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Urth has a large variety of sapient species that have each evolved to a general parity in physicality, intelligence, and problem-solving skills. Many societies are made up of many species, while others are nearly exclusive to only one or several. It is not uncommon for certain species to oppress others though there is no pattern of oppression; many species are victims in some countries while being the aggressors in others. The classification and evolution of the bipedal mammals has been heavily contested for decades and there is little agreement. One theory purports that all bipedal mammals belong to the clade Bipedaliforma.
Classification and evolutionary history
The full evolutionary history of most of the sapient species is not well document or widely agreed. This in part is due to the incredibly long history, diverse environments and conflicting ideologies and beliefs.
The bipedal sapient mammals have been the subject of controversy for hundreds of years. Some of the theories in this area include:
- The Unified Bipedalism theory suggests that there is a suborder called Bipedaliforma of the Order Omnivora which which consists of a single extant infra order called Ambidactyliforma in which all of the extant bipedal mammals are classified. This is because all of these animals have the following unifying traits: Bipedalism (they predominantly walk upright), opposable thumbs (they have hands on at least their forelegs or arms with three to six phalanges of which the thumb can move in a wide range of angles), they are highly social, sapient (self aware, intelligent, creative, capable of complex language and critical thinking), and have external ears. This theory has not gained widespread support.
- The Dwelf Theory Model of Species offers another perspective, stemming from the current compatibility of species as well as the notable similarities between several sapient bipeds and other animals. It argues that sapience, as it evolved within the protist Adliausora metamorphogenicus (known commonly as a slime or symbiote), evolved separately in multiple distantly related species, with the evolution of bipedalism in the life-history omnivore ancestor to Amphoids being used as evidence towards the prospect that mammalian sapients do not necessarily have to be part of the same order as suggested by Unified Bipedalism unless they have some compatibility to produce offspring with other sapients, ascribing species such as Ailurines to the Order Carnivora to better reflect similarities with other members of the order.
Other non-scientific or pseudoscientifc theories include:
- Creationism: This theory is found in religions such as but not limited to Paxism, Thaerism, Akronism, Tunseism and Verk'ohism, as well as those who believe that the universe is a simulation, which states that a deity or universal force created sapient beings and imbued them with sapient properties.
- Creative Evolution: Is also found in mostly but not exclusively religious circles whereby an external force such as a deity or universal spirit etc. directed the natural evolution of living things to bring about the emergence of sapient beings.
- Extraterrestrial Origin: This suggests that one or more advanced extraterrestrial civilisations created sapient beings to populate the planet. Various explanations for motivations and methods have been suggested, although they are rife with speculation and conspiracy.
Different species are capable of breeding with each other, though the offspring are often infertile. Such mingling between species can be frowned upon in some societies, while being completely acceptable in others. Similarly, it is not unheard of for relationships to develop between biologically incompatible individuals, who may either consider alternative methods such as adoption or simply accept childlessness. The ability for some species to create fertile, viable offspring with others has led to academic circles in certain nations proposing that they are different variants of the same species, similar to dog breeds, and not separate species per the biological principle of speciation. Others still propose that speciation is refuted by the presence of these multispecies crosses. A list of known crossbreeding outcomes can be expanded below.
|Dwarves||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Dwarves (Fertile)||Dwelves (Infertile)||Incompatible||Half-Dwarf (Fertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible||Neko Dwarves (Infertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible|
|Elves||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Dwelves (Infertile)||Elves (Fertile)||Incompatible||Half-Elf (Fertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible||Neko Elves (Infertile)||Orlves (infertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible|
|Humans||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Half-Dwarf (Fertile)||Half-Elf (Fertile)||Incompatible||Humans (Fertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible||Half-Neko (Fertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible|
|Nekomimi||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Neko Dwarves (Infertile)||Neko Elves (Infertile)||Incompatible||Half-Neko (Fertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible||Nekomimi (Fertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible|
|Orcs||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Orlves (infertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Orcs (Fertile)||Incompatible||Orflings (Fertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible|
|Tieflings||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Incompatible||Orflings (Fertile)||Incompatible||Tieflings (Fertile)||Incompatible||Incompatible|
List of species
The priminid group includes a number of species which possess a shared origin and thus have a number of common characteristics. Species classified under this group are physically defined by their very low fur coverage and density, flat ape-like faces, plantigrade ambulation, omnivorous diet, opposable thumbs, relatively small teeth and jaw (except for orcs who possess long mandibular canines known as tusks), and in some cases the ability to interbreed. Another name used for species in this group is "hominid" and it is used interchangeably with "priminid". Sometimes the term Primine is used to refer to the entire Priminid/Hominid group whole in other cases it only applies to Elves, Humans and Dwarves (and occasionally Orcs).
