|Ethnicity||Packilvanians (Felines, Humans etc from Packilvania)|
|Users||1.1 billion to 1.5 billion|
Standard Modern Packilvanian (Bingolian)
The Packilvanian language (Packilvanian: luTamuk luBakhilfaniya) is language spoken predominantly in Central Yasteria. It is the sole official language of Packilvania, a co-official language in Hadena and Phoenixia, and a regionally recognised language of Drakkengard. Due to the Packilvanian diaspora, Packilvanian is spoken in many other countries around the world. The Packilvanian Language Board (PLB) is responsible for the teaching, recording, and oversight of the Packilvanian language in Packilvania and its territories. Packilvanian is not a unified language but consists of hundreds of dialects and local varieties. As such, under the rule of the Bedonite dynasty the PLB working with academics from universities, developed Imperial Standard Packilvanian (ISP), which is a version based on the Bingol dialect and is used for official purposes, news and formal education. It supplanted Modern Standard Packilvanian which was the variety used by the Packilvanian Communist Party government. The estimated total population of speakers is 1.5 billion first language speakers.
Standard Modern Packilvanian is regarded as an agglutinative synthetic language as many affixes are appended to roots to impart and alter their meaning. Verbs are marked for 5 aspects (technically the unmarked form is the perfect none-past relative time) and 6 moods (of which the associative and applicative moods are rarely used). Nouns are marked for class (2), number (2), negation (1) and case (5, except for the "pure case" unless the object is at the head of the clause). There are no true adjectives and adverbs as descripts and modifiers do not require a copula. They typically follow the word that they are describing.
Packilvanian is written in the Packilvanian script whose print or block version is an alphabet but whose cursive form is an abjad. Packilvanian uses a base 12 counting system and has 3 number types. The usual structure of sentences is the SVO model however some constructions use VSO. The language also uses a distinct solar-lunar calendar that uses 20-hour days, 72-minute hours, and 12-day weeks.
This language is generally regarded as difficult for speakers of Staynish-Codexian to learn due to the heavy use of agglutination, however, many roots have cognates and there is speculation that Staynish-Codexian diverged from an ancestor of Ancient Packilvanian at least 8,000 years ago as humans migrated to Aurora and South East Yasteria due to Feline encroachment.
There is evidence that there were hundreds of languages spoken throughout Central Yasteria that belong to the same historical language family going back over 20,000 years. This so-called Proto-Packilvanian language family was spoken by hunter-gatherer nomadic Bone and Stone Age civilisations.
The first recorded evidence of Packilvanian is an early manuscript of the Ichtmar, the first religious text of Paxism and one of the oldest continuously used written religious texts in the world. The Ichtmar is said to have been written either directly by Prophet Besmali or his disciples. It contains a transcription of oral folk beliefs that were prevalent in the Ashura region of Packilvania at the time. The document is estimated to have originated approximately 4,000 years ago. It is written in Ancient Akas Akilian (an ancestor of modern Packilvanian) which is believed to gave been the true ancestor language of Packilvanian.
The writing of the Ichtmar and the spread of Contemporary Paxism, during an era in which the first kingdoms and agrarian societies were being established, gave to the formation of more centralised versions of the language. The writing of the Vagumar over 3000 years ago by Suleiman of Yehudah led to the popularity of Classical Yehudian as the language of formal writing and high society in ancient Packilvania. Additions made to the Vagumar over 2000 years ago, following the meteor strike in Ashura which nearly destroyed the Memorial of the Jovian Gate, gave rise to the proliferation of Classical Ashurian as the language of scholarship and religion.
Starting with Iktan the Devout, the Kingdom of Bakil began an aggressive expansion throughout Central Yasteria. They spread the Middle Bakilian dialect of Packilvanian throughout their empire which was a daughter language of Classical Ashurian. Middle Bakilian became the language of state and military affairs, giving its name to the Packilvanian language. The invention of more durable forms of paper during the reign of the Iktanite dynasty gave rise to a literary form of Packilvanian known as Iktanite Packilvanian. This was further strengthened and consolidated when the Magisterium of Paxism was established under Melkezedek the Great to oversee Paxism. When the Iktanite dynasty fell around 1000 CE, Iktanite Packilvanian was the main version of the language. A version of this known as Liturgical Packilvanian remains the standard form used for religious reasons.
