Flag of Caltharus
Motto: Honour, Loyalty and Knowledge
Unahelded, Lealded hag Gouiziegezh
Anthem: March of the Caltharusian People
|Caltharus (dark green), Great Morstaybishlia (light green), territories (dark grey)|
Caltharus (dark green), Great Morstaybishlia (light green), territories (dark grey)
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Calth|
|Ethnic groups |
|Demonym(s)||Caltharusian, Calthian, Calth|
|Government||Unitary liberal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy|
• King (Roue)
• Secretary of State (Sikraterlezh ar Stad)
• Lord High Justice of the Conclave (Justis Uhel Aotrou ar Kuzul)
|Legislature||Parliament of Great Morstaybishlia|
|House of Peers|
|House of Representatives|
|1,771,150 km2 (683,840 sq mi)|
• 2022 estimate
|96/km2 (248.6/sq mi)|
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|3.245 trillion KRB|
• Per capita
|SDI (2022)|| 0.8|
|ISO 3166 code||CAL|
|Today part of||Great Morstaybishlia|
Caltharus (known in the Calth language as Kaltarus and prior to unification in 1515 as the Kingdom of Caltharus or Rouantelezh Kaltarus) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom of Great Morstaybishlia and Justelvard. Located on Urth on the continent of Aurora, it is surrounded by Staynes to the west, North Ethalria to the south, Marislia to the east and the Morstaybishlian Sea and Tivot (via the Horn of Caltharus) to the north.
The earliest evidence of sapient habitation is traced to the fossilised remains of Proto-Primines over 8 million years. Anatomically modern Hominines are believed to have first inhabited the area that comprises modern-day over 1.2 million years ago. Over 10,000 years ago, the people of the continent developed agriculture, abandoning most of their hunter-gather lifestyles for nomadic pastoralism. The first evidence of sedentary habitation is from 4,500 years ago as the first settlements emerged. Evidence of writing is traced back to approximately 3,000 years ago. In 700 BCE, Prophet Matilda is believed to have started Thaerism, with the gradual conversion from polytheism and ancestral worship taking place over centuries and accelerated by Prophet Julius (a Thaerist preacher who emerged around 340 BCE) such that by 300 CE, Thaerism was established as the de facto religion of the area that comprises modern-day Caltharus.
Caltharus was unified with Staynes in 1515, forming the Kingdom of Morstaybishlia following the Caltharus Throne Wars. Caltharus contributed to the expansion of Morstaybishlia through the Western Auroran Crusades from 1523 to 1575 which saw the defeat and annexation of the Kormistazic Empire. Beyond Aurora-proper, Caltharus contributed to the expansion of Morstaybishlia starting with the establishment of colonies in Arcturia in the 11th century CE, the establishment of colonies in the Oan Isles that today comprise the Morstaybishlian West Pacific Territories and the annexation of Justelvard following the Morsto-Justelvardic Wars in the 17th century. Following the Posolic Wars of the 19th century, Caltharus was forced to cede territory to the Ethalrian Empire and Baykalia. Slavery declined after the Second Morsto-Oan War in the mid-19th century and abolished altogether throughout the Morstaybishlian Empire including in Caltharus in the early 20th century CE following the Great War.
Caltharus regained the territories which had been ceded to Ethalria following the Auroran Imperial War. The country was heavily invaded and suffered severe bombardment during the Auroran-Pacific War. Caltharus once again ceded its Eastern territories in 2022 following the Marislia independence referendum. Today, Caltharus is governed directly by His Majesty’s Government (via a Minister in the Cabinet of Great Morstaybishlia) with the Parliament of Great Morstaybishlia wielding legislative authority over the nation. Nevertheless, it maintains a distinct legal system and its provinces have limited decision-making power over local affairs.
Caltharus is an upper income post-industrial consumption-led developed economy (according to the Auroran Monetary Fund) that has a GDP of rough 3.2 trillion KRB and a GDP per capita of approximately 31,000 KRB. It is a major manufacturing and financial services hub, being the home of major corporations such as Ferrus Industries. With its generally mild climate and minerally well-endowed geography, the country is highly biologically diverse and its varying landscape provide for the cultivation of wine-grade grapes. The country performs well in metrics of liveability and governance, but it does have a fairly high incarcerated population and above average levels of crime.