There are several theories about the classification of the species in this group as follows:
- One Genus Theory: The One Genus theory suggests that Tieflings, Humans, Elves, Dwarves, Orcs and Nekomimi are part of the same genus called Primus (or something similar). Under this theory Humans, Elves, Orcs and Dwarves are in the same species, Primus primus, and are referred to as the True Primines while Tieflings and Nekomimi are placed in the Species Primus buccinus and Primus nekomimi. The actual binomial nomenclature is not universally agreed upon however this theory in general has the most support among scientists and the international community.
- Two Infrafamilies Theory: The Two Infrafamilies theory suggests that Tieflings and Nekomimi should be moved to the Infrafamily Caudininae because they possess tails while Orcs, Humans, Elves and Dwarves should be grouped in the Infrafamily Anacaudininae. Furthermore, this theory states that Tieflings should be placed in the tribe Buccinae because they have horns while Nekomimi should be placed under Aurescattus because they have cat-like ears. This theory is a fringe theory that has failed to attract significant support.
Humans are by far the most populous species on Urth, as well as the most widely distributed. According to the Unified Bipedalism Theory, humans belong to the species Primus primus homo in the subfamily Priminiforma. Humans reside on every continent on Urth except Sempiterna and can live in almost any biome. Humans are believed to have originally evolved in Arcturia, but had spread to all continents on the planet before the advent of written history. Humans exhibit a wide variety of skin pigmentation, hair texture, hair color, eye color, and other physical features. Skin pigmentation is primarily a factor of exposure to the Sun. Humans typically live between 60 and 90 years long, and average just under six feet tall for all genders.
Elves are believed to share the most recent common ancestor with humans of any sapient species on Urth, and appear largely identical to humans except for their characteristic pointed ears. According to the Unified Bipedalism Theory, Elvines belong to the Primus primus dryadalis species in the Priminiforma subfamily. Elves are also taller on average than humans, and while elves across Urth exhibit large variation in lifespans, a key identifier of elves is their longer natural life span than humans. At the far end of the spectrum, Kaohlat elves live an average of 170 years, and Usprian elves can expect to live 200 years or more although life expectancy is affected by environmental and other factors as with any other species. Like humans, elves exist on all continents except for Sempiterna, and they demonstrate variety in external features like skin pigmentation or hair colour. The are some scientists who believe that elves originally evolved in central or western Yasteria.
There are several Xotikobiologically recognized sub-species of elves, however this recognition is not universal and the status and validity of subspecies among Elves remains contested as discussion on the topic continues, with competing models to describe in what way elves are subdivided amidst notable biological differences among members of the species. Some of the key debates that have been raised regarding the use of the term "sub-species" (what some models consider "sub-sub-species") is that similar classifications are not made for humans and other priminid, with a few scientists having gone so far as to use the term "scientific racism". Other scientists, however, note the disparity between the classification of elves and the generally accepted forms of scientific racism, in that there is significant biological differences in Elves - including the ability of tetrachromatic vision and vast differences in lifespan and reproductive capability which can not be seen in other Primoids. Given the complex biological nature of the Elven group and the social, economic and political issues that surround them, it is unlikely that a single answer will emerge in the foreseeable future.
Alkari elves are native to the regions of Alksearia and Balistria, but have a presence on most continents. One major distinction from other elven sub-species is the pronounced canine teeth. These developed over time as a result of the rich protein diet that is present in Alkari culture, and in the hardened fruit that they would consume.
Azral, commonly known as Azra (Kæzhyn: Az'ra) elves are native to Northeastern Borea and are found predominantly in Rohyca,Kæra'zna and northern Syrtænzna. Their small population is partially the result of the selective breeding done between Z'rei elves and Azral Elves in Kæra'zna. While some categorize them as difficult to distinguish from Z'rei in contemporary analysis, they bear much more light-greyish skin and hair pigmentation, as well as an extended lifespan averaging around 129 years.
Azral eyes contain a unique pigmentation which dampens Ultraviolet rays hitting the eye, notably effective in preventing the onset of photokeratitis, due to this - their eyes are most often shades of black, grey or pink, though can rarely present as red or hazel. Despite this they notably, in many cases, possess some degree of tetrachromatic vision found in their Z'rei relatives as well as the Usprian elves.
Another notable difference between Azra and other elves is a quirk in the Azra ability to sense heat. Relatively recently discovered was that Azra posses a considerably low amount of the warm-receipting protein TRPV1, known as the capsaicin receptor. This makes Azra elves considerably insensitive to not only chilli peppers, but generally hot temperatures and warm stimuli, which some Xotikobiologists have accredited to the lack of environmental need for warm receptors in Northern Borea against the necessity of cold-receptors, though such a theory remains hotly debated in the scientific community.