When Ishak the Great established the second Packilvanian empire, he moved his court from Tashkar to Bingol. The Tashkarian dialect became the main dialect of Packilvanian and supplanted Iktanite Packilvanian by giving rise to Zubraynite Packilvanian. The invention of the printing press and the proliferation of formal education further strengthened the standardisation of Packilvanian. Under Saidun the Conqueror, the Demirite dynasty overthrew the Zubraynite dynasty and introduced Halalerian Packilvanian as the court and government language. It was during their reign that serious attempts at standardisation were undertaken giving rise to the Modern Standard Packilvanian. It was the first time the name "Packilvanian" was used to describe the languages of Packilvania and the first real attempt to suppress other varieties.
When the Communist Party took over in 1917, Gideon Muktan believed in language as a tool for political liberation through literacy. As such, the Communist Party introduced a simpler version of Packilvanian for everyone to learn. This was known as Common Standard Packilvanian. When the Bedonite dynasty under Amhoud I took over in 1985, they introduced Makobarian Packilvanian as the language of the court. This gave rise to the current version of mainstream Packilvanian known as Imperial Standard Packilvanian. People do not typically learn ISP as a spoken language except when working in formal contexts. With the rise of the Internet and modern education, Imperial Standard Packilvanian is being increasingly spoken as a first language by the young. Furthermore, immigrants into Packilvania learn ISP.
|Mid||ɛ (e)||ɔ (o)|
Vowels can have long forms as follows:
- Close back long form: oo (Moon)
- Open central long form: aa (Barn)
- Close front long form: ee (Been)
Vowels have a short form as well:
- After approximates and nasal phonemes or at the ends of words |a| and |e| are reduced to a schwa.
|Affricate||Voiced||dh (ejective)||j (voiced)|
|Voiceless||th (ejective)||ts||ch (ejective)|
Although this is the Standard repository of consonants, certain consonants can morph based on the accent as follows:
- Q, the voiceless uvular plosive, can be pronounced as the voiceless ejective affricate
- H, the Voiceless glottal fricative, can be pronounced as a voiced glottal stop or voiceless uvular fricative
- The SH sound can be any Voiceless postalveolar fricative except for the Voiceless retroflex fricative.
- The JH sound can be either a Voiced palato-alveolar fricative or a voiced retroflex fricative.
- The D sound is more accurately a Voiced denti-alveolar plosive but can be pronounced as a Voiced alveolar plosive in some accents.
- The TH sound can be a Voiceless non-sibilant dental plosive. It can be pronounced as a Voiceless dental fricative in some accents. It is distinct from the T sound.
In Packilvanian, the default stress is on the penultimate syllable of the world unless shifted by a long vowel. Consonant clusters of more than three distinct consonantal sounds are nonexistent. A word cannot end in a long vowel. The letter "h" is pronounced as a sibilant at the start of a word and if in the middle of a word it is surrounded by vowels. It is pronounced as an aspirant at the end of words or after voiceless consonants if in the middle of the word. Although Packilvanian permits consonant clusters of 2 consonants, not all possible permutations of 2-consonant clusters are allowed. Nasal consonants cannot precede any other consonant. Long vowels cannot form part of a diphthong. Not all these phonotactics are applicable in all accents.
