Oan Defence Forces
|Oan Defence Force|
Nga Ope Taua Huihui o nga Moutere Oa
|Service branches||Oan Army |
Oan Air Force
|Prime Minister||Maui Uye-Ahua|
|9 million, age 15–49|
|7 million, age 15–49|
|Budget||♅35 billion |
|Percent of GDP||4.4%|
|Domestic suppliers||Oan Arms|
|Foreign suppliers||Kuthernburg, Great Morstaybishlia|
|Ranks||Refer to article|
The military of the Oan Isles consists of the Oan Defence Forces (Nga Ope Taua Huihui o nga Moutere Oa in the Oan language, abbreviated ODF). The Oan Defence Force is composed of the Oan Navy, the Oan Army and the Oan Air Force. The Rangitanga-a-te-Moana is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Prime Minister is the highest military authority and the Minister of Defence administers the daily affairs of the armed forces. The Chief of Defence Staff is the highest ranking professional officer of the armed forces. The armed forced has participated in numerous foreign conflicts such as the Second Auroran Imperial War and the Latianburg Insurgency. Despite its comparatively small size and budget, its battle experience and cutting edge domestic arms manufacturing industry gives it an age above comparable or even larger militaries.
Main Article: Auroran-Pacific War
This war was perhaps the most comprehensive display of Oan strategic strengths and weaknesses. The biggest characteristic of this war was how the Oan Isles was fighting significantly larger enemies than itself in far larger areas than it has ever had to. Another major element is that the Oan Isles was able to gain large quick victories but struggled to translate them into significant strategic gains for greater penetration into enemy territory.
The first major part of Oan foreign deployment in this war was when it invaded the Yor Isles. The Yor Isles were easier and more familiar for he armed forces to fight in. It is a small insular state with a major city and forested countryside. These are generally considered the optimal conditions for the Oan military to fight in. Forests allowed them to fall back and regroup and conceal reinforcements and supplies. Light artillery allowed them to maneuver quickly. Satellite and aerial reconnaissance allowed them to quickly identify strategic targets such as the Rob Matterson Military Hospital and control major ground transport routes like roads. These strategies were refined and applied meticulously in the Kohatu War.
The second was naval combat with the Uspalrian Navy. The major objective was to sink and damage as many ships as quickly as possible, because the Oan navy could not afford to lose many of its ships. Its ships, despite being fewer in number, were stronger and more technologically advanced. Surface to surface combat allowed the Oan Isles to gain clear and decisive advantage, but the navy struggled against submarines, which were able to slip past them and escape.
The third front was the aerial strikes on major Uspalrian cities. Drones were sent to destroy major targets in Fort Washington, Imperium and Eidenburg. Due to political interference, the air force did not maximise its drone resources and focused on targets of symbolic value such as the Memorial of the Fallen Soldier. The primary objective was to humiliate Uspalria and break its morale, but this backfired as many drones were destroyed or heavily damaged. Moreover the damage in those cities was inadequate to allow the army to continue its planned land invasion of Imperium from Eidenburg.
The fourth attack was on Eidenburg. The navy launched surface to surface missiles on Eidenburg. The navy used guided missiles to prevent widespread damage to property and loss of life. The main aim was to capture the port of Eidenburg and get supplies from that city. Furthermore, the Oan Isles intended to occupy southern Uspalria and take Imperium. Unfortunately this could not work as Uspalrian forces still held Nuremkastel in Kostoria-Obertonia and could launch an attack from there.
This led to the fifth and most disastrous front of the war for the Oans. They invaded the city of Nuremkastel. They engaged in land combat. Desperate, the Uspalrians caused the nuclear plant to self destruct. This led to a large nuclear irradiation that killed all the Oan soldiers in the area. The radiation made it virtually impossible for the Oan Isles to continue to its land invasion. It had lost a lot of resources and a strategic advantage, so it held out at Eidenburg until the war was declared over shortly after.
