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Lupines (Lupin sapiens or Lycanis lycanis) are a species of large, bipedal canids characterized by bipedality and large, complex brains enabling the development of advanced tools, culture, and language. Highly social, lupines tend to live in complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups that range from families to political states. Lupines exhibit a wide variety of social norms, values, and rituals that make up lupine society.
Some scientists equate lupines with all members of the genus Lupin, but in common usage it generally applies to Lupin sapiens, the only extant member. L. sapiens emerged approximately 250,000 years ago, evolving from Lupin fabriliusor, gradually replacing local populations of archaic lupines in Itur. For the vast majority of history, lupines were nomadic hunter-gatherers. With the beginning of agriculture, nomadic lupines began establishing permanent settlements around 12,000 years ago. At some point, lupines moved out of Itur and established populations on various continents across Urth. As populations increased in size and density, early forms of governance developed and a number of civilizations have risen and fallen.
The Unified Bipedalism Theory suggests that the Lupine group actually share a common ancestor with species such as Felines, Humans and Tieflings which would put them in the suborder Bipedaliforma. The Proto-Bipedaliform diverged into the Ambidactyliforma which out-survived the Unidactyliforma. They diverged into the Plantigradidae while those that remained digitigrade and hence belonged to the Digitigradidae group diverged into the Lycaniforma and Gatiforma. The Lycaniforms then split into the Vulpines of the genus Alepis and the Lupines of the genus Lycanis and the species Lycanis lycanis.
Genes and the environment influence lupine biological variation in visible characteristics, physiology, disease susceptibility, mental abilities, body size, and life span. Lupines exhibit genetic variation between males and females. On average, males have greater body strength and females generally have a higher body fat percentage. Females, on average, have a longer life span in almost every population around the world. Gender roles for men and women have varied throughout history and across societies, and challenges to predominant gender norms have recurred in many societies.
Lupines are omnivorous, capable of consuming a wide variety of plant and animal matter, and have used fire and other forms of heat to prepare and cook food since the time of L. erectus. They can survive for up to nine weeks without food, and three to four days without water. Generally, lupines are dinural and will sleep on average six to eight hours per day. Childbirth is dangerous and has a high risk of complications and death. Typically both the mother and father care for their children, who are helpless at birth.
The current population of lupines is estimated to be over 240 million scattered across the world, with Volkia having the largest population.
Etymology and definition
Anatomy and physiology
The majority of lupine physiology is closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology. The lupine body is made up of the legs, torso, the tail, the arms, the neck, and the head. There are about 110 million cells in the lupine body. The most commonly defined body systems in lupines are the nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune, integumentary, lymphatic, musculoskeletal, reproductive, respiratory, and the urinary systems. The dental formula for lupines is 126.96.36.199.
One of the larger sapient species on Urth, they generally range from 5 ft 10 in (177 cm) to 7 ft 10 in (238 cm). Males average 6 ft 8 in (203 cm) and females 6 ft 3 in (190 cm). Shrinkage of stature may begin in middle age in some individuals but is usually typical in those of advanced age. Males weigh on average 205 lb (93 kg) and females 175 lb (79 kg). Like many conditions, body type and body weight are influenced by both genetics and environment and varies greatly among individuals.
There are several key differences between lupines and their wolf cousins. Lupines evolved to be plantigrade and its molars have a flatter chewing surface, allowing lupines to eat more vegetable matter. They also possess humanlike hands and a thumb as opposed to paws at the end of their arms. The brain size of a lupine is also significantly larger than a wolf’s. They retain several features of their ancestors, including slightly pointed, triangular ears, a muzzle, and a long tail that averages 1.25 feet (40 cm). Lupines can have a wide variety of fur color ranging from pure white to black, but typically are mottled white, brown, gray, and black.
Lupines will typically live between 60 and 75 years old, with the worldwide average at 68.5 years old for males and 73 years for females. Individuals will often attain ages of 80 years and above in developed nations, but it is much rarer for an individual to reach ages above 90 years old.