Caltharus is one of the oldest nations in Aurora. Caltharus originated as a city state under Calth, managing to conquer all of the other city states on the Dovian Peninsula. After centuries of imperialistic expansionism and rule under a monarchy a successful revolution in 1513 had King Haligar II executed whilst some royal family members fled to nearby kingdoms. The Republic of Caltharus came into being but was thwarted two years later by an invasion led by Lambertus III of Staynes and his wife, Haligar II's daughter and heir to the throne Katerina. The Union of the Thrones is what led Caltharus and Staynes into political union.
Colonialism and New Age City States
After Calth had conquered the Dovian peninsula, some of the noble families of the fallen city-states began to feel threatened. This threat was caused by the newly established Louzar dynasty, which actively tried to make Calth more centralised nation. This uncertainty among the old nobles resulted in a large movement being created, with colonisation as a primary goal. The old nobles believed that if they could escape from the mainland Calth, they could start their own city states and thus return to the status quo. After 24 years of Louzar rule, this movement finally succeeded in preparing a fleet for colonisation. These ships left Calth in the year 974. Their departure was followed by decades of silence, and it was generally believed that these ships were either lost in a storm or turned in to pirates. However, in 1001 a ship landed in Aeternum (back then known as Calth), claiming it had came from the distant continent Arcturia. This ship told king the tale of the colonisation fleet how it had sailed for far longer distance even thought possible. At first, the king was overjoyed that the colony project had succeeded, but soon he was told by the sailors that the few established colonies had renounced their loyalty to Calth and started forming new city states. Even though the King was outraged by this, he soon realised that there was nothing he could do. For the time being, the colonies were too far away, so he acknowledged these colonies as independent and started trading with them.
In 1164 the Calthian situation finally allowed them to start preparing for conquest of these colonies, that had now grown in to full-fledged city-states. Calthians send their most capable and most loyal commander, in lead of a greatest invasion force that Calth had ever seen, towards these colonies. The commander, known as Colonarius, had sworn to conquer all of the city-states. After a year of sailing, the invasion force arrived at Arcturia. They fortune was on their side, and they landed only few kilometres away from the city of Alaias. Colonarius decided to act fast and instigate, he advanced on the city, and took it by surprise. After only three days of fighting, the city and its occupants surrendered. To the citizens Colonarius promised that they would be spared, and even rewarded, if they would join Calth and fight alongside him. They city quickly accepted the offer, and so Colonarius had made sure that his forces couldn't be driven to the sea or exhausted to death. Despite this early victory, in 1166 the remaining 11 city states formed an alliance to counter the invasion. Colonarius responded to this by striking first, and forcing his enemies to react to his actions, rather than trying to defend against their overwhelming numbers. In the war that ensued, the 'War of twelve cities'; Colonarius had two advantages. Most of his army was well trained and far more disciplined. The war raged on for five years, with Colonarius doing increasingly daring attacks against his enemies. The war finally ended in it's sixth year, after a large, decisive battle, that quickly become known as the miracle of Colonarius.
In this battle Colonarius managed to crush the opposing army decisively, after killing kings of the three leading city-states. After this battle the cities quickly fell in line, and Colonarius become one of the most celebrated military commanders of Calth. The land would eventually be reorganised as territory of the Morstaybishlian Empire under the name 'New Calth' after the Union of the Thrones, and serves as a large trading hub, being in the middle of affairs to and from Gondwana and Aurora.
In 2019, the Caltharusian province of Nocturne experienced 2 major natural disasters: a heatwave which caused immense wildfires as well as an earthquake that results in the deaths of dozens of children. Months later, the government of Walter Johannes announced that the government would significantly reduce the budget for Nocturne. This gave rise to the defeat of his party, the MBE Conservatives, during the 2019 Great Morstaybishlia General Election which saw the ascension of MBE Labour and Franklin Barvata to power. Professor of Political Science at the University of Lambertupol, Vivienne Avauntis theorised in her book titled Circumstance and Opportunity: the Makings of Revolution, that the actions of the state would encourage revolutions in areas of the country prone to seeking greater independence and autonomy chief among which were Nocturne, Joralesia and South Staynes.
Her words were seemingly prophetic as terrorist attacks described by commentators at the largest attacks that Great Morstaybishlia had hirtheto experienced in over 100 years were perpetrated on 25 July 2020. Unidentified terrorists attacked two sites, one in Delgedatter in Barbarus Province and another in Khauser, that caused the deaths of 136 people and destroyed millions of Kiribs worth of infrastructure. The government placed the provinces of Laulia, Aurus, Barbarus, Nocturne and Jomsgord on lock down and stationed military and police personnel on the streets.
