 69.12 people per square kilometer. The Sani Bursil metropolitan area is the densest region of the MBE with 9,859.37 people per square kilometer and the province of Jubrionas is the sparsest with 6.87 people per square kilometer. Six of the top ten largest provinces by population density are from South Staynes, including Kladnes, which has a population density of 655.77 people per square kilometer and Kalidest, which has a population density of 645.46 people per square kilometer; the latter is where the capital Kirdintayos of South Staynes is. Justelvard observes the most even spread of population density by province, the densest province is Isekaiou with 534.51 people per square kilometer and the sparsest is the Western Outliers with 73.36 people per square kilometer.

Ethnic groups

Former table tennis world champion Berowalt Penn is an example of a southern Auroran with fair skin.

Historically, indigenous Morstaybishlian people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled around the north coast of Aurora around 40 to 50 thousand BC: the Jubrites, Maltites and Kosites, who are thought to be the direct descendants of the Strathepolic people and the oldest ethnic group in the Aurora. A 2012 genetic study shows that more than 35% of the Morstaybishlian gene pool contains Salovian Y and Ethalrian Y chromosomes. Another 2015 genetic analysis indicates that "about 73% of the traceable ancestors of the modern Staynish population had arrived in the Staynish lands by about 10 thousand years ago, at the start of the Maltervenian Neolithic or Stone Age", and that the Staynish broadly share a common ancestry with the Axdelian people. A separate study conducted in South Staynes found that only 30% of the gene pool contains the broad plethora of Morstaybishlian genes, with the rest coming from either West or East Aurora. South Staynes was one of the last areas on Aurora to be truly inhabited by humans as the Zycannes prevented the immediate habitation and thus the descendants from the Kosites who traveled eastward eventually migrated to the Southern-Central Auroran coast and more specifically South Staynes.

A bride and groom from Morstaybishlia who have the most common skin colour, found native to north Staynes and Caltharus.

Justelvard sits on the remaining land area of the Strathepolic archipelago and it is believed that over 90% of Auroran's ancestry originate here. A large land bridge extending from west-Justelvard to Bai Lung and then to the Staynish-Caltharusian border became the premier travelway of the two continents after the early submerging of a land bridge from Peregrinia through the Morstaybishlian West Pacific Territories and the Oan Isles connecting to the easternmost Auroran coastline. The Strathepolic people mainly lived in and around the northern Strathepolic ridge but migrated southwards during its erosion to strong Pacific currents. A study found that Jussie genes are closely comparable of those genes thought to be pure-Morstaybishlian.

Since the mid to late 19th century and the early 20th century substantial immigration from the Gordic Council and the Kuthern Commonwealth, the Caliphate, and Overseas Territories has been a legacy of ties forged by the Morstaybishlian Empire. Migration from UNAC (formerly ACA) member states in Western and Eastern Aurora since 2017 has resulted in growth in these population groups, although some of this migration has been temporary. Since the 2000s, there has been substantial diversification of the immigrant population, with migrants to the MBE coming from a much wider range of countries than previous waves, which tended to involve larger numbers of migrants coming from a relatively small number of countries.

Ethnic diversity varies significantly across Great Morstaybishlia. Just over 26% (11 million) of Sani Bursil's population and 25% of Aternum's was estimated to be non-white in 2017, whereas less than 5% of the populations of western-Caltharus, north South Staynes and central Staynes were from ethnic minorities, according to the 2017 census. In 2016, 28.8% of primary and 26.4% of secondary pupils at state schools in Staynes were members of an ethnic minority. The 1997 census was the first MBE census to have a question on ethnic group. In the 1997 MBE census 92.8% of people reported themselves as being White Morstaybishlian or White Other with 7.2% of people reporting themselves as coming from other minority groups.

During the early 20th century at the outbreak of the Great War, Packilvanian migrants came in waves amounting up to nearly five million. After the war, Ethalrian and Salovian migrants numbered nearly 920,000. Staynes has had small Asatru community for many centuries, subject to occasional expulsions, but Staynish Asatru's numbered fewer than 16,000 at the end of the 1910s. During the Noroist Movements pre-independent Norograd, then part of the Empire, resulted in nearly two million people migrating to the fatherland. After the Auroran-Imperial War, there was significant immigration from the colonies and newly independent former colonies, many from Lokania and independent South Staynes, partly as a legacy of empire and partly driven by labour shortages.

