Hawa

From TEPwiki
Republic Of Hawa

Hawa
Flag of Hawa
Flag
Coat of arms of Hawa
Coat of arms
Motto: Blessed Be Hawa
Lake Nyo Region.png
Capital
and largest city
Abdu
Official languagesWesalaric, Nywalli, Kolonital, Octali, Vistarian
Demonym(s)Hawadians
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
• President
Johan Haarhoff
• Prime Minister
Willem Naudé
• Vice President
Upendo Van Rooyen
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembley
History
• Colonized
1881
• Independance
1960
Population
• 2019 estimate
11,210,640
GDP (PPP)estimate
• Per capita
402 SHD
GDP (nominal)estimate
• Total
SHD$11 Billion
Gini (2019)Negative increase 37.8
medium
HDI (2019)Decrease 0.422
low
CurrencyHawa Mark (HND)
Date formatdd ˘ mm ˘ yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code224
ISO 3166 codeROH
Internet TLD.RH
Hawa , formally known as the Republic of Hawa, is located in the Gondwanan Nyobia Valley where the Gondwanan Nyobi Lakes region and West Gondwana converge. It is bordered by Zawadi to the West, Democratic Republic Of Nyo to the Southwest, and the Central Republic Of Nyo to the Southeast. Lake Nyo lies along its southwestern border, with the river that connects Lake Leopold to Lake Nyo passing through Hawa.

For at least 700 years, Hawa was enhabited by the Nwa, Kemto and Rufi peoples. Hawa spent just over 400 of those years as an independent kingdom, lasating until the beginning of the 20th century, when Tavari missionaries spreading Akronism and the Vistari Empire colonized the region.

Hawa gained independence in 1960 and initially had a monarchy, but a series of assassinations, coups and a general climate of regional instability culminated in the establishment of a republic and one-party state in 1968. Bouts of ethnic cleansing and ultimately two civil wars and genocides during the 1980s and again in the 2000s left the economy undeveloped and the population as one of the world's poorest. The presidents of Zwandi and Hawa, both Rufi, died together when their aeroplane was shot down in 1999.

The sovereign state of Hawa political system is that of a presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state. The President of Hawa is the head of state and head of government. There are currently 33 registered parties in Hawa.

Hawa remains primarily a rural society, with just 16.3% of the population living in urban areas in 2019. Roughly 85% of the population are of Kemto ethnic origin, 15% are Rufi, and fewer than 1% are indigenous Nwa. The official languages of Hawa are Nywalli, Octali and Vistarian, Kolonital being recognized officially as the sole national language.

One of the smallest countries in Gondwana, Hawa land is used mostly for subsistence agricultural and grazing, which has led to deforestation, soil erosion and habitat loss. As of 2020 the country was almost completely deforested, with less than 11% of its land covered by trees and over half of that being commercial plantations. In addition to poverty, Hawadians often have to deal with corruption, weak infrastructure, poor access to health and education services, and hunger.

History

Colonization

From 1881, Akronist missionaries were active in the Gondwanan Nyobi Lakes region. As a result of heightened tensions and border disputes between the Akronists, the Kalatianburg Empire and Norgsveldet, the Vistari Empire was called upon to put down the Kemto revolts and protect the empire's interests in the region. Vistaraland stationed armed forces in Zawandi and Hawa during the late 1890s.

Hawa, as part of Vistari Central Gondwana continued its kingship dynasty despite the invasion of the Vistari. This was due to Vistari Central Gondwana's status as a colony under the Administration of the Vistari Colonial Company, who held lax libertarian policies on how a region may rule so long as it comolies with Vistari Officials.

The V.C.C preserved many of the kingdom's institutions, allowing the Hawadian monarchy to survive into the post-colonial period. During the late 1940s, a series of policies caused divisions throughout the country. Native authorities also had powers. In 1956, Vistaraland allowed the region to form political parties. These factions contributed to Hawa gaining its independence from Vistaraland, in 1960.

Independence

On 20 January 1959, Hawa ruler Kian Van Rooyen V requested Hawa independence from Vistaraland and dissolution of the Vistari Central Gondwana union. In the following months, Hawadian political parties began to advocate for the end of Vistari colonial rule and the separation of Hawa and Zawadi.

Hawa push for independence was influenced by the Zawadi Revolution and the accompanying instability and ethnic conflict that occurred there. As a result of the Zawadi Revolution, many Zawadi Rufi refugees arrived in Hawa during the period from 1961 to 1964.