Overall the war was not a loss per se, but it did not yield in benefits that justified the cost. It was a loss in that despite military victories, the Oan Isles did not achieve its major aims. These include installing a puppet government in Uspalria and placing southern Uspalria under military occupation. Although the Uspalria was parititoned and the military junta was usurped, the neither Durentria nor Sarentria were made to pay damages for the war. It was also considered a loss because the economic and political value of its strategic targets and objectives was nil. The occupation of Uspalria was meaningless to the Oan Isles and it could have just focused on bringing back a democratic government. The terrorist pretext used to invade the Yor Isles was neutralised, so it was foolish for the Oan Isles to continue the war on its own interests rather than the broader goal of stopping the Uspalrian threat that was shared by the allies.
Please note that unlike a similar section in The Oan Isles page, this entry is concerned with the strategy and tactics used during the war rather than the broader historical, political, economic and social context.
The Kohatu War was among the most powerful displays of Oan military strategy, technology and resources in modern times, superceded only by the Auroran-Pacific War. During this war, the Oan military was able to arm, train and provide logistical support for indigenous rebels in the Kohatu Isles to mount a civil war against a dictatorial regime to take over a third of its territory.
The first mission objective was to isolate the Diamond Authority and control the battle situation. This was achieved by ordering a blockade around the islands. Ships blocked all maritime traffic and the threat of all aircraft being shot down by the air force immobilized air traffic. The second objective was to place the island of Jewelica under the control of the rebels. This was achieved by training, arming and providing support for the rebels.
This allowed the Oan military to gain an advantage on air and at sea. The third mission was to capture Gemica island and usurp the government. The military had superior fighter jets and was quickly able to gain air superiority. Moreover, the Kohatu Isles lacked serious naval combat capabilities so the Diamond Authority's littoral defence strategy quickly collapsed. This allowed the Oan Isles to send supplies, reinforcement and provide cover fire for ground troops and artillery.
Because the main area of battle was the capital city, the military mostly relied on its infantry and mechanised infantry which were deployed through air raids and small boat squads landing on the coasts. They were adept at capturing strategic installations and controlling major routes of travel such as roads. They used several famous strategies such as the crab and pincer formation in which the main front would confront the enemy while two arms surrounded them. These tactics are far easier to apply in an open battlefield situation, so this was a great display of how the Oan Isles has the logistical and intelligence capabilities to apply similar strategies in close-quarter highly obstructed combat theatres such as urban areas.
The armed forces’ existence is highly controversial. After the first Auroran Imperial War, the Pacifist movement arose. A large political party called the Pacifist Party was established. It won massive electoral victories and pushed a policy of pacifism. Its popularity was fueled by the youth. The old guard of monarchy, wealthy families, establishment politicians and arms corporations were against this. Despite the Electoral victories of the Pacifists and their alliance with the Greens, the establishment opposition restricted from fully abolishing the armed forces and disbanding the arms manufacturing industry.
In the early 2000s, the Pacifist Party faced numerous scandals and economic downturn that led to its poor showing in elections. Jonathan Dunes became the party leader. He was a moderate who was on the fence about the military. Emperor Ehe - who was a supporter of the military – influenced then-Prime Minister Jonathan Dunes to appoint General Oahuoa Uye as Defence Minister. The General (as he was popularly known) directed funding to joint civilian research activities that developed technologies such as rocket engines which were eventually funneled to the arms manufacturing sector. The General secretly entered into agreements with foreign allies and undertook a massive recruitment drive to expand the armed forces.
Jonathan Dunes was ousted and replaced by Locklyn Le Roy as Prime Minister after he retired. Le Roy was not a prominent party member but he had served in the Council of Ministers for years. Because the ruling parties lost the elections and were a unable to form a government, the Emperor had more latitude in appointing the Prime Minister and he chose someone who could push the government in a more conservative direction. Le Roy kept the General as the Defence Minister and the expansion of the military continued. Furthermore, the political momentum of the Pacifist movement stifled the Pacifist Party’s ability to stop the executive branch from strengthening the armed forces and arms manufacturing industry.
Because of differences in the factions of the ruling political alliance, Le Roy declined to serve as the Prime Minister and instead served as the Foreign Minister. Unable to decide on a leader, the new Emperor Oahoanu appointed Maui Uye Ahua, leader of the Konoa autonomy movement who caucused with the Pacifists, as the Prime Minister. He was even more pro-military than his predecessors. Although General Uye retired, the Uye-Ahua government continued and expanded his reforms.