Cryrian elves are as much a cultural group as a subspecies. Once a dominant group in northwestern Novaris, particularly on the island of Älmark, their population has declined significantly since the Cryrian Conquest of the Isles. They are generally fair-skinned, with average natural lifespans that are near 200 years, which has engendered long cultural memories - Even today very oldest Cryrian elves may have personally known older family members who witnessed events of the 17th-century or earlier. This has allowed remnants of elven culture to survive in Cryria even despite the grievous losses suffered since the Conquest.
Chibian elves are native to Northeastern Gondwana, believed to have settled around the lakes Nyo and Leopold. They have notably more pointy ears and tend towards a darker skin pigmentation, being often copper or brownish - commonly referred to as akin to in tone as the bark of trees, with objectors to the term "Chibian" to describe a group of elves which do not identify as such giving rise to the reappopriation of the name Palmbark Elves - alongside a tendency towards darker hair. They are noticeably shorter than most elves, averaging just below the average human at 155.2cm for men and 153.5 for women due to their proportionally shorter forelegs. They are notable for a high content of rhodopsin within the rods of their eyes, which grants them a considerably better level of night vision than a majority of elves, despite not bearing the tetrachromatic vision possessed by others.
Another notable difference is in bone thickness, in which cortial bone - the outer layer of bone - is noticeably thicker amongst Chibian elves, believed to be due to decreased bone resportion (breaking down of bone tissue) which is theorized to be caused by a weakened ability to produce the Parathyroid hormone, which regulates the body's calcium concentration. This has led to Chibian elves being especially vulnerable to calcium deficiency, especially in the periods before dairy animals were brought to the region, a fact many have suggested as a possible cause for the use of almonds in traditional Chibian society as an alternate calcium source, with almond milk - made by simmering ground almonds in water - being notable as a common drink, also believed to have medicinal properties by some cultures in Northern Chibilaba. The lifespans of Chibian Elves average to around 90 to 95, though it is often argued this is due most to societal factors rather than a natural trait, with the likelihood of Chibian elves to suffer material deprivation being one of the highest amongst elf subspecies, especially in countries such as Hawa and Zawadi.
Kaohlat Elves, often known as Banto-Shamsian Elves for their main nations of origin, are a subspecies of elf that migrated south into Arcturia through the western islands, eventually settling in the nations of Banteay, Peragen, and Wed Shams. This is responsible for their name, which means Island-Hoppers in Banteayan. Kaohlat Elves are the majority species in both Banteay and Wed Shams, leading to the alternate name Banto-Shamsian. The Alkari-Tauríllien Subspecies diverged from the Kaohlat line around the area of modern-day Alksearia, with Taurílliener elves in particular crossing the ocean to New Leganes. Banto-Shamsian elves have an average lifespan of 170 years, an ear length of seven centimeters, and a 75% chance of heterochromia, possibly as a mutation in the original migratory Kaohlat population. Their eyes are typically brown, gold, or green, and their hair is always brown, although many groups dye their hair to specific colors. Like most elves, they have much slower growing body and facial hair, often none at all. Their eyes are almond-shaped, which, alongside heterochromia, is often the main indicator of Kaohlat heritage.
Kromma elves, also known as Krommosantic, Alvic or Yasteri-Alvic elves are native to the regions surrounding Alva and Western Yasteria. They bear notably shorter ears than average and are generally between 11 and 13 centimetres taller than the average elf. Despite this, they are considered to be hardy amongst elves, living on average 168 years - though not uncommon for some to reach into the 210s. They are generally of fair skin and often possess a low amount of melanin in their eyes, increasing the commonality of blue, green or grey irises in comparison to other elves.
It is theorized by some, including Dries G. Welph - creator of the Dwelf Theory Model of Species, that Kromma Elves are the closest of elven subspecies to the shared elven ancestor, a belief codified by the estimated likelihood that elves originated from Western Yasteria near to the native region of the Kromma.
Peregrin elves are native to Peregrinia and are similar to Kromma elves with short ears and fair skin. Peregrin elves make up the largest portion of the population in their native country. Their hair and eye color are typically black and brown, respectively, and possess more rounded facial features than other elven subspecies. The lifespan of Peregin elves is not definitively known; while there are examples of individuals living past 170, most members of the species perform a ritualistic suicide once they reach 150 years of age.