Another attack was perpetraded on 22 August 2020 giving rise to increased military presence and blame being placed on the government and the Morstaybishlian Intelligence Bureau for failing to apprehend the people responsible. The restrictions imposed on the people of Eastern Caltharus as well as the previous natural disasters and financial constraints placed on them, precipitated increased disaffection with the government and fomented calls from leading social commentators and groups for a reevaluation of the role that Eastern Caltharus played in Morstaybishlia such as the Self Determination Research Group which published a paper supporting greater autonomy for Eastern Caltharus.
Despite announcing trade and diplomatic agreements with various countries, the government was heavily criticised by opposition parties and civil society organisations for focusing on foreign relations instead of addressing salient security concerns on the ground. Hostility against the government was exacerbated by the passage of an Anti-Terrorism Act which sought to give the government more power to control information and movement, to arrest people and access private information, all in the name of national security. This antipathy was especially prevalent in Eastern Caltharus which bore the brunt of the attacks and the governments security schemes. On January 2021, Remis Posol, head of Posol Industries and husband to Chancellor of Baykalia, Lady Posol, was shot down over Caltharus by a guided missile launched from Baykalia.
Protests against the government's mishandling of the security situation and the demands for independence ensued across Eastern Caltharus. Some protests turned into rioting with police arresting over 50 people in Nocturne alone.
Following the 2021 Great Morstaybishlian General Election, MBE Labour lost 47 seats in the Parliament of Great Morstaybishlia but retained a governing majority while the Marislian Independence Party (MARIP) won nearly 40% of the seats in the Marislian provinces (i.e., provinces east of the Ider River). As part of their campaign to delegitimize the authority of His Majesty’s Government over Marislia and to protest how South Staynes (thenceforth known as Valeria) had been granted an independence referendum, but Marislia had not, MARIP refused to take their seats. Following the 2021 Joralesian attacks in which Prime Minister Franklin Barvata was incapacitated, newly appointed caretaker Prime Minister and First Secretary of State Riannar Karmer announced on 22 August 2022 that MBE Labour was planning on introducing legislation to organize referendum to vote on the independence of Marislia. MARIP decided to take their seats so that they could vote for the Marislia Independence Referendum Act 2021.
On 31 December 2021, it was announced that 50.005% of the population of the Caltharusian provinces east of the Ider River known as Marislia had voted to be independent from Great Morstaybishlia. Following that announcement, there protests in the cities of Cavenhelm, Aurus, and Lambertupol against seceding from Great Morstaybishlia. Those cities had on average 83% of their residents voting to remain in the country. On 1 February 2022, it was announced that Marislia would secede no later than 1 January 2024. Protests lasted over a money, with anywhere from a third to two third of the population in those cities protesting against the secession such that by 10 February 2022, the Great Morstaybishlia government (led by Riannar Karmer) and the Marislian Independence Party (led by Romilda von Anzitter) agreed that Cavenhelm, Lambertupol and Aurus would remain in Caltharus.
Politics and government
The politics of Caltharus take place in the framework of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy. The King of Great Morstaybishlia, currently Lambertus IV, is the head of state and head of government. The Parliament of Great Morstaybishlia has the power to make laws for Great Morstaybishlia including Caltharus (in which it is represented by approximately x members of Parliament). Caltharus does not have its own devolved government. The incumbent Prime Minister, Franklin Barvata originates from and represents a constituency in Caltharus. Following the secession of Marislia from Great Morstaybishlia, the number of seats allocated to Caltharus in the Parliament were reduced. Despite falling to the east of the Ider River, Aurus, Cavenhelm, and Lambertupol remain part of Caltharus.
The Secretary of State for Caltharus, currently Kellie Fross, is a member of the Cabinet of Great Morstaybishlia who is responsible for representing the interests of Caltharus in the Cabinet and administering executive authority in Caltharus. She was appointed by the King on the advice of the Prime Minister of Great Morstaybishlia. She is a member of the Labour Party (representing the Achavey constituency in the Parliament of Great Morstaybishlia) and succeeded Fredmund Constanine following her appointment to that post on 16 April 2021 as part of the Second Barvata ministry following the 2021 General Election. She oversees the Department of Caltharusian Affairs which administers government functions for Caltharus.
The provinces which compose Caltharus have councils whose members represented constituencies and are elected by ranked-choice run-off voting. The Provincial Councils have the power to make decisions over local matters such as schools, hospitals and clinics, abattoirs, liquor licenses etc. Each province has a Chairperson elected by its members and they tend to make decisions by majority vote and its members serve full-time.
