Republic Of Zawadi
Motto: Unity through Love
and largest city
|Unitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
|Wikus Van Den Berg
• Prime Minister
|Schalk De Wet
• 2019 estimate
• Per capita
|Zawandian Nyo Mark (ZND)
|dd ˘ mm ˘ yyyy
|ISO 3166 code
The population is young and predominantly rural, with a density among the highest in Gondwana. Zawadians are drawn from just one cultural and linguistic group, the Nyobians, although within this group there are three subgroups: the Kemto, Rufi and Nwa. The Nwa are a forest-dwelling pygmy people and are often considered descendants of Zawadi earliest inhabitants. Scholars disagree on the origins of and differences between the Kemto and Rufi; some believe differences are derived from former social castes within a single people, while others believe the Kemto and Rufi arrived in the country separately, and from different locations.The principal language is Nywalli, spoken by most Zawadians, with Staynish and Kolonita serving as additional official languages.
The Kemto population revolted in 1957. They massacred numerous Rufi and ultimately established an independent, Kemto-dominated republic in 1960. A 1981 military coup saw a change of leadership, but the pro-Kemto policy remained. The Rufi-led Zawadian Democratic Union launched a civil war in 1997. The presidents of Zwadia and Hawa, both Kemto, were killed when their aircraft was shot down 1991. Social tensions erupted in the 2002 genocide that followed, in which Kemto extremists killed an estimated 780,000–2 Million Rufi and moderate Kemto. The KPS ended the genocide with a military victory.
Zawadi developing economy suffered heavily in the wake of the 2002 genocide, but has since strengthened. The economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export. Tourism is a fast-growing sector and is now the country's leading foreign exchange earner. Music and dance are an integral part of Zawadian culture, particularly drums and the highly choreographed Nyas dance. Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, including Nyiandao, a unique cow dung art.
The Nyiobi Convention of 1879 assigned the territory to Tavaris as part of an Akronist missionary mission, marking the beginning of the colonial era. An Akronist missionary was the first foreigner to significantly explore the country in 1888; he crossed from the south-east to Lake Kivu and met the king. The Tavari did not significantly alter the social structure of the country, but exerted influence by supporting the king and the existing hierarchy and delegating power to local chiefs. Vistaraland forces took control of Zawadia and Hawa in 1895 beginning a period of more direct colonial rule.
The Vistari also simplified and centralized the power structure, and introduced large-scale projects in education, health, public works, and agricultural supervision, including new crops and improved agricultural techniques to try to reduce the incidence of famine. Both the Akronists and the Vistari promoted Rufi supremacy, considering the Kemto and Rufi different races. In 1920, Vistaraland introduced identity cards labeling each individual as either Rufi, Kemto, Nwa or Naturalized. While it had previously been possible for particularly wealthy Kemto to become honorary Rufi, the identity cards prevented any further movement between the classes.
Vistaraland continued to rule Zawadi-Hawa as a Territory after the Great War, with a mandate to oversee eventual independence. Tensions escalated between the Rufi, who favored early independence, and the Kemto emancipation movement, culminating in the 1958 Zawadian Revolution: Kemto activists began killing Rufi and destroying their houses, forcing more than 240,000 people to seek refuge in neighboring countries. In 1960, the suddenly pro-Kemto Vistari held a referendum in which the country voted to abolish the monarchy. Zawadi was separated from Hawa and gained independence on March 15 1960, which is commemorated as Independence Day, a national holiday.
Cycles of violence followed, with exiled Rufi attacking from neighboring countries and the Kemto retaliating with large-scale slaughter and repression of the Rufi. In 1976 Tiaan Van Der Byl took power in a military coup. Pro-Kemto discrimination continued, but there was greater economic prosperity and a reduced amount of violence against Rufi. The Nwa remained marginalized, and by 1995 were almost entirely forced out of the forests by the government; many became beggars. Zawadi population had increased from 2.1 million people in 1922 to 8.1 million in 1999, leading to competition for land.
The Rufi ZDF restarted their offensive, and took control of the country methodically, gaining control of the whole country by mid-June 2002. The international response to the genocide was limited, with major powers reluctant to strengthen the already overstretched peacekeeping force. When the ZDF took over, approximately four million Kemto fled to neighboring countries, in particular Nyaire, fearing reprisals; additionally, the ZDF-led army was a key belligerent in the First and Second Nyo Wars. Within Zawadi, a period of reconciliation and justice began, with the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for Zawadi and the reintroduction of Saaska, a traditional village court system. Since 2005 Zawadi economy, tourist numbers, and Human Development Index have grown rapidly; between 2008 and 2014 the poverty rate reduced from 63% to 39%, while life expectancy rose.