Packilvanian is written in the Packilvanian Script which comes in two official forms: the Cursive and Regular versions. The Regular version is an alphabet as every glyph represents either a consonant or a vowel. In contrast, the Cursive version is a hybrid abjad that uses diacritics to mark vowels in the middle of words. Vowels are only written when they appear as the first letter of a word. Vowels can be omitted altogether in Cursive as is regularly the case in most settings as the vowels can be inferred by the reader. The letter "I" is technically not represented at all and must be inferred in some texts. Languages that use Packilvanian Script can adapt it to suit their needs. For instance, languages that have diphthongs can use multiple diacritics on top of each other to represent those sounds. Languages that devoice or prenasalize sounds can use appropriate diacritics. Thus, Packilvanian can act as a universal phonetic-based writing style for any language in the world. Cursive Packilvanian can be written without lifting the hand except to add diacritics making it highly efficient for languages that are typically written on paper or parchment.
Nouns are marked for class, case, and number. Packilvanian nouns are built as follows:
|No case (nominative and sometimes accusative)
"o-" (Accusative) "a-" (Genitive) "we-" (Locative) "ye-" (Instrumental) "kha-" (Infinitive)
|"-u-" (singular or uncountable)
The are 5 types of case markers. Case markers indicate what entities are having the action done to them or are doing the action in relation to other entities within a sentence. The cases are as follows:
- The nominative and accusative cases are unmarked within the sentence and are usually determined by the order in which they appear in the sentence. For example: The sentence "The armed forces are invading that country" is translated as "leHagan leKharish lejahdafiyal ludomineqa". leHagan is the subject (or in the nominative case) while the object is ludomineqa, which is in the accusative case. If you want to change the structure of the sentence so that the object is in the predicate or head of the clause then you add an "o-" to indicate the object (I.e., to mark the predicate as in the accusative case). For example: "That country is being invaded by the armed forces" is "oluDomineqa lujahdafiyal leHagan leKharish". As you will notice, the class of the verb changes to that of the new noun in the head of the clause.
- The genitive case indicates that one noun is possessed or proceeds from or is subordinate to another noun. This is marked by the prefix "a-". The genitive always follows the noun which possesses it or from which it proceeds. For instance "The teachers of this school are good" is translated as "meRabiy alumadrasarud mebenaan".
- The locative case indicates that the noun is is site at which the action is being done. It precludes the need for a position-marking adjective or adverb. It is indicated by the "we-" prefix. For example. "The woman entered her house through the northern gate" is "muFamiya muyadhaabayn lubayeet adhun welubawaab luKeraat" or "weluBawaab luKeraat mufamiya muyadhaabayn lubayeet".
- The instrumental case indicates that a noun is being used by another noun to accomplish a task. It is indicated by the "ye-" prefix. For example: "The judge adjudicated the criminals by the laws of Packilvania" is "muQadim muqadmam mehirmatan yeleKhanon aBakhilfaniya" or "yeleKhanon aBakhilfaniya muqadim muqadma mehirmatan".
- The infinitive is used to mark a non-finite verb that has noun-like properties in the context in which is is used. It is indicated through the "kha-" prefix. For example the sentence "Marriage is important to unite the family" translates to "luZawija lubasishme khaluikhtifiya lubayeet" or "khaluIkhtifiya lubayeet luzawija lubasishme". Take note that usually everything after the kha-, ncluded other words, comprise the infinitive phrase and move with it in the sentence. In this case, khaluikhtifiya lubayeet comprises the infinitive phrase.
Classes or genders go after cases and before numbers. There are two classes: the "-m-" infix is used for sentient things while the "-l-" infix is used for non-sentient things.
- The Sultan in Packilvania is muShultan
- The book in Packilvanian is luKitab
Markers of quantity or amount go after the class infix and before the root or stem of the word. The marker for plural is "-e-" while that of the singular is "-u-". Uncountable things like water or sand are regarded as singular. For example:
- The business in Packilvanian is luChubal
- The days in Packilvania are leYam
- The teacher in Packilvanian is muRab
- The councilmen in Packilvania are meWatmijhalis
Demonstratives are used to determine how far or close the noun is relative to the speaker. It is added to the end of the noun after the root.
- Distal: "-qa" is used to convey a similar meaning to those or that. For instance, "muDonahaqa' '" is "That Leader".