In contrast, the municipalities have a Mayor elected directly by the population who appoints a council that runs the daily affairs of the municipalities where a Municipal Council comprised of part-time councillors of whom some represent Wards and others are appointed by parties via proportional seats. Municipalities provide public services and make decisions on matters such as traffic lights, garbage pick-up, storm drains, building permits and zoning etc. In some cities, the Mayor will appoint a professional civil servant known as the City Manager who handles the administrative and managerial decisions and running of the city while the Mayor and the Mayoral Council develop policy and supervise the running of the city. Some cities such as Aeternum, Aurus and Cavenhelm have been delegated power over matters reserved for the central and provincial governments such as policing, hospitals and schools.
The so-called Great Houses of Caltharus, are historic families which once ruled over small teritorries in Caltharus and comprise the nobility of Caltharus. Following its unification and subsequent domination by Great Morstaybishlia, the houses became aristocratic lords who controlled fiefs in the Kings name. Over time, their power and political significance has waned drastically yet they remain relevant because they send hereditary peers to the House of Peers and exercise considerable cultural, economic and philathropic influence.
Law and crime
The legal system of Caltharus takes place in the framework of a civil and common law system. The criminal justice system is inquisitorial whereby His Majesty's Procuratorate is responsible for investigating cases and presenting evidence on behalf pf the courts. The criminal justice system follows a set of Criminal Law Codes that stipulate matters of criminal law and offer little room to Caltharusian justices to interpret or develop judicial precedent. In contrast, the civil law system follows a common law system whereby substantial case law is developed via judicial precedent. Furthermore, it follows an adversarial system whereby parties to a case present evidence and arguments to an impartial judge.
The highest court in Great Morstaybishlia is the Supreme Court of Great Morstaybishlia (which is de jure the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council) thus all cases arising from courts in Caltharus can be appealed to it. The highest court in Caltharus is the Conclave. The Conclave is appointed by the King on the advice of the Prime Minister of Great Morstaybishlia following consultations with an independent professional judicial appointments advisory committee. The Conclave consists of 9 justice and is seated in Aeternum. Beneath the Conclave are various other courts responsible with general and specialised jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases within their respective jurisdictions. Cases from these courts can be appealed to the Conclave, whose decisions have binding effect on all courts in Caltharus except where superseded by the Supreme Court.
His Majesty's Caltharusian Police Service is the primary organ of law enforcement except in large cities such as Aeternum which have their own police departments. As with the rest of Great Morstaybishlia, the Royal Prison Service is responsible for maintaining and operating prisons, the largest of which is King Gustav II Correctional Facility with 3,245 inmates. Caltharus has a rate of 1.8 intentional culpable senticide per 100,000 people and a total prison population of 287,500. Capital punishment continues to be utilized but incidence of its use is declining, with 23 executions being conducted since 2000 CE.
The provinces of Caltharus are as follows:
The economy of Caltharus takes place as a free-market capitalist economy with social welfare. Caltharus has a nominal GDP of 3.234 trillion KRB and a nominal GDP per capita of 31,520 KRB. It uses the Kirib (KRB) as legal tender as monetary policy is under the control of the Kalmington Parliament which ceded much of that power to the Auroran Central Bank. Nevertheless, the Bank of Staynes retains various functions such as oversight of Caltharus's banking system. Inflation holds at the UNAC average of approximately 2% to 3%.
Caltharus is characterised as an upper income developed post-industrial economy with relatively low levels of unemployment (approximtely 5%). Trade with other constituent countries of Great Morstaybishlia and overseas dependencies of the Morstaybishlian Empire comprises over 75% of its trade volumes. 15% to 20% flows to the United Nations of the Auroran Continent (UNAC). The remaining 10% to 5% of trade is with Packilvania, the League of Novaris, Peregrinia and the Union of Commonwealth Alliances.
Over 62% of Caltharus's economy consists of the services sector especially in areas such as information technology services, financial services, and tourism. The manufacturing sector comprises another 21% of the economy of which industrial machinery, vehicles, scientific equipment, arms manufacturing and shipbuilding comprise a substantial portion. The mining sector comprises 9% of the economy, producing metallurgical silicon, ferrous metals and coal. The smallest part of the economy consists of agriculture with contributes 4% of the economy namely in the production of wine, timber, grains, meat, and fruits.