Ulvrikian elves are native to Ulrikia, Northern Part of Concord, most typicaly in Norgsveldet, Eyjaria, Atlae and Kaldrbuth. Typicaly are same physical features to other groups of elves, though often even slightly taller then the average elf and more variation of eye colour. Though lacking tetrachromatic compared to their Usprian, Azral and Z'reien counterparts, they have been remarked to have faster reproduction systems then most elves, often seen as one main reason why they still a large minority in Ulvrikian countries, though their reproduction system is still quite slower then that of humans. Ulvrikian elves live on average 170 years, though it is variable from country to country. Although not impossible for Ulvrikian elves to live over 200 years, they usually start rapidly aging over the age of 150 so only a extreme few is able to live that long.
Usprian elves, native to regions of Aurora that are today part of South Staynes, Rosalica, and Valerica, are largely similar in physical features to other groups of elves, but have vastly extended lifespans. The average lifespan is around 200 with the longest recorded lifespan being an elf who lived to the age of 243, from 1775 to 2018. Gene mutations linked to DNA repair that increased resistance to aging and cancer as being responsible for Usprian elves longer lifespans. Reproduction also occurs at a remarkably slow pace with couples only able to have children every 60 to 70 years, allowing for couples to have at most two children, rarely three.
Usprian elves, along with Z'rei and Az'ra elves, have tetrachromatic vision which gives them a greater depth of color perception and at times allows their vision to dip into the ultraviolet range. Although they have the ability of long life, Usprian elves are also considered to be less physically resilient compared to other species of Urth. Usprian elves tend to be more prone to physical injuries and at times more vulnerable to diseases and illnesses. Despite their slow reproduction and rapid population decline following the conquering of Valeria by the Kingdom of Staynes in the 13th century, Usprian elves make up a significant portion of the remaining indigenous elves on Aurora.
Z'rei elves are native to Borea and display achromatic pigmentation. Z'rei skin is typically chromatic black and their hair ranges from dirty grey to fully white. They have significant populations in Nystatiszna and Gusanaszna.
Dwarves are closely related to humans. They have a short stature. Some anthropologists believe that they originated from central Novaris. According to the Unified Bipedalism Theory, Dwarvines belong to the Primus primus pumilio species of the Priminiforma subfamily. Averaging a height of four feet, dwarves are shorter than most species on Urth due to their curved spine. Their limbs, compared to other humanoids, are shorter. The same can be observed with their fingers. Their knees and elbows are more constrictive, resulting in poorly mobile elbows and bowed legs. Their heads are larger, displaying a larger and higher forehead and flatter nose bridge. Regardless of sex, facial hair grow more rapidly with some dwarven men regrowing shaved beards just under a few days. Despite their stature, dwarves are naturally stronger than their fellow humanoids. Dwarves are able to lift thrice their weight even without exercise. Along with this, dwarves are armed with incredibly long memories.
Kemonomimi are primarily human-like with the major differences having animal ears and tail. However there are a few subspecies that lack tail and have moderately different facial structure, but still seeming human. As well, some types of kemonomimi have a heightened sense of smell, hearing, but lack vision capabilities to the degree of humans. Differences in Kemonomimi again lie within the animal influences on their body. Such as certain types of kemonomimi having fluffier ears like one of a fox to both better hear and to protect their ear drums from harsher weather in climates where sandstorms are more common. The spread of Kemonomimi has given way to a wide variety of subtypes, while still primarily keeping to the human biology template. However the various climates, geography, diseases and diet of each of the various kemonomimi have given way to slight differences in internal biology, prime example being the Borean Nekomimi having a much shorter life span but an increased fertility rate when compared to their human counterparts. Another example is the kitsunes having an above average human life-span but lower disease resistance.
Nekomimi have a human-like appearance and they have feature triangular ears at the top of their heads, similar in shape and expressional ability to those of domestic cats. According to the Unified Bipedalism Theory, they belong to the Primus nekomimi species in the Priminiforma subfamily but some taxonomists believe that they should fall into the Caulidae tribe along with Tieflings. These are in addition to ears on the sides of their head that are identical to those of humans. They also have cat-like tails. Their cat-like features are an example of convergent evolution, as nekomimi are offshoots of a recent common ancestor with humans and not genetically related to Felines. They are believed to have originally evolved in the islands far to the east of Novaris after a period of isolation from other populations, in particular the island that is today Infinite Loop. Nekomimi populations are known to have migrated to South East Yasteria in antiquity, and today can be found in some capacity on every continent. Significant amounts of nekomimi live in Borea and western Yasteria.
Borean Kemonomimi is considered to be in the Nekomimi branch of the Kemonomimi tree. Well they look traditionally Kemonomimi, their internal biology great differs from non-Borean Kemonomimi. Having a much shorter life span compared to the non-Borean counterparts, only living up 60 to 70 years primary due to Kemonomimi Genetic Immunodeficiency Disorder but has a much greater fertility rate. The animalistic parts of the Borean Kemonomimi tend to be much fluffier compared to most non-borean Kemonomimi , and often lacking human ears but this isn't always the case.