Languages

The Staynish alphabet

Great Morstaybishlia's de facto official language is Staynish and Calth. As a first language, it is estimated that 90.7 percent of the MBE's population speak Staynish, whilst 3.5 percent speak Ethalrian, 3 percent speak Calth, 0.7 percent speaks Horkalic, 0.7 percent speaks Salovian, 0.3 percent speak Axdan and 1.1 percent speak other languages as a first language.

4 percent of the population are estimated to speak languages brought to the MBE as a result of relatively recent immigration. Yasterian languages, including Packilvanian, Wachovian, Codexian and Asendavian, are the largest grouping and are spoken by 2.5 percent of the MBE population. According to the 2017 census, Ethalrian is the largest non-Morstaybishlian-Auroran language spoken in Morstaybishlia and has 14.3 million speakers.

There are two recognized regional languages spoken across Great Morstaybishlia: Horkalic and Justelvardic. They are recognized as regional or minority languages, by the United Nations of the Auroran Continent, under the Auroran Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. As it is a UNAC member state, this therefore obliges the Great Morstaybishlian government to provide them specific measures of protection and promotion.

In the 2017 Census over a forth (25.6%) of the population of the Province of Horkalo said they could speak Horkalic, an increase from the 2007 Census (23%). In addition it is estimated that about 200,000 Horkalese speakers live elsewhere in Staynes. Over 492,000 people in Justelvard (just 3% of the population) had varying Reoa language ability, including 66% of those living on the eastern islands. The number of schoolchildren being taught through minority languages are increasing.

It is compulsory for Staynish and Caltharusian pupils to study the Staynish and Calth languages up to the age of 16 in their respective countries, whilst only Staynish is taught in South Staynes and Justelvardic is taught with Staynish in Justelvard. During Sixth Form is it optional to learn a foreign language, Kostuvian and Axdan are the two most commonly taught foreign languages in Staynes and Caltharus.

Religion

Collegiate Church of Saint Matilda at Syllester is the Thaerist Cathedral in Redrugus, known worldwide for coronations of Morstaybishlian sovereigns from as early as the 15th century and the location of all royal weddings since 1897.
Typical necklace of faith worn by Thaerists.

Thaerism has dominated religious life in what is now Great Morstaybishlia for over 1200 years. Although a majority of citizens still identify with Thaerism in many surveys, regular temple attendance has fallen dramatically since the late 19th century, while immigration and demographic change have contributed to the growth of other faiths, most notably Pax Islam. This has led some commentators to variously describe Great Morstaybishlia as a multi-faith or secularised.

In the 2019 census 65.2 per cent of all respondents indicated that they were Thaerists, with the next largest faiths being Paxism (4 per cent), Vaerism (3.2 per cent), Varism (0.6 per cent), Asatru (0.3 per cent), Ademarism (0.2 per cent) and all other religions (0.3 per cent). 20.8 per cent of respondents stated that they had no religion, with a further 5.4 per cent not stating a religious preference. Vaerism holds a religious stronghold in the Nocturne province of Caltharus with over 87% of Morstaybishlians practicing Vaerism living there.

The state recognises religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making. Certain groups are considered cults and therefore do not have the same status as recognised religions in Great Morstaybishlia. Cults are considered a pejorative term in Great Morstaybishlia.

Education

Education in Great Morstaybishlia is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system.

Considering the four systems together, about 40 per cent of Great Morstaybishlia's population has a university or college degree, which is the highest percentage in Aurora, and among the highest percentages in the world. Great Morstaybishlia trails only to South Hills in terms of representation on lists of top 100 universities.

A government commission's report in 2014 found that privately educated people comprise 8% of the general population of the MBE but much larger percentages of the top professions, the most extreme case quoted being 70% of senior judges.

In Staynes, Caltharus and South Staynes, it is compulsory for all primary and secondary schools to have a uniform, whilst in Justelvard most schools do not have a compulsory uniform policy in place. A school uniform typically consists of a blazer in the school colours or a white shirt or blouse; a tie, trousers or skirt in a black, grey, or blue and black shoes. It could also be a shirt, sweater, and tie or a polo shirt and a sweatshirt.