Caltharus has a highly developed infrastructure system. It has 24,700km of railway, which include over 2,567km of high-speed rail. The longest and most profitable line, the Aeternum-Aurus line spans Aeternum, Lambertupol and ends in Aurus. The railway system is run by three companies: Royal Caltharus Railways, Transrail and Caltharus Train Service. Many cities have trams and subways lines especially the larger and more densely populated cities. Caltharus is in the process of integrating its network to the continental network to make it easier to travel across borders. Most notably the Aeternum to Karinthus line provides direct customs free travel between Caltharus and North Ethalria. The country has 1,250,000km of road which includes the extensive Caltharus Highway Network which connects to the Great Morstaybishlia Network which in turn connects to the continental network.
Caltharus has a mix of energy source which includes 25% natural gas, 23% coal, 19% nuclear power, 17% hydroelectric power, and 16% other renewable energy sources which has enabled Caltharus to exceed its emissions targets despite being a producer of fossil fuels. Caltharus's grid is connected with the rest of the continent allowing for it to sell power to surrounding nations and rely on their power in emergencies. The largest airport in the country is the Aeternum International Airport, which receives over 2 million passengers annually. Caltharus benefits from an extensive broadband network which facilitates average Internet speeds of 34MB per second. The Port of Aeternum is one of the largest ports in the world in terms of container volumes.
Science and technology
Caltharus has been home to inventors and scientists for hundreds of years who have shaped the world. Caltharusian scientist, Rima Elasar was heavily involved in the development of cable television. Christopher Rheun was heavily involved in the development of the telegram. Didier Wallace was also instrumental in the development of modern spectroscopy and his work contributed to the discovery of distant planets and stars. Bellice Sauldraham was instrumental in the development of treatments to combat diahrreal diseases while Emily Quillton was heavily instrumental in the discovery of polymerase chain reactions and her work revolutionised the understanding of organic chemistry.
The Royal Caltharusian Society for Mathematics and Natural Sciences awards the prestigious King Thadeus II Prize in Chemistry to leading voices in the sector. Caltharus is home to the Houghton Emerson National Laboratory in Newton-Herring which is one of the largest particle physics research centers in the world, rivalling the Soltan Nuclear Fusion Laboratory in Axdel. The Morganston Nuclear Research Laboratory in Lambertupol has been instrumental in the nuclear weapons research of Great Morstaybishlia and has contributed to the discovery of chemotherapy. The Queen Rosamund the Great Space Vehicle Assembly Site is one of the most important rocket and space shuttle assembly sites in the world.
Caltharus has a population of 98,400,483 people and an average density of 156 people per square kilometer (403 people per square mile). The country has an equal distribution of males to females. 27% of the population live in rural areas while 73% live in urban areas, the largest of which include Aeternum, Cavenhelm and Aurus. People in Caltharus enjoy lifespans of 75 years on average for men and 78 years for women due to access to affordable and high quality health care. Due to education and urbanisation (especially of women) fertility stands at 1.6 births per women. Nonetheless, the population has continued to grow at a rate of 0.56% due to the influx of immigrants largely from former Salovian countries especially Volova and Baykalia due to competitive wages in high-demand low-skilled jobs.
The Calth language enjoys recognised status in Caltharus. Alongside Staynish, it is the primary language of communication for the people. Various public amenities such as road signs are written in both Staynish and Calth and both languages are taught in schools. The Royal Academy for the Calth Language is responsible for the regulation and development of the Calth language. Nevertheless, due to the popularisation of Staynish media and the importance of Staynish in international trade, commerce and diplomacy, Staynish has eclipsed Calth in importance and number of speakers especially among the youth. The Ethalrian language is spoken by a small number of people to the south and southeast. Immigrants speak Axdelian, Salovian, Oan, Packilvanian and Komixemun, among others.
The most widely practiced religion is Thaerism. Furthermore, the overwhelming majority of Caltharusians are members of a temple and observe various religious rites. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high proportion of the population that does not profess belief in a deity or afterlife and regular attendance of weekly religious services is fairly low and is declining precipitously. Other religions are practiced in the country such as Reformed Thaerism, Mauism, Paxism and Verk'ohism.
Species and ethnic groups
The largest sentient species by population are humans. Of this group, native Calthians comprise the overwhelming majority, following by the Staynish, Salovians, Ethalrians and Oans. They are followed by Elves (who mostly comprise the Usprian ethnic group). They are followed distantly by Felines, Nekomimi and Cava. Due to increasing intermingling of people of different cultures, people of mixed species and mixed ethnicity are becoming more prevalent.