Kuduk Nekomimi are a subspecies of Nekomimi that inhabit small diaspora at the eastern coast of Kuduk. Similarly to the Peregrin Nekomimi, the classification of Kuduk Nekomimi is debated on whether they should be considered a subspecies or just an ethnic group. Physical characteristics that distinguish Kuduk Nekomimi are coiled hair, bushy eyebrows, and honey-colored skin.
Peregrin Nekomimi are a subspecies, or ethnic group, of nekomimi that inhabit Peregrinia. While it is disputed exactly what classification these nekomimi deserve, it is agreed that they represent a genetically distinct group. Marks of this genetic distinction include fair, almost pale skin, a proclivity for heterochromia, and hair that is often several shades of color from blonde to scarlet.
Yaki are a subspecies of Kemonomimi found predominantly in Kuduk. They can be distinguished from their animal-like horns protruding from the sides of their heads. Yaki's horns can greatly differ in shape and size from the horns found on Tieflings. Those native to the Hey and Anana tribes have horns that resemble deer antlers, while those from the Great Plain tribes have buffalo-like horns. The skin color range of Yaki goes from a dark almond to a honey-colored shade. A distinguishing factor of Yaki from the Yevak tribe is a large presence of dimorphism, in which Yevak Yaki males are on average much smaller than their female counterparts.
Main article: Orcs
Orcs have a human like appearance. Some anthropologists believe that they native to Gondwana but now found on all inhabited continents, featuring green skin, large tusks on the lower mandible, and distinct musculature and a large stature. According to the Unified Bipedalism Theory, they belong to the species Primus primus chavliodontus in the Priminiforma subfamily. They share a are closely related enough with tieflings, humans, dwarves and elves are capable of reproducing with them to varying degrees of success. Orcs are, on average, the largest and most massive members of the hominid species group. They are documented in the fossil record as early as 450,000 years before the present; the fossil record indicates that they had expanded beyond Gondwana approximately 200,000 years ago. In addition to generally being larger in size than other species, Orcs are known for having a relatively lower life expectancy (approximately 70 years) due in large part to complications related to childbirth. Large orc populations exist in many nations across the world, notably Tavaris.
Tieflings are thought by some anthropologists to have originated in central Concord and are found in north Gondwana, Borea, and western Yasteria. In terms of the Unified Bipedalism Theory, they belong to the species Primus buccinus. Some scientists who subscribe to this theory have suggested that they should be moved to the tribe Caulidae with Nekomimi. They possess a variety of colors for their eyes, skin and hair, mostly verging on the standard human tones but also including the red-blue spectrum. Tieflings' most notable features are their horns, tails, and teeth. Tiefling horns vary in size depending on the environment and typically are shaped similar to ram's horns. Their tails are dexterous and on average are able to be used as an additional manipulating limb. The teeth of tieflings are extremely sharp and indicate a predator-evolution lineage. First appearing in the fossil record around 500,000 years ago, migrations around Concord and to other continents occurred as early as 350,000 and as late as 4,000 years ago. Tieflings have a shorter average lifespan than humans, though recent strides in medicine have been mitigating this.
Ailurines are a species of bipedal omnivores related to the mustelid red panda. Some anthropologists believe that they are native to northeastern Yasteria. According to the Unified Bipedalism Theory, Ailurines belong in the genus Kokkinopantis kokkinopantis with their closest relatives in terms of that theory being the Lutryne. Ailurines are small with height ranging from 4 ft 6 in (137 cm) to 5 ft 2 in (158 cm.) Thick fur covers most of their bodies and is most voluminous on the tail which averages a length of 2 ft 6 in (76 cm.) Dimorphism between the sexes is minimal with both males and females possessing similar colorations, patterns, and physiologies. Ailurines possess an excellent sense of smell and decent night vision, though they are primarily diurnal. Ailurine pregnancies last 7.5 months and result in 2-4 cubs. The average lifespan is influenced by environment and lifestyle but is around 80 years old for both genders. The current record for longest-lived ailurine is a female that reached the age of 108 years, 4 months.
Ailurines first appeared in the fossil record around 525,000 years ago and were known to inhabit the lands that today comprise Asendavia and Luthaiya. While distantly related and having evolved at roughly the same time, ailurines have been archeologically and genetically proven to be distinct from ursines. Conflicts with ursines in their early histories resulted in large ailurine migrations north and south as well as east into Novaris. Current ailurine populations are significant in Novaris and northeastern Yasteria, though the species can be found in other regions of colder climate like southern Gondwana.