Healthcare

Healthcare in Great Morstaybishlia is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health care, together with alternative, holistic and complementary treatments. Public healthcare is provided to all MBE permanent residents and is mostly free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. The UNAC, in 2019, ranked the provision of healthcare in Great Morstaybishlia as best in Aurora and fourth in the world. Since 1975 expenditure on healthcare has been increased significantly to bring it closer to the highest world standards. The MBE spends around 7 per cent of its gross domestic product on healthcare, which is about one and a half percentage points lower than the average of the United Nations of the Auroran Continent.

Regulatory bodies are organised on a MBE-wide basis such as the General Medical Council, the Nursing and Midwifery Council and non-governmental-based, such as the Royal Colleges. However, political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives; healthcare in Staynes and Caltharus is the responsibility of the Morstaybishlian Government; healthcare in South Staynes is the responsibility of the South Staynish Assembly, and healthcare in Justelvard is the responsibility of the Justelvardic Assembly.

Culture

The culture of Great Morstaybishlia has been influenced by many factors including: the nation's Auroran status; its history as a western liberal democracy and as a superpower; as well as being a political union of four countries with each preserving elements of distinctive traditions, customs and symbolism. As a result of the Morstaybishlian Empire, Morstaybishlian influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former and current colonies including Kuthernburg, Louzaria, New Calthia, Axdel, Joralesia, Atiland, Lokania, Vivancantadia, Rodenia and parts of Peregrinia and The Oan Isles. The substantial cultural influence of Great Morstaybishlia has led it to be described as a "cultural superpower". A global opinion poll for the MBC saw Great Morstaybishlia ranked the third most positively viewed nation in the world (behind West Cerdani and Peregrinia) in 2014 and 2015.

Literature

Riannius Belver, the founding father of Morstaybishlian literature

The earliest Morstaybishlian literature dates from the early Middle Ages during the Second Interregnum Period, when what is now known as modern Staynes did not have a single, uniform language. There was several languages and dialects, and writers used their own spelling and grammar. During the Middle Staynish language period, most literature was written in the same language except for splinter dialects in what is now Horkalo and South Staynes.

Much medieval Staynish poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of Pip the Gallant and his predecessors in the Kingdom of Staynnica. Other medieval poetry and literature hailing from Caltharus depicts the legendary Colonarius and other historical military figures.

After the printing press was introduced in Caltharus and later Staynes in 1475, vernacular literature flourished. During this period, theatrical playwrights portrayed romances, tragedies, comedies and histories became very common. Morstaybishlian literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries where things like arts, sciences, languages and philosophy were very popular as well as children's fairy tales becoming widespread. The age of reason bought with it a rational and scientific approach to religious, social, political and economic issues that promoted a secular view of the world and a general sense of progress and perfectibility. Led by the philosophers who were inspired by the discoveries of the previous century they sought to discover and to act upon universally valid principles governing humanity, nature, and society. They variously attacked spiritual and scientific authority, dogmatism, intolerance, censorship, and economic and social restraints. They considered the state the proper and rational instrument of progress. The extreme rationalism and skepticism of the age led naturally to deism and also played a part in bringing the later reaction of romanticism.

The Romantic period was one of major social change in Staynes (at the time included South Staynes) and Caltharus, because of the depopulation of the countryside and the rapid development of overcrowded industrial cities, that took place in the period roughly between 1750 and 1850. The movement of so many people in Staynes and Caltharus was the result of two forces: the Agricultural Revolution, that involved the Enclosure of the land, drove workers off the land, and the Industrial Revolution which provided them employment. Romanticism may be seen in part as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, though it was also a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, as well a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.

During the reigns of Florence II, Frederick III and Rosamund II (1810-1897) the novel became the leading literary genre in Staynish. Women played an important part in this rising popularity both as authors and as readers. Satirical novels and plays were very common. Poetry of this era was heavily influenced by the romantics, but also went off in its own directions. Particularly notable was the development of dramatic monologue, a form used by many poets in this period. Drama changed in this period with a profusion on Bursil stage of farces, musical burlesques, extravaganzas and comic operas.

Morstaybishlian literary modernism developed in the early twentieth-century out of a general sense of disillusionment with previous attitudes of certainty, conservatism and belief in the idea of objective truth. Fine writers still existed into this period.