- Proximate: "-arud" is used to communicate a similar meaning to this or these. For example, "meBayeetarud" means "These Houses".
Verbs are constructed as follows: [contextual prefixes]-[root]-[adverbial suffixes]-[inflectional suffixes].
- Contextual prefixes are those of the noun to which the verb is related i.e. Definiteness-negation-class-number
- Root is the stem of the word
- Adverbial suffixes are roots of adverbs that modify the verb such as quality, quantity, size etc.
- Inflectional suffixes tell you the aspect and mood.
Contextual prefixes and pronomiality
Verbs in Packilvanian are prefixed with the same prefixes as their subject. These are called contextual prefixes because they tell you the context of the subject. By extension, verbs in Packilvanian have pronomial properties for the subject. However, they are not marked for the case as it is assumed they are always referring to the subject which is always in the nominative case (which is unmarked). For instance, bemanje means they eat. This means that you do not need the pronoun of the subject to understand who and what is doing the action described by the verb. Thus they are applied in the same order as the nouns as follows (refer to the noun section for more info):
|Not||Type of word||Number of entities||Stem of the word|
Adverbial suffixes are added between the root and the inflectional suffixes. They describe or modify the verb performed. They must appear in a specific order as indicated in the modifiers and descriptors section.
Verbs are inflected for time as follows:
|Aspect||Perfect||none, for example : bemanje||-am or -m, for example bemanjam|
|Imperfective||Habitual||none, for example bemanje||-ad or -d, for example: bemanjad|
|Continuous||-ul or -l, for example bemanjedol||-us - or -s, for example: bemanjegum|
Inflectional suffixes (markers of aspect and mood) are appended to the end of the word as follows:
|Root||Adverbial suffixes||Applicative mood||Reciprocal or associative mood||Imperative mood||Optative mood||Interrogative mood||Aspect|
|N/A||N/A||For or on behalf of||To itself or to another entity in the same group||Command or instruction||Wish or uncertainty||Question||Movement through time and space|
|N/A||N/A||-por or - epor||-shalv or - eshalv / -chas or -echas||-ku or -eku||-qar or -eqar||-fi or -efi||Look at table above|
This is the default mood and it states things as fact. It usually follows the word order: subject verb object
- Present perfect/habitual form: I speak with my mom everyday. Mitamka muyam myuma amin.
- Present continuous form: My friend is playing with her doll. muSol amin mulaybul yelulayeeb adhun khapajrashalv.
- Past perfect form: The teacher had spoken to me about my behaviour. Murab mutamkam min lubehad amin.
- Past habitual form: We used to race to the cafeteria after school. Wapramnathulad lufitar lumadras welushaammul
- Past continuous form: The man had no right soliciting money from his friends. muWayeet nemurakhat muqeeras leDinar alesol adhun.
This mood is used to ask questions. Interrogative clauses are formed by appending the suffix -fi or-efi to a word such as -Memulfi (Do they eat? or Are they eating?). -fi basically functions like the Staynish words "which?" or "what?". Depending on what it's attached to, it will point to what the speaker is asking about.
The following examples are examples where the speaker already knowns about the object or subject of the question, but wants to receive confirmation for the question person to confirm this. In this case the fi will fall on the verb as follows:
- Non past perfect/non past habitual: Will you ask your friend what his plans are for the holidays? Duqeerfi musol adu welexan adhun weleyamdan?
- Past perfective: Have the soldiers returned from their campaign? Mujahedeen menahedfim welukhravan aishne?
- Past continuous: Were they riding their bicycles in the garden? Ishshareedfis ledaraaja aishne welujardin?
- Past habitual: Did you often find yourself wondering what your purpose is? Dulaktchasfid tafkirus lutsiha adu?
- Non past continuous: Will you see a lot of people walking on the street? Dunarafil lumustaf leshabil lethaar welushari?