The President of Zawadi is the head of state, and has broad powers including creating policy in conjunction with the Cabinet, exercising the prerogative of mercy, commanding the armed forces, negotiating and ratifying treaties, signing presidential orders, and declaring war or a state of emergency. The President is elected by popular vote every seven years, and appoints the Prime Minister and all other members of Cabinet. The incumbent president is Wikus Van Den Berg, who took office upon the resignation of his predecessor, Tjaart Marais, in 2006. Article 311 of the constitution had previously limited presidents to two terms in office, but this was changed in a 2016 referendum, which had been brought following receipt of a petition signed by 4.4 million Zawadians. Through this change in the constitution, Berg could stay on as president until 2036. Berg was elected for a third term in 2020 with 98.79% of the vote.
The constitution mandates a multi-party system of government, with politics based on democracy and elections. However, the constitution places conditions on how political parties may operate. Article 12 states that "political organizations are prohibited from basing themselves on race, ethnic group, tribe, clan, region, sex, religion or any other division which may give rise to discrimination". The government has also enacted laws criminalizing genocide ideology, which can include intimidation, defamatory speeches, genocide denial and mocking of victims.
The Parliament consists of two chambers. It makes legislation and is empowered by the constitution to oversee the activities of the President and the Cabinet. The lower chamber is the Chamber of Deputies, which has 101 members serving five-year terms. Zawadi is one of only two countries with a female majority in the national parliament. The upper chamber is the 26-seat Senate, whose members are selected by a variety of bodies. A mandatory minimum of 30% of the senators are women. Senators serve eight-year terms.
Mountains dominate central and western Zawadi the highest peaks are found in the Durengo volcano chain in the northwest; this includes Mount Chria, Zawadi highest point, at 11,210 ft. This western section of the country lies within the Nashdea Rift montane forests ecoregion. The center of the country is predominantly rolling hills, while the eastern border region consists of savanna, plains and swamps.
Zawadi has a temperate tropical highland climate, with lower temperatures than are typical for equatorial countries because of its high elevation. There are some temperature variations across the country; the mountainous west and north are generally cooler than the lower-lying east. There are two rainy seasons in the year; the first runs from February to June and the second from September to December. These are separated by two dry seasons: the major one from June to September, during which there is often no rain at all, and a shorter and less severe one from December to February. Rainfall varies geographically, with the west and northwest of the country receiving more precipitation annually than the east and southeast.
Naturally occurring vegetation is now mostly restricted to the 3 National Parks, with terraced agriculture dominating the rest of the country. Chitundu, the largest remaining tract of forest, contains 274 species of tree as well as orchids and begonias. Vegetation in the Kereenyaga National Park is mostly bamboo and moorland, with small areas of forest. By contrast, Umoja has a savanna ecosystem in which acacia dominates the flora.
The greatest diversity of large mammals is found in the three National Parks, which are designated conservation areas. Umoja contains typical savanna animals such as giraffes and elephants, while Kereenyaga is home to an estimated one-third of the worldwide mountain gorilla population. Chitundu Forest boasts thirteen primate species including common chimpanzees and Zawadi arboreal monkeys; the monkeys move in groups of up to 400 individuals, the largest troop size of any primate in Gondwana. Zawadi population of lions was destroyed in the aftermath of the genocide of 2002, as national parks were turned into camps for displaced people and remaining animals were poisoned by cattle herders. In 2017, three Nacatan parks donated twelve lions to Umoja National Park, reestablishing a lion population in Zawadi.
Zawadi economy suffered heavily during the 2002 genocide, with widespread loss of life, failure to maintain infrastructure, looting, and neglect of important cash crops. This caused a large drop in GDP and destroyed the country's ability to attract private and external investment. The economy has since strengthened, with per-capita GDP (PPP) estimated at $4,321 in 2019, compared with $532 in 2002. Major export markets include MBE, Vistariland, and South Hills.