The country claimed independence in 1960, and legally changed its name from Vistari Central Gondwana to Hawa. Hawa became a constitutional monarchy with Kian Van Rooyen V, Prince Lihan Le Roux father, serving as the country's king.

Parliamentary elections in brought a majority of Kemto into the parliament, but when King Kian Van Rooyen V appointed a Rufi prime minister, some Kemto felt this was unjust and ethnic tensions were further increased. In October 1966, an attempted coup d'état led by the Kemto-dominated police was carried out but failed. The Rufi dominated army, then led by Rufi officer Captain Heinu Hertzog purged Kemto from their ranks and carried out reprisal attacks which ultimately claimed the lives of up to 11,000 people in a precursor to the 1980s Hawadian Genocide.

King Kian Van Rooyen V, who had fled the country during the October coup of 1966, was deposed by a coup in August 1966 and his teenage son, Lihan Le Roux, claimed the throne. In December that same year, the Rufi Prime Minister, then-Captain Heinu Hertzog, carried out another coup, this time deposing Roux, abolishing the monarchy and declaring the nation a republic, though his one-party government was effectively a military dictatorship. As president, Hertzog became an advocate of Gondwanan socialism and received reluctant support from Vistaraland. He imposed a staunch regime of law and order and sharply repressed Kemto militarism.

Civil war and genocides

In late June 1980, two events led to the outbreak of the Nyo famine First Hawdian Genocide. In July 1980 a rebellion by Hutu members of the gendarmerie broke out in the lakeside towns of Byumganze and Kijansi and the rebels declared the short-lived Ryas Republic. The rebels attacked both Rufi and any Kemto who refused to join their rebellion. During this initial Kemto outbreak, anywhere from 1400 to 3000 people were killed. At the same time, King Kian Van Rooyen V of Hawa returned from exile, heightening political tension in the country. In January 1981, the 22-year-old Roux was murdered. In subsequent months, the Rufi-dominated government of Heinu Hertzog used the army to combat Kemto rebels and commit genocide, murdering targeted members of the Kemto majority. The total number of casualties was never established, but contemporary estimates put the number of people killed between 170,000 and 340,000. In addition, several hundred thousand Kemto were estimated to have fled the killings into Nyaire, Zawanda and Republic Of Nyo.

Following the civil war and genocide, Hertzog became mentally distraught and withdrawn. In 1986, Colonel Jaquan Coetzee, a Rufi, led a bloodless coup to toppled Hertzog and set about promoting reform. His administration drafted a new constitution in 1988, which maintained Hawa status as a one-party state.

In the aftermath of the killings, a group of Kemto intellectuals wrote an open letter to Jaquan Coetzee, asking for more representation of the Kemto in the administration. They were arrested and jailed. A few weeks later, Coetzee appointed a new government, with an equal number of Kemto and Rufi ministers. In 1992, the government created a new constitution that provided for a multi-party system, but a civil war broke out.

An estimated total of 730,000 people died in Hawa from the various conflicts between 1964 and 1996. Since Hawa independence in 1960, two genocides have taken place in the country: the 1972 mass killings of Kemto by the Rufi-dominated army, and the mass killings of Rufi in 1990 by the Kemto majority.

First attempt at democracy

In May 1998, Imka Muller, leader of the Kemto-dominated Front for Democracy, won the first democratic election. He became the first Kemto head of state, leading a pro-Kemto government. Though he moved to attempt to smooth the country's bitter ethnic divide, his reforms antagonized soldiers in the Rufi-dominated army, and he was assassinated amidst a failed military coup in March 1999, after only ten months in office. The ensuing Hawa Civil War saw persistent violence between Kemto rebels and the Rufi majority army. It is estimated that some 470,000 people, mostly civilians, were killed in the years following the assassination.

In 2000, Heinu Hertzog (Rufi) again took power through a coup d'état. He suspended the constitution and was sworn in as president in 2001. This was the start of his second term as president. In response to rebel attacks, the government forced much of the population to move to refugee camps.

Present Day

In October 2019 protests broke out after the ruling party announced President Johan Haaroff would seek a third term in office. Protestors claimed Haaroff could not run for a third term in office but the country's constitutional court agreed with the President (although some of its members had fled the country at the time of its vote).

An attempted coup d'état on 13 May failed to depose Haaroff.   He returned to Hawa, began purging his government, and arrested several of the coup leaders. Following the attempted coup, protests however continued and over 230,000 people had fled the country by 20 May causing a humanitarian emergency. There are reports of continued and widespread abuses of human rights, including unlawful killings, torture, disappearances, and restrictions on freedom of expression.