Fi can also be added at the end of placeholder nouns to point something unknown about which the speaker asking instead of the verb:
- How? e.g., Amhoud lutakhaalam min lutaraqfi (translation: How could Amhoud abandon me, literally: Amhoud had abandoned me for what reason?)
- When? e.g., Amhoud luyadhaab luqa weuma adhun khronfi? (translation: When did Amhoud leave his mother? Literally: Amhoud go away from mother his at what time?
- Where? e.g., Amhoud lufaykhalam lakhtfi? (translation: Where did Amhoud arrive?, literally: Amhoud had arrived at which time?) If the sentence had been Amhoud lufaykhalamfi? then the sentence would be: Did Amhoud arrive?
- Which? e.g., Amhoud luyamurul mejahdinfi? (translation: Which soldier is Amhoud commanding?, literally: Amhoud is commanding which officer?)
- Whose? e.g., Amhoud luabnefi? This sentence means Is Amhoud a son? But Amhoudfi luabne means Which Amhoud is a son? if you want to ask, Whose son is Amhoud, you need to be specific. For example: Of which woman is Amhoud the son of? Amhoud muabne anisafi? This is also an example of how the genitive case can act as an object in the sentence
- Why? e.g., Amhoud luyadhaabus weluqa yelusababfi? (translation: Why is Amhoud going there? literally: Amhoud is going there for what reason?)
Subjuctive mood is used to indicate that there is uncertainty. This is done by appending the suffix -qar or -eqar to the end of the verb word. For example:
- Stative: If the man cannot control his anger, I will be forced to fire him. Translation: Luwayeet nelukontroleqarul lukirion adhun, mifurdul mudismiss dhun. This sentence is written in a very casual way. People from Fidakar and people who live in cities like Kemer tend to speak like this.
- Object but no subject: If John was loved, he wouldn't act in this way. Translation: oIhan lumaraqarus, dhun nemubehadel yelutaraqarud. Literally: (object mark)John Act(sbjn)(past-cont.) he (negation)(person-mark)behave(present-cont)
- Interrogative mood: What would you do if I told you that I don't love you? Translation: Duhadefi mitamkaqar du minemara du?
- Reflexive mood: If you cared about yourself, you would stop acting like a fool. Translation: Dumarashalveqar duqif mubehada muahmaq.
- Applicative mood: If you continue working for those people, you will go crazy. Translation: Dustamareqarul mushugeporul leshabilqa dumajnun welumustaf.
- It is not possible to use the subjunctive mood and the imperative mood.
The imperative mood indicates a command or instruction. This is indicated by a appending the suffix -ku or -eku to the end of the word. For example: Bemanjeku! (Eat!). Imperative mood may not be used with optative, or interrogative moods.
- Applicative mood: Make a sandwich for him. Yatbakheporki dhun lusendawij.
- Reflexive mood: Do not hurt yourself! Translation: Neharmashalveki!
- Some people omit the ki altogether because in many contexts it's obvious that the speaker is giving a command.
The reciprocal mood indicates that that the verb is doing something to itself. The suffix -shalv is used to indicate this. For instance bemanjeshalv (They eat themselves).
This means to do something for or on behalf of another using the suffix -epor or -por For instance: Bemanjepor (They eat for/on behalf of someone/something else).
Derivation of verbs from nouns
In some cases, if a verb is derived from a noun, a pattern can be observed. This usually applies to nouns with two syllables. This does not apply to all verbs and nouns or to all two-syllable nouns. If the noun's last syllable follows the pattern Consonant-Vowel-Consonant, the vowel disappears and an "a" is appended to the end. If the first syllable follows the pattern Consonant-Vowel and the consonant is a "u", then the "u" is replaced with an "a". For example:
- Bahim = noise but to make a noise is bahma
- Praman = a road, but to walk is pramna
- Tamuk = language, but to talk is Tamka.