Main article: Aurian
Aurians are a species of reptilian, snakelike humanoids with long and slender bodies that evolved in central Arcturia. They fall into a variety of different subspecies best divided into "Limbed Aurians' ' which possess digitigrade legs ending in clawed feet, and "Bare Aurians" whose bodies end in a slithering tail. Aurians also possess a variety of hand structures - while most are pentadactyl and possess five clawed fingers, others are tetradactyl. Despite this high degree of variation, all Aurians possess some unifying features. The average male stands from 5 ft 4 in (1.62 m) to 7 ft 6 in (2.28 m) and weighs between 135-235 lbs, while females stand from 5 ft 1 in (1.54 m) to 7 ft 2 in (2.17 m) with a weight between 113-200 lbs. Their jaws can be dislocated and have nonretractable fangs with varying intensities of venom. Aurians are also cold-blooded, which naturally leads them to prefer warmer climates. The advent of modern insulation and heating does facilitate travel and even immigration to colder lands, though those Aurians who brave such places are well advised to take care.
Main article: Cava
Cava are a species of bipedal therapods resembling corvids native to Aurora. Evolving from an arboreal climbing species descended from dromaeosaurs, modern cava first appeared in the fossil record 2 million years ago in the Ethaln Plain and became the dominant sapient species on Aurora. Cava are tetradactyl, and possess digitigrade legs with anisodactyl feet. Cava possess a beak quite similar to corvids as a result of their omnivorous diet. The cavan bone structure is hollow and possesses many interior struts, making them both lighter and stronger than the bones of other species. Cavan speech organs are highly developed but their beaked anatomy causes difficulty pronouncing certain sounds produced by lips and teeth. There exists little dimorphism and the species is generally considered to be visually androgynous. The plumage of cava is typically dark, although natural variations of white, grey and blue patterns present across the population, and they have a set of colourful crest-feathers on the back of the head. These feathers strongly reflect UV light which cavan tetrachromatic eyes are sensitive to.
Evidence suggests that for a brief period of time approximately 500,000-300,000 BCE some cava in modern Staynes had developed primitive agriculture before reverting back to hunter gathering for an unknown reason. This happened again around 100,000 BCE in Axdel, with some metal artefacts also recovered, with the reason for reverting back to a hunter gather lifestyle likely being cooling and glaciation. Cava intermingled with elven migrants to Aurora in approximately 200,000 BCE and later humans in 50,000 BCE, with the latter becoming increasingly more dominant on the continent. Cava are found globally, but the majority are found in West Aurora and South Arcturia, with sizeable minorities in Yasteria, the states of the Pacific Ocean, and eastern Novaris. Some Cava are indigenous to Sempiterna, living in the sparse, snowy tundra at its most northerly points, making them the only sapient species native to the continent.
Cervines are a species of bipedal cervid-like mammals that are native to northern Novaris. According to the Unified Bipedalism Theory, they are known as Cervis cervis. Cervines are the only unguligrade sapient species on Urth - they possess hard hooves made of keratin. Similar growths also cover some cervine's fingertips. Dimorphism is prominent with males being much taller and muscular than females. Most males of the species grow antlers, with some shedding every winter and others keeping them year-round. Male cervines can reach 7 ft 6 in (2.31 m) without antlers, while females average a height of 7 ft 1 in (2.16 m.) With antlers, males can average up to 9 ft (3 m) tall. It is customary in some cultures for cervines to trim their antlers to better use facilities and vehicles built for smaller species, but many traditionalist practices view this as taboo. Though females rarely grow antlers, their growth and size is linked to testosterone levels, influenceable via horomone treatment or imbalance. Other species thus cannot be sure if a cervine with antlers is male or female.
Cervines have an average of two children per pregnancy, which lasts six months in warmer climates and ten months in colder ones. The cervine species is made up of about 65% females and 35% males. Cervine fur varies in patterns and colors, with the most common being shades of brown and blonde. Red, black, white, and grey are also known to manifest. Cervine young possess small stripes or spots from birth in a lighter tone than the rest of their fur. These fade around 14 years of age. All cervines molt between winter and summer coats of fur. Cervines can live an average of 70 years for females and 68 years for males. To help with balance, cervines possess fur-covered tails of around three feet in length. Cervine nasal passages and speech organs are highly developed towards long-distance communication, and give their languages a unique aspect unpronouncable to other species. The species is able to rotate their ears in a wide range of motion.
Cervines became anatomically modern in the tundra and boreal forests of northwest Novaris between 500,000 and 550,000 years ago. Heavy glaciation and environment change led to their migration south according to archeological finds, though upon the glaciers receeding large portions of the population travelled back to their ancestral homelands. Cervine social structures began around 50,000 years ago, and the oldest confirmed civilization existed around 7,000 BCE. Today the cervine population is smaller than most other species on Urth, existing primarily in the Kelamí League in Novaris and in lesser amounts elsewhere.