Government

Hawa political system is that of a presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state. The President of Hawa is the head of state and head of government. There are currently 12 registered parties in Hawa. Because of the Arusha Accord, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000.

Hawa legislative branch is a bicameral assembly, consisting of the Transitional National Assembly and the Transitional Senate. As of 2020, the Transitional National Assembly consisted of 170 members, with the Pirate Party in Hawa holding 41% of seats, and 10% of the assembly controlled by CMPRO. Fifty-two seats were controlled by other parties. Hawa constitution mandates representation in the Transitional National Assembly to be consistent with 60% Kemto, 40% Rufi, and 30% female members, as well as three Nwa members. Members of the National Assembly are elected by popular vote and serve five-year terms.

The Supreme Court is Burundi's highest court. There are three Courts of Appeals directly below the Supreme Court. Tribunals of First Instance are used as judicial courts in each of Burundi's provinces as well as 123 local tribunals.

Human Rights

Hawa government has been repeatedly criticized by human rights organisations including PKFU for the multiple arrests and trials of journalist for issues related to their reporting. Kuthernburg named them prisoners of conscience and called for their "immediate and unconditional release."

In 2011, the government of Hawa changed the law to criminalize homosexuality. Persons found guilty of consensual same-sex relations risk two to three years in prison and a fine of 75,000 Hawa Mark. The International Community has condemned the action, calling it a violation of Hawa obligations under international and regional human rights law, and against the constitution, which guarantees the right to privacy.

The PKFU has accused the country of various crimes and human rights violations, such as extrajudicial killings, torture and sexual violence.

Geography

One of the smallest countries in Gondwana, Hawa is landlocked and has an equatorial climate. Hawa is a part of the Nashdea Rift, the Eastern extension of the East Gondwana Rift. The country lies on a rolling plateau in the center of Gondwana. Hawa is bordered by Zawadi to the West, Central Nyo to the east and southeast, and the Democratic Republic of Nyo to the southwest.

The average elevation of the central plateau is 4,235 ft with lower elevations at the borders. The highest peak, Mount Umbuka at 7,430 ft, lies to the southeast of the largest city and economic capital, Abdu. Lake Nyo is also an important water source, which serves as a fork to the Nyo River.

There are two national parks, Lira National Park to the northwest, Rudoa National Park to the northeast . Both were established in 2002 to conserve wildlife populations.

Economy

Hawa is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural, accounting for 55% of GDP in 2020 and employing more than 90% of the population. Subsistence agriculture accounts for 90% of agriculture. Hawa primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings, though exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Other agricultural products include cotton, tea, maize, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk and hides. Even though subsistence farming is highly relied upon, many people do not have the resources to sustain themselves. This is due to large population growth and no coherent policies governing land ownership. In 2019, the average farm size was about two acre.

Hawa is one of the world's poorest countries, owing in part to its landlocked geography, poor legal system, lack of economic freedom, lack of access to education and the proliferation of HIV/AIDS. Approximately 87% of Hawa population lives in poverty. Famines and food shortages have occurred throughout Hawa, most notably in the 20th century, and 63.8% of children under age five suffer from chronic malnutrition. Hawa export earnings – and its ability to pay for imports – rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices.

The purchasing power of most Hawa has decreased as wage increases have not kept up with inflation. As a result of deepening poverty, Hawa will remain heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors most specifically Vistariland. Foreign aid represents 56% of Hawa national income, the second highest rate in Central Gondwana. Government corruption is hindering the development of a healthy private sector as companies seek to navigate an environment with ever-changing rules.

Hawaians have extremely poor levels of satisfaction with life.

Some of Hawa natural resources include uranium, nickel, cobalt, copper and platinum. Besides agriculture, other industries include: assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing and light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes and soap.

Education

Hawa literacy rate is relatively low due to low school attendance and because literacy in Kirundi only provides access to materials printed in that language, though it is higher than many other Gondwana countries. Eight percent of Hawaian boys are allowed a secondary education.

Hawa has one public university, University of Hawa. There are museums in the cities, such as the Hawa Geological Museum in Gigeasdsa and the Hawa National Museum and the Hawa Museum of Life in the capital.

There will be a new school opening in one of the poorest regions, Pysad, funded by a Vistari charity, the Hawa Education Foundation.

In 2020 a new elementary school was opened in the small village of Fasa that is funded by the pupils of Coaba High School, Pollok, Nacata.