- Chubaal = business, but to conduct business is to chabla
|This page (or section) is a work in progress by its author(s) and should not be considered final.|
Pronouns are inflected for case and class where applicable:
- First person indicates that the speaker or a group of which the speaker is a part is performing the action or having the action performed on them. The first person pronoun replaces their names or any another reference. The prefix can appear as either a word or a stand along word as follows:
- In the singular form, the prefix mi- is used or the word min. If the speaker is the subject then, the prefix mi replaces the noun as well as the case and other initial markings on the verb root. For instance: "Mitad muMeer" means "I speak to the Governor". If the roles are reversed then the sentence would change as follows: muMeer mutad min.
- In the plural form, to include the addressee, the pronoun prefix is Wa and the stand alon word is Wan. "Wasalam welumajhid" means "We prayed at the Temple". Alternatively, it can be: "The teacher spoke to us", that being "Murab mutadam wan". Alternatively, the pronoun can be placed at the head of the sentence as follows "Owan metadas muMeer" means "We were spoken to by the Governor". To exclude the addressee, you would use the prefix sil- and the word silne as follows: "We are finishing the business we started". "Silnahal luchubal lubidayt silne ".
- Second person: This indicates the addressee.
- The singular form used the the Du prefix and Dun word. For example: You are not allowed to speak to the Sultan. Nedurakht khatad wemuShultan.
- The plural form is zu and it works as follows: "You donate all your money to charitable causes", which in Packilvanian is Zuzakat ludinar luned azun welejahud lezakatiya. In this sentence, the plural second person pronoun zun or you is in the genitive case.
- Third person indicates someone or a group that the speaker is speaking to the addressee about. The following pronouns apply.
- To speak about someone or something in the singular third person form, the prefix dhu- is used and the stand alone word dhun is used. For example, the sentence "John came by the house last summer. He brought a basket of apples". In Packilvanian this would be: "Ihan muyatam lusayf lumad welubayt. Dhuahdur lusala aletufaah". Another example is "I have not seen him since he drove by. Have you looked for him in the shed?" In Packilvanian this would be, "Neminara dhun sayinka dhushareed wehuna. Dunarafim dhun welutasalit?"
- To speak about a group, you would use the prefix "ish-" and the pronoun "ishne". For example: "They had a meeting with their boss yesterday". This is "Ishmijhalis lulamish lumaharaj aleishne".
Modifiers and descriptors
Adverbs and adjectives are grammatically treated the same, thus linguists do not make a distinction between the two, giving rise to the use of the loose term "modifiers" and "descriptors".
The class Prefix of the noun or verb that the modifier is modifying is attached to the root of the modifier. For example: LuBakhilfanya lujikhantalia (Gigantic Packilvania) or Luashamiliya lurapadin (Assimilate(s) quickly). In the case of imperatives whereby the subject of the verb is unclear, the root of the modifier may be used alone, for example: Ashamiliya rapadin! (Assimilate quickly) If the subject of the verb is known, the class prefix of the subject can be attached to the modifier, for instance: Bedu, beenekomimi, berejem berashambalia obeBakhilfanya. Ashamiliya berapadin! (You, Nekomimi, must resemble the Packilvanians! Assimilate quickly!)
The modifiers appear in the following order:
- Quantity, number, order or frequency
- Quality or opinion.
- Direction or position or relation
- Proper adjective (often nationality, other place of origin, or material)
- Purpose or qualifier.
A noun for example would be as follows: The ten beautiful big old long blue Packilvanian cooking knives is vemashat vedekha vepulkhra vemaknir vejener vechuhul velazul veBakhilfaniya vekuyseen.
A verb for example: Fly once quickly northward everywhere today would be Vailnganutevroomboriyaahmnayloqashabatqaku in the imperative or Luvail lunganute luvroom luboriya luahmanayloqa lushabat in the indicative (which implies a subject).