The modernist movement continued through the 1920s, 1930s and beyond. An important development, beginning in the 1930s and 1940s was a tradition of working class novels actually written by working-class background writers. Post-modernism started in the late 1940s and early 1950s which is a continuation of the experimentation championed by writers of the modernist period (relying heavily, for example, on fragmentation, paradox, questionable narrators, etc.) and a reaction against Enlightenment ideas implicit in Modernist literature. Postmodern literature, like postmodernism as a whole, is difficult to define and there is little agreement on the exact characteristics, scope, and importance of postmodern literature.

Many works published in the twentieth-century were examples of genre fiction. This designation includes the crime novels, spy novel, historical romance, fantasy, graphic novel and science fiction.

Architecture

A traditional Manou architecture building in Marlou, Justelvard.

On continental Auroran, the architecture of Great Morstaybishlia has a long, rich and diverse history. Every major Auroran style from Maltervenic to Postmodern is represented, including renowned examples of Maltesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Modern and International Style architecture.

Justelvard deviates the most from this theme; it has a wide array of modern colonial architecture and themes of pre-colonial vernacular architecture. The houses are at the centre of a web of customs, taboos, traditional laws, social relations, myths and religions that bind communities together. Pre colonial houses would have provided the main focus for the family and its community, and is the point of departure for many activities of its residents. Villagers build their own homes, or a community will pool their resources for a structure built under the direction of a master builder or carpenter.

Hamasin's Wall, a historic border-wall with the Kormistazic Empire created in c.200 BCE by the First Maltervenian Empire, which stretches across the Molvian Corridor.

Throughout history, large swathes of land separate Great Morstaybishlia into different kingdoms and provinces, causing great regional diversity and favoured vernacular architecture. This made for a heterogeneous and diverse architectural style, with architecture differing from town to town. While this diversity may still be witnessed in small towns, the devastation of architectural heritage in the larger cities of some regions during the Great War and Auroran Imperial War resulted in extensive rebuilding characterised by simple modernist architecture.

For over several thousand years, the Maltervenic Empire in its largest extent encompassed most of modern Staynes, and thus its architecture holds great significance today. In addition to border fortifications such as walls, forts and military camps, the Maltites also built thermae, bridges, and amphitheatres. One of the more famous examples of Maltervenian architecture is Hamasin's Wall, a several-hundred kilometer long wall that extends within the Molvian Corridor from the Montinay, at the West Sea to Mount Molvia.

Nurban University auditorium, a prime example of Western Style Renaissance.
Visteue Royal Palace, the largest palace erected in Aurora during the 18th century is an example of Baroque architecture.

The Maltesque period, from the 10th to the early 13th century, is characterised by semi-circular arches, robust appearance, small paired windows, and groin vaults.

Gothic architecture flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Maltesque architecture. The first Gothic buildings in Morstaybishlia were built from about 1240, for example Syllester Abbey (c. 1260), which is the most important early Gothic cathedrals in Morstaybishlia and falls into the architectural tradition of the Auroran Gothic.

Renaissance architecture belongs to the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different parts of Aurora and the world, when there was a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Maltervenian thought and culture. In the Staynish provinces of Redrugan, Surbila and Hyridia there are numerous castles and manor houses that made up the Western Style.

Terminal One at Sani Bursil Capital Airport is an example of modern architecture.

Baroque architecture began in the early 17th century, reinventing the humanist vocabulary of Renaissance architecture in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the courts, and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Thaerist Church to reform itself in response to the Vaerist Reformation in the south of the continent.

Classicism arrived in Morstaybishlia in the second half of the 18th century. It drew inspiration from the classical architecture of antiquity and was a reaction against the Baroque style, in both architecture and landscape design.

The distinctive character of modern architecture is the elimination of unnecessary ornament from a building and faithfulness to its structure and function. It developed early in the 20th century and adopted by many influential architects and architectural educators. Although few "modern buildings" were built in the first two thirds of the 20th century, after the Auroran Imperial War it became the dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings for four decades. Almost all skyscrapers are modernist, with some such examples as the Damehowe and Primrose headquarter buildings.

Music

The Ocarina originated from Morstaybishlia

Throughout its history, Great Morstaybishlian has been a major producer and source of musical creation, drawing its artistic basis from the history of Great Morstaybishlia.

Each of the four countries of Great Morstaybishlia has its own diverse and distinctive folk music forms. Folk music flourished until the era of industrialisation when it began to be replaced by new forms of popular music, including music hall and brass bands. Realisation of this led to three folk revivals, one in the late-19th century, one in the mid-20th century and one at the start of the 21st century which keeps folk music as an important sub-culture within society.