Feline are bipedal mammals. In terms of the Unified Bipedalism Theory, they belong to the species Gatis gatis and are distantly related to the Lupine and Vulpines. They number over 1 billion people. Most of them are concentrated in Packilvania. They are the second most populous sapient species in the world after primines. They are the only sapient mammals other than primines to have achieved superpower status. The vast majority of Felines speak the Packilvanian language and the vast number are adherents of Paxism. There are small minorities of Felines in countries like Great Morstaybishlia, Free Pacific States, Emberwood Coast, Durdanini etc. Although they have the same skin colour, they vary in the length, texture and colour of their fur with an estimated 1,000 distinct ethnolinguistic groups. They have digitigrade ambulation, long canines, retractable and protractable claws, whiskers, ears near the top of their heads and chatoyant eyes.
Main article: Lupines
Lupines are a species of large, bipedal canines native to Itur. Some anthropologists believe that they share a common ancestor with wolves. Those who subscribe to the Unified Bipedalism Theory believe that they belong to the Lycanis lycanis species which have a common ancestor with Humans and Ailurines. One of the larger sapient species on Urth, they generally range from 5 ft 10 in (1.77 m) to 7 ft 10 in (2.38 m). Males average a height of 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m) and females 6 ft 3 in (1.9 m.) Shrinkage of stature may begin in middle age in some individuals but is usually typical in those of advanced age. Males weigh on average 205 lb (93 kg) and females 175 lb (79 kg). Like many conditions, body type and body weight are influenced by both genetics and environment and vary greatly among individuals.
There are several key differences between lupines and their wolf cousins. Lupines evolved to be plantigrade and its molars have a flatter chewing surface, allowing lupines to eat more vegetable matter. They also possess humanlike hands and a thumb as opposed to paws at the end of their arms. The brain size of a lupine is also significantly larger than a wolf’s. They retain several features of their ancestors, including slightly pointed, triangular ears, a muzzle, and a long tail that averages 1.25 feet (40 cm). Lupines can have a wide variety of fur color ranging from pure white to black, but typically are mottled white, brown, gray, and black.
Lupines will typically live between 60 and 75 years old, with the worldwide average at 68.5 years old for males and 73 years for females. Individuals will often attain ages of 80 years and above in developed nations, but it is much rarer for an individual to reach ages above 90 years old.
Itur maintains a sizable native lupine population with large populations scattered across various continents across Urth, with populations of note located in Volkia and Tennabroch.
LutrynesMain Article: Lutrynes
Lutrynes are a species of anthropomorphic humanoids with many recognizable otter-like features and characteristics. Scientists who subscribe to the Unified Bipedalism Theory believe that Lutrynes belong to the species Vidrus vidrus and that they are distantly related to the Ailurines. Larger than their more primitive counterparts, lutrynes in general have similar fur markings, with brown, black, and white patterns being the most prominent. Their bodies consist of a larger brain capable of more precise and faster execution, when compared to their quadrupedal counterpart. The lutryne body is considered rather thin and sleek, a result of their aquatic-based ancestry. Lutrynes heavily inhabited southwest Gondwana and the nearby regions where they evolved. However, Tretridian colonization in the 18th century and subsequent 20th-century warfare has caused their population to decline precipitously in some areas.
The race is regarded as generally fast and agile in aquatic environments, with their species typically maintaining a relatively thin layer of fat and a very dense layer of fur. Outside of the water, the lutryne body underperforms, yet still retains its ability to stand upright, walk, and run, among other things. Maintaining an average height of around 5 feet, and weighing in around 120 pounds, Lutrynes are relatively small compared to humans, though they enjoy a similar lifespan. Lutryne body proportions are almost identical to human proportions by a scale of 3:4. The senses of the species are, for the most part, superior to humans, with the exception being hearing, which was evolutionarily less important than sight and smell.
Symphs are unique among sapients in that they are technically two separate species: a slime-like symbiotic organism that acts as the reasoning centre and controller for a nonintelligent amphibious humanoid. Together these symbiotic amphibians (symphibians, or symphs) have evolved together so that each is needed for the completion of the others life cycle. Symph males typically stand at around 5 ft 5 in (1.65 m) while female heights average to 5 ft 11 in (1.8 m.) Symphic skin is wrinkled and patterned with colours of brown, green, and grey. When healthy, their skin takes on a slight shine. They possess large mouths, and males have a vestigial crest on their heads. The life expectance of a Symph is typically 58 years, though the practice of transplanting the slimes (known medically as Adliausoral Transplantation) can extend this to upwards of 80. Symphs cannot adapt to arid or cold climates and will die of dehydration if access to fresh water is not available.