The location of the subject, object or instrument relative to another is usually implied by the use of the locative case. However, to specify the relative position, special modifiers called postpositions are used. For example:
- -beneyath: beneath, under or underneath
- -ubuv: above
- -ashidi: beside
- -akhansta: against
- -dupa: on top of, on
- -aye: with (not to be confused with the instrumental case)
- -munga: among
- -idaween: between
- -akhrono: during
- -ayn: within, in
- -xepet: except, excluding
- -gurash: across
- -nayeer: near, close
- -joor: through
- -vah: off
- -rotunda: around
- -berefia: before
- -futar: after
- -far: far
Diminutive, intensive and feminisation
These are used to show something to a smaller degree: the suffix -amne or -mne can be added as a suffix to noun, verb or modifier. This can be doubled to further diminuate the word concerned. For example, luwayeet (man) becomes luwayeetamne (small man) which can become luwayeetamnemne (a very small or pathetic man). Double diminutive are often used as pejoratives.
Intensive forms have the suffix -gur or -agur. intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. For example: Manje (eat) becomes manjegur (devour) becomes manjegurgur (consume gluttonously). Double intensives are also pejoratives in many cases.
Packilvanian does not have sex-based grammatical gender but a suffix can be added to a word to feminise it. -Elea and -lea are the official root however a simple -a, -ia and -lia have been used to effeminise words. Non-feminised words also use the latter three at their ends. For example lumedichi (doctor) becomes lumedichilea (female doctor). Feminisation applied to men is regarded as a pejorative.
Subordinates and conjunctions
These words join two or more clauses and phrases. These are grammatically adverbs. The constructions work similarly to Staynish-Codexian.
- Aladha: Although, though, even though
- Akhausa: Because
- Rashalta: As a result
- Nadina: And, as well as
- Neshtemne: Nevertheless
- Nemudwanad: Notwithstandin
- Oor: Or
- Sayinka: Since
- Soobaqaintalia: Subsequently
- Tarafar: Therefore
- Tilha: Until
- Pushtar: Despite
- Khawayar: However
Numbers describe a numerical quantity. Packilvanian uses its own numerals and it uses a base ten system. Further there are three types of numbers: cardinals, ordinals and frequentials. A "t" is added at the end of a cardinal to make it an ordinal however if the cardinal already ends in a "t", then an "et" must be added to end of the cardinal to make it an ordinal. "Shan" is added at the end of a cardinal to make it a frequential.
Here is a example of a number:
Calendar and Time
Using the Packilvanian Calendar
The Packilvanian calendar uses the Common Era lunisolar calendar. The months match up but the weekdays are vastly different. Each week comprises 12 days. A month is called a "Dool", a Day is called a "Yam" and a Week is called a "Iskar". The day comprises 20 hours of 72 minutes each. An hour is called a "Hoor" and a minute is called a "Tash" while a second is called a "Jum".
If you want to tell someone one the time is, there are two options:
- Digital time: Here you say the numbers on a digital clock for example if the time is 19:67, the you say Sool na Shvaan sool-sunkt na shvaan (Nineteen sixty seven).
- Analogue time: There are two ways:
- When you have passed the half way point of the hour, I.e., 36 minutes, You say the number of minutes until the coming hour. For example: if the time is 17:65, you say Shvaan tulha sool na saash (7 to 18).
- When you have not passed the half way point then you say how many minutes have passed in the hour you are currently in. For example if the time is 09:34, you say: Sool-dasht na dakt sayinka Naan (Thirty four since nine).
- When you want to say approximately half way, you say that you are in the middle of the hour you are in: if the approximate time is 10:36, you say Derj Dakht (Half ten).
- When you want to say approximately a quarter past the start of the hour, for example 12:18, you say, Verj Sayinka Sool (A fourth since 12).
- When you want to say a quarter to the next hour, for example 3:54, you say, Verj tulha Vaar (A fourth to 12).
- When you want to say a third from the current hour, for example 6:24, you say Terj Sayinka Saash (A third since 6).