Forms of popular music, including folk music, jazz, rapping/hip hop, pop and rock music, have particularly flourished in Great Morstaybishlia since the twentieth century. Morstaybishlia has influenced popular music disproportionately to its size, due to its linguistic and cultural links with many countries, particularly Peregrinia and Emberwood Coast and many of its former colonies, and its capacity for invention, innovation and fusion, which has led to the development of, or participation in, many of the major trends in popular music. In the early-20th century, influences from Peregrinia and Free Pacific States became most dominant in popular music, with young performers producing their own versions of South East Yasterian music, including rock n' roll from the late 1950s and developing a parallel music scene. This is particularly true since the early 1960s when the Morstaybishlian Invasion, led by The Swallows, helped to secure Morst performers a major place in development of pop and rock music. Since then, rock music and popular music contributed to a Morst-SEY collaboration, with genres being exchanged and exported to one another, where they tended to be adapted and turned into new movements, only to be exported back again. Genres originating in or radically developed by Morstaybishlian musicians include blues rock, heavy metal, progressive rock, ska, hard rock, punk rock, Bhangra, Morst folk rock, folk punk, acid jazz, trip hop, shoegaze, drum and bass, goth rock, grime, afroswing, Morstpop, Industrial and dubstep.

Visual art

Cinema

Cuisine

Frog in the Pit (Sausage Toad) with broccoli

Morstaybishlian cuisine is the heritage of cooking traditions and practices associated with Great Morstaybishlia. Although Morstaybishlia has a rich indigenous culinary tradition, its colonial history has profoundly enriched its native cooking traditions. Morst cuisine absorbed the cultural influences of its post-colonial territories – in particular those of the Concordian Ocean area.

Some traditional meals, such as bread and cheese, roasted and stewed meats, meat and game pies, boiled vegetables and broths, fruit pies, and freshwater and saltwater fish have ancient origins.

Hobstiberry pie, Morstaybishlia's most famous sweet dish

Morstaybishlian cooking has been influenced by foreign ingredients and cooking styles since the Middle Ages. Squid baguettes (formerly known as squid breads) were introduced from New Leganes and adapted to Morst tastes from the eighteenth century. Acronian cuisine influenced Morst recipes throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries, most notably Sevišala. After the rationing of the Great War, Packilvanian cuisine became heavily popular, featuring meals which mainly featured rice with easy to cultivate root vegetables and pea variants. Another popular Packilvanian dish was Tajine when meats became more easily available.

Roast lamb with roasted roots and coriander, a common national dish

Some of the most popular savoury dishes that originated from Great Morstaybishlia include Sausage toad (Frog in the Pit), Roast Lamb with roast roots and coriander, Pasty, and pies of all sorts, including but not limited to Chicken and mushroom pie, Steak and kidney pie, Fish pie and Morst pie.

In addition to its wine tradition, Great Morstaybishlia is also a major producer of beer and whiskey. The three main Morstaybishlian brewing regions are Oglota (55% of national production), Calthia and Surbila. Morstaybishlia produces whiskey via distilleries located on islands such as Frorkstolm, the West Pacific Territories and the Seligeze Islands.

Some popular sweet dishes that originated in Great Morstaybishlia include Hobstiberry pie, Banoffee pie, Trifle and Chocolate and walnut pie. Hobstiberry pie was quick to spread around Urth due to the cultivation of hobstiberries across the Morstaybishlian Empire, and its simplicity to make.

Media

The MBC, founded in 1917, is Great Morstaybishlia's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. It operates numerous television and radio stations in the MBE and abroad and its domestic services are funded by the television licence. Other major players in the MBE media include STV- a media conglomerate of national broadcasters and newspapers, and the CTV, who themselves dominate the media scene in Caltharus since the 1930s. Sani Bursil dominates the media sector in the MBE: national newspapers and television and radio are largely based there, although Aeternum is also a significant national media centre. Kirdintayos and Valeron, and Port Makuh, are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in South Staynes and Justelvard respectively. The MBE publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover of around £141 billion and employs around 1.1 million people.

Philosophy

Morstaybishlian philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in the Staynish language, has been extremely diverse and has influenced Auroran philosophy as a whole for centuries, from the medieval scholasticism of Redmund von Kitelrus, through the founding of modern philosophy by Walter Vergassas, to 20th century philosophy of science, existentialism, phenomenology, structuralism, and postmodernism.