Symphs evolved in western and northern Yasteria, with slimes believing to have originated near Helslandr. Their archaeological footprint is young compared to other species; it is estimated they only achieved their symbiotic sapience sometime around the first millennium. Their webbed toes and amphibious nature make them some of the most capable swimmers among sapients. There is no way to tell a joined symph symbiote from an unjoined amphoid except for the colour of their sclera, which becomes orange-yellow. While their physiology prevents settling in arid areas, strides have been made thanks to modern technology to overcome this. Symph architecture in arid climates often includes arcology domes that are climate-controlled for their comfort. Today Symphs make up the majority of the population of Krommetrum and have large presences in Vistaraland and the Suvanias.
Ursines are a large species of arctoidean mammals that closely resemble the various species of bear. Some scientists believe that they are distantly related to Ailurines. Furthermore, according to scientists who subscribe to the Unified Bipedalism Theory believe that Ursines belong to the species Arcoudis arcoudis. Ursines evolved in the same area of northeastern Yasteria. Usines are powerfully built; at an average height of 8 ft 2 in (2.5 m) for males and 7 ft 7 in (2.3 m) for females and a typical weight of over 500 pounds, they are the largest sapient species on Urth. Their senses of smell and hearing are superb as is their night vision, though vision in daytime is noticably worse than humans. The ursine body is thick, with layers of dense muscle, fat, and fur. This fur can varying in length and coloration but usually reaches an inch in length and can be brown, black, grey, or white, though other pigments are not uncommon. The ursine lifespan is typically 70 years old for males and 80 for females. Their arms and legs are quite bulky though retain the plantigrade shape and opposable thumbs common in humanoids.
Ursines came into early conflict with ailurines around 400,000 years ago and forced migrations of their smaller cousins, themselves remaining mostly in northeast Yasteria. Various populations eventually migrated during the glacial periods and the ursine race today is spread out across most of Yasteria as well as portions in Borea and Arcturia.
Main Article: Vulpines
Vulpines are a species of anthropomorphic bipedal mammals that superficially resemble the various genera of foxes. According to the Unified Bipedalism Theory, they belong to to the species Alepis alepis. Vulpine males average a height of 5 ft 5 in (1.66 m) while females average around 5 ft (1.54 m.) The vulpine senses are finely tuned, especially their eyesight, and their brains are capable of notably quick thinking and high memory retention. The species does not possess a subcutaneous fat layer and relies on their fur to adapt to different climates. Northern vulpines have longer, dense fur, southern vulpine fur is short and somewhat oily to assist in swimming, and fennec vulpines have moderately long fur, including fur on their feet which helps manage hot surfaces. Typically fur colors include mixtures of red, brown, white, and grey in patterns similar to nonsapient foxes. All types of vulpines can grow hair on their heads. While birth defects are rare, vulpines are much shorter lived than other species. They reach middle age around 40 and their lack of subcutaneous fat and small hearts mean their physical health deteriorates quickly after this point. The species is also susceptible to a large number of diseases.
Vulpine evolution is not as well-understood as other sapients but it is known they first reached their modern form around 1 million to 500,000 years ago. Evidence of tools and advanced culture has been found in Vekaiyu that indicates vulpines mastered manufacturing of primitive implements in this timeframe. Vulpine migration was limited in the interglacial periods and today their population can be found mostly in central and north Yasteria. Vekaiyu is one of the most notable vulpine-dominated nations.
Names in different languages
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|Binomial nomenclature||Primus primus homo / Primus sapiens||Alepis alepis / Vulpus sapiens||Lycanis lycanis / Lupus sapiens||Gatis gatis||Kokkikopantis kokkikopantis / Ailuris sapiens||Vidrus vidrus / Lutrinus sapiens||Crotalina sapiens||Sapiopteryx cava||Arcoudis arcoudis / Ursus sapiens||Primus chamanis||Primus buccinus /||Cervis cervis||Primus primus dryadalis / Primus laeta||Primus primus pumilio / Primus sapies parva||Adliausora metamorphogenicus (Slime) & Krommetra anegonian (Host)||Primus primus chavliodontus/ Cuspis duodentis|
|Kæzhyn||Ase'zul||Yfdulsa Lysa||Yfdulsa Zolka||Yfdulsa Nykosa||Yfdulsa Dy'fedza||Yfdulsa Aksy Aryz'una||Yfdulsa Dysra||Ulf'ætsetsa||Yfdulsa Fedza||Asly'lo||Ry'ekfusa||Yfdulsa Erta||Ud'asa||Aszny||Aksy'olza||Asyt'zys'ek|