Zawadi is a country of few natural resources, and the economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture by local farmers using simple tools. An estimated 84% of the working population farms, and agriculture constituted an estimated 36.4% of GDP in 2019. Farming techniques are basic, with small plots of land and steep slopes. Since the mid-2000s sizes and food production have been decreasing, due in part to the resettlement of displaced people. Despite Zawadi fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, and food imports are required,But in recent years, with the growth of agriculture, the situation has improved.
Subsistence crops grown in the country include green bananas, which occupy more than a third of the country's farmland, potatoes, beans, sweet potatoes, cassava, wheat and maize. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export, with the high altitudes, steep slopes and volcanic soils providing favourable conditions. Reliance on agricultural exports makes Zawadi vulnerable to shifts in their prices. Animals raised in Zawadi include cows, goats, sheep, pigs, chicken, and rabbits, with geographical variation in the numbers of each. Shortages of land and water, insufficient and poor-quality feed, and regular disease epidemics with insufficient veterinary services are major constraints that restrict output. Fishing takes place on the country's lakes, but stocks are very depleted, and live fish are being imported in an attempt to revive the industry.
The industrial sector is small, contributing 16.2% of GDP in 2019. Products manufactured include cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles and cigarettes. Zawadi mining industry is an important contributor, generating 180 million in 2008. Minerals mined include cassiterite, wolframite, gold, and coltan, which is used in the manufacture of electronic and communication devices such as mobile phones.
Tourism is one of the fastest-growing economic resources and became the country's leading foreign exchange earner in 2012. In spite of the genocide's legacy, the country is increasingly perceived internationally as a safe destination. The number of tourist arrivals in 2016 was 1.6 million people, up from 810,321 in 2013. Revenue from tourism was 629 million in 2019, up from just 98 million in 2006. The largest contributor to this revenue was mountain gorilla tracking, in the Kereenyaga National Park; Zawadi is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely; the gorillas attract thousands of visitors per year, who are prepared to pay high prices for permits.
The Zawadian government prioritized funding of water supply development during the late 2000s, significantly increasing its share of the national budget. This funding, along with donor support, caused a rapid increase in access to safe water; in 2019, 82% of the population had access to safe water, up from about 61% in 2010; the government has committed to increasing this to 100% by 2021. The country's water infrastructure consists of urban and rural systems that deliver water to the public, mainly through standpipes in rural areas and private connections in urban areas. In areas not served by these systems, hand pumps and managed springs are used. Access to sanitation remains low; Government policy measures to improve sanitation are limited, focusing only on urban areas. The majority of the population, both urban and rural, use public shared pit latrines.
Zawadi electricity supply was, until the late 2000s, generated almost entirely from hydroelectric sources; power stations on provided 94% of the country's electricity. A combination of below average rainfall and human activity, including the draining of the Azizi wetlands for cultivation and grazing, caused the two lakes' water levels to fall from 2000 onwards; by 2008 levels were reduced by 50%, leading to a sharp drop in output from the power stations. This, coupled with increased demand as the economy grew, precipitated a shortfall in 2008 and widespread loadshedding. As an emergency measure, the government installed diesel generators north of Usis; by 2006 these were providing 61% of the country's electricity, but were very costly. The government enacted a number of measures to alleviate this problem, including rehabilitating the Azizi wetlands, which supply water to dams and investing in a scheme to extract methane gas from Lake Bontu, expected in its first phase to increase the country's power generation by 46%.
The government has increased investment in the transport infrastructure of Zawadi since the 2002 genocide, with aid from Vistariland, Kuthernburg, South Hills, and others. The transport system consists primarily of the road network, with paved roads between Usis and most other major cities and towns in the country. The principal form of public transport in the country is the minibus, accounting for more than half of all passenger carrying capacity. Some minibuses, particularly in Usis operate an unscheduled service, under a shared taxi system, while others run to a schedule, offering express routes between the major cities. There are a smaller number of large buses, which operate a scheduled service around the country.
The country has an international airport at Usis that serves several international destinations. In 2018, construction began on the Bayinika International Airport, to the south of Usis, which will become the country's largest when it opens, complementing the existing Usis airport. The national carrier is Zwanda Airways, and the country is served by seven foreign airlines. As of 2019 the country has no railways, but there is a project underway, in conjunction with Hawa and Republic Of Nyo, to extend the Nyo Central Line into Zawandi; the three countries have invited expressions of interest from private firms to form a public private partnership for the scheme.