- When you want to say a third to the next hour, for instance 7:48, you say Taarj tulha Gat (A third until 8). This formula applies for a 6th, 8th or 12th of the hour
Visit this link for an up to date dictionary: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1OlBRHpZkPQGWM6oeTPDqFAJ5Q6T5mePNhINnhVyuLjE/edit?usp=sharing
You can also have a look at the List of Packilvanian legal terms.
- Greetings: Both greetings when leaving and staying are simply Ashamiliya
- Showing appreciation: Shukraan (which directly translates to "grateful" and is a shortened form of the phrase "Mishukraan" which means I am grateful, or "Washukraan" which means we are grateful)
- Asking for directions: lu[INSERT LOCATION] lulakhtamfi? (meaning "The [INSERT LOCATION] is located where?" or "Where is [INSERT LOCATION]"). For example:
- I am lost: Nelakhtamshalv
- Where is the cinema: luKino lulakthamfi? (informal) or luYeraan aluyudiyzujaj lulakhtamfi? (formal)
- Where is the train station: luBaan lulakhtamfi? (informal) or luYistubil aleShareedmasar lulakthamfi? (formal)
- Where is the embassy: luYumabaas lulakhtamfi? (informal) or luBawaab aleLahdazayeen lulakhtamfi? (formal)
- Where is the hotel: luYot'hal lulakhtamfi? (informal) or luYistubil ameZiyara lulakhtamfi ? (formal)
- Where is the stadium: luKhladitaryum lulakhtamfi? (informal) or luYeraan aleLayeeb lulakhtamfi?
- Where is the restaurant: luYaklama lulakhtamfi (informal) or luKhama aluyaklas lulakhtamfi?
- Where is the grocery store: luBazaaryakul lulakhtamfi?
- At the store:
- I would like [to order] [INSERT ITEM]: Mirakhbas lu[INSERT ITEM] e.g. luFalaful (falafel), luZafrayeen (saffron), luLad'hu (ladoo)
- I am looking for [INSERT THING]: Minazralakhat lu/le/mu/me[INSERT ITEM] e.g., luHalibsayeeb (cheese), luHalibsamik (cream), luHalibtakhmar (yoghurt)
- This will cost [INSERT AMOUNT]:
leGaradarud leqeertalimat ledinar lesaank (These items demand 5 dinar)
- Here is your change: leDinar letabaqiya (Your residual money).
- Fadleeki [min] (Excuse me, when you're trying to be very polite)
- Gafiraki [min] (Forgive me, used for something not serious like if you're late)
- Rahmaniyaki [min] (Be merciful to me or have mercy on me, is used for something serious).
- Miqadmashalv (I judge myself, admitting guilt for a deliberate wrong)
- Midhanabam (I was mistaken, admitting committing an unintentional action)
- Mineyasmam yeluihtiram (I did not handle with with care, admitting guilt for negligence I.e., unintentional lack duty of care)
- Miqadmashalv yeneluyasmam yeluihtiram (Admitting guilt for a deliberate reneging on a responsibility to show duty or care)
- Mister (generic male honorific): muSheikh
- Married woman: muSheikha
- Unmarried woman: muYadhaar
- Getting around
- I am taking the [INSERT TRANSPORT]: Miyadhaabeqa yelu[INSERT TRANSPORT] e.g., luShareed (car), luShareedmasar (train), luDaw (ferry), luYasamsayah (airplane)
- I am going to the [INSERT PLACE OF INTEREST]: Miyadhaabeqa welu[INSERT PLACE OF INTEREST] e.g., luBazaargur (market or mall), luBayeetgur aluLayeeb (resort), luYistubil aluHayah (hospital)
- [INSERT PLACE] is on [INSERT DIRECTION] lu[INSERT PLACE] welu[INSERT DIRECTION]: luYistubil aleJuriyhayah weluyasar (The pharmacy is on the right), luBinahdhakra weluhaqun (The monument is on the right), Bingol weluXiden (Bingol is to the west), Medayin weluKeraat (Medayin is to the north), Akhastar weluVoral (Akhastar is to the south),Seerahel weluRayunt (Seerahel is to the east)