Sport

Camp Venna, the home to Bursil F.C. is an icon of Morstaybishlian football

Association football is the most popular sport in Morstaybishlia, varieties of which have been played in Morstaybishlia as far back as Maltervenic times, sport in Morstaybishlia has been dominated by football since the late 19th century. Bursil F.C. and Celidizia F.C. are two of the most successful football clubs in the world. With more than 40.3 million official members, the Morstaybishlian Football Association is the largest single-sport organisation worldwide, and the Morstaybishlian top league, the Morstaybishlian Premier League (MPL), attracts the highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world.

Through its constituent countries, Great Morstaybishlia has hosted the Men's World Cup four times; Staynes hosted it in 1952, 1968 and 1992 and Caltharus hosted it in 1960 and will also host the 2024 World Cup. Staynes has had the most success, winning the world cup three times in 1960, 1964 and 1992, a record that is tied with Asendavia, New Leganes and Vultuca. Caltharus has also won a world cup in 1968. Combined, the constituent countries of Great Morstaybishlia has placed either second or third nine times. South Staynes has had limited success, placing third place twice in 1984 and 1996.

Great Morstaybishlia is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like Royal Redrugus and Kerpten are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Morstaybishlia came first place in the 2019 GT3 Championships in Blueacia and will compete again in the 2021 GT3 Championships. The Morstaybishlian oil and gas company Embask is the lead sponsor for the GT3 Championships from the 2019 season.

Today, Great Morstaybishlia is a major world sports powerhouse, with major sports in Morstaybishlia including tennis, rugby union, rugby league, boxing, martial arts, swimming and other aquatic sports. In their respective provinces, Horkalic Handball and Dovian Cage Orangutan Fighting, the latter which dates back to Maltervenic times, are popular.

Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Morstaybishlian culture, with morning exercises widely practiced, and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs popular across the country.

Symbolism

The flag of Great Morstaybishlia is the Empire Flag. It was created in 1517 by culminating the design features from both the Flag of Staynes and the Flag of Caltharus. Being former colonies, South Staynes and Justelvard have no unique flag designs and have any option of redesigning the flag to represent the two other nations has been ruled out.

The Golden Rose of Staynes originated as the prominent symbolism of the kings and queens of Staynnica, which later became a symbol for national sovereignty and pride of the Staynish peoples. It's present across flags of the realm as well as in company logos and sport clubs and other advertising and logo styles.

The heraldic lion is quite common around the world, and several countries incorporate it into their national coats of arms. In Calthian heraldry, the lion is first found in the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Caltharus in the later part of the 11th century.

Public holidays and festivals

Public holidays celebrated in Great Morstaybishlia include a mix of religious (Thaerism), national and regional observances. Each country is allowed to declare a maximum of 13 public holidays per year; up to 11 of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. Morstaybishlia's national day (Unity Day) is 11 January, the anniversary of the Union of the Thrones between Staynes and Caltharus and celebrate Lambertus the Great's feast.

There are many festivals and festivities in Morstaybishlia. Some of them are known worldwide, and every year millions of people from all over the world go to Morstaybishlia to experience one of these festivals. The most well known is Week of the Empire, celebrating the achievements of the Morstaybishlian Empire over a period of a week (seven days) between 9 and 15 November.

Name Date Remarks
New Year's Day 1 January Celebrates the beginning of the Gregorian New Year
Unity Day 11 January This national holiday was established to celebrate the Union of Staynes and Caltharus and to hold a great feast
International Women's Day 8 March This national holiday was established to commemorate the brave history of women around the world
Sovereign Day 26 April This national holiday was established in 1803 after the death of Rosamund I to celebrate the birthday of the incumbent sovereign, currently Lambertus VII
Labour Day 1 May This national holiday was established to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers across the world
Winter Celebration Day 21 June From 1980, by Royal Proclamation, this day celebrates the winter solstice
Thaer's Day 15 August Traditional common law holiday
Prophet Matilda's Day 3 September Traditional feast day of the Prophet Matilda
Peace Day 24 October Statutory bank holiday from 2018, celebrates peace in Aurora which is marked by the end of the Auroran-Pacific War
Summer Celebration Day 21 December From 1980, by Royal Proclamation, this day celebrates the summer solstice
Old Year's Day 31 December Celebrates the ending of the Gregorian Year