Education in Caltharus is administered by the Department of Education of His Majesty's Government with provinces and large cities having oversight of schools and cities and towns administering early childhood development facilities. Caltharus has an adult literacy rate of 100% and its students repeatedly score well in the annual School-Leaving and University Entrance Examinations. Caltharus has over 267 universities, polytechnics and colleges which provide tertiary education to over 2,482,000 students annually. Over 38% of Caltharusians have a university degree. The most prestigious university is the University of Lambertupol which has ranked at the top of Caltharusian university ranking metrics for the past 10 years. Other prestigious schools include the University of Aeternum, University of Aurus, the University of Cavenhelm, the University of Newton-Herring and the University of Kingsfort.
Caltharus has a wide variety of musical influences. Modern genres of music include electronic dance music, pop, hip-hop and rap, R&B, rock, heavy metal, and jazz. The Solar Music House is the largest music publisher and record label in the country. Various musical artists from Caltharus feature prominently on the Aurora Hot 100 and Hot 200 music charts such Lil Dizzy, Katey B, the Sun Matyrs and Super Bass. The country has also spawned prolific composers and producers such as Marvin Gavey, William Monroe, Caster Loadstar, Madeleine Berkeley and Salazar Dean. The most prestigious award that celebrates Caltharusian music is the Maddy Award named in honour of Madeleine Berkeley which is awarded by the Royal Academy for Modern Music. Caltharus has historically been highly influential in the development of the Baroque and Renaissance styles of classical music, and its Thaerism religious chanting and hymns have been influential in the development of modern musical styles in that country and abroad.
Caltharus is a major centre for modern fashion and high dress-making for Great Morstaybishlia. It has a professional high dress-making organisation known as the Royal Academy of Haute-Couture. Every autumn, the prestigious Aeternum Fashion Festival is held which features an exclusive invite-only list of fashion designers featuring bespoke artistic pieces. Various luxury fashion houses operate in Caltharus. Many dressmaking techniques such as whale-bone corsettery have remained alive and are preserved largely for tourism and niche consumers but have been experiencing gradual decline.
The Undersecretary of State for Caltharus: Sport, is an officer of the Office of Caltharus who heads up the Division on Sports and Recreation and is tasked with overseeing and developing sports. Caltharus is represented in the Great Morstaybishlia Sports and Aldanic Games association.
The most popular sport is table tennis, followed by Formula 1 racing, association football and cricket. The Calth Table Tennis League attracts over 3 million viewers per game, and is the largest sports league by revenue and viewership followed by the Calth Football Cup. There are over 3,530 teams registered with the Calth Table Tennis Association and 2,789 teams registered with the Calth Football Association. Caltharus has fielded athletes for many editions of the Aldanic Games.
Caltharus features an architectural history that spans over 2000 years. The tallest modern structure in Caltharus is the CTN (Caltharus Telecommunications Network) Tower in Aeternum at 450m which was built in 2003. The tallest occupied building in Caltharus is the Ferrus Tower which was built by Ferrus Industries in 2008 in the city of Aurus which has a height of 389m. Nevertheless, Caltharus has been relatively Conservative (for instance compared to Staynes) in the construction of skyscrapers due to the high density of historic buildings and the conservative attitudes surrounding historical sites.
Caltharus has over 1,570 castle, 27,991 temples and 256 palaces. The largest palace in the country is the Formira Summer Palace built by Queen Florence II in 1843 as a summer residence for the Royal Family in the Baroque style. The Fort Rock Citadel is a defensive fortification and former military base built by King Gustav II in 1730 that was emblematic of the Stoicist style of that era and is by far the largest such castle in the country. The Eskrador Cathedral was built in 1478 by King Lambertus III and serves as the largest and tallest Caltharusian cathedral with a bell tower that has a height of 67m and it was built in the Late Gothic style. Caltharus has 8 sites that are recognised by ICHO as International Heritage Sites which include the aforementioned three as well as Gorfolk Plinth (paleolithic rock structures), Kimandar Castle built in the Romantic style and being the inspiration for fairytale castles and the Doornstein Palace built by king Redmund III in 1238.
Caltharus observes all the public holidays that are observed in Great Morstaybishlia, but they also observe days unique to Caltharus:
|Julius Day||15 May||Celebrates the birth of Julius Gradwell in Lambertupol in the year 345 BCE, who was instrumental in the proliferation of Thaerism through his writings, preaching and supernatural miracles.|
|Crown Day||29 December||Celebrates formation of the United Kingdom of Staynes and Caltharus in 1515|