The country contributed to fighting an Insurgency in Furnifold and Latianburg. In the process, it created enemies in the terrorist organizations that were waging insurgencies in those countries. These organizations attacked the Oan Isles’ telecommunications infrastructure. The establishment blamed the Pacifist Party for the weaknesses that exposed the Oan Isles to the threat, crushing the Pacifist movement. Conspiracy theorists purported that the executive planned the attack to crush the Pacifists.
The government expanded the military and security apparatus. The foundations that the General built helped to prepare the Oan Isles for the Second Auroran Imperial War. The nation undertook joint weapons programs with other nations and redirected resources such as the Oan Shipwrights to making military equipment. The Second Auroran Imperial War led to a massive increase in funding and a conscription drive that greatly expanded the armed forces and offered a pretext to establish a permanent naval presence in the Southern Ocean. The war also offered the impetus for Great Morstaybishlia to give military aid to help the Oan Isles increase its military capabilities.
The armed forces helped liberate the Kohatu Isles from the dictatorial Diamond Authority. Working with, equipping and training local militias, they built an internal resistance and eventually defeated the Diamond Authority. This success and the democratic government and rapid economic growth that followed further strengthened political and popular support for the armed forces. Nevertheless, a small vocal Pacifist movement remains and continues to oppose the armed forces. Despite its small size, its presence and the indecisiveness of most voters has prevented the Oan Isles from developing nuclear weapons or fully adopting conscription.
The Rangitanga-a-te-Moana is the commander in chief of the armed forces. This gives him the power to declare war and make peace, and to raise armies and navies. Furthermore, Oaths of Loyalty to the Crown are taken by the officers who serve. Nevertheless democratic traditions and practical constraints have limited the monarchs ability to independently exercise these powers. In practice, he consults with the government before making decisions concerning the armed forces and warfare. In 2017, Freedom International sued the government for allowing the Emperor to exert excessive influence over the armed forces. The Supreme Court decided in favour of Freedom International and ruled that the Emperor's power was excessive and that the Emperor should only have been given this power if the government was falling apart.
The Prime Minister is practically the highest political authority of the armed forces. This office usually takes the initiative in building military alliances, accessing foreign military technology, getting legislative approval for funding and developing strategic objectives. The Minister of Defence heads the Department of Defence, running the daily affairs of the armed forces, and advises the government on defence policy. The Chief of Defence Staff is the head of the Office of Defence Staff which oversees the operational affairs of the armed forces. They report to the Minister of Defence who in turn reports to the Prime Minister who is symbolically answerable to the Emperor and practically accountable to the National Assembly (especially the Council of the People).
Funding and resources
The military is forbidden from undertaking commercial activity or seeking external funding. Thus, it is completely dependent on government disbursals for funding. The government spends an average 30% of its annual expenditure on the military which is approximately 35 billion KRB which is around 4.4% of GDP (3.9% when excluding military aid). The country also receives a massive military aid grant from Great Morstaybishlia to help it procure and develop war capabilities and was instrumental in helping the nation develop fire power in the Caven and Morstaybishlian Seas. Reliable sources have estimated that the aid stands at around 5 billion kirib a year. During the Auroran-Pacific War, an additional 0.2% of GDP was spent on the armed forces, making it the costliest war in which the Oan Isles has participated. However, adjusted for inflation, the budget has barely increased since 2017.
The Oan Isles benefits from a cutting-edge domestic arms manufacturing industry. Oan Arms is currently the major domestic supplier of the ODF. Considerable public and private sector research and development funding along with foreign investment enables the industry to develop and produce advanced military equipment. Among its foremost products are surface to air missile defence systems, combat helicopters, infantry gear and middle-weight armored fighting vehicles and unmanned aerial combat vehicles (in collaboration with Kuthernburg). The country sold the publicly owned Oan Shipwrights to a Kuthern shipbuilding company, which diminished its heavy military vessels production capabilities.
The country imports military equipment, specifically ships, stealth and bomber aircraft and heavy main battle tanks from foreign suppliers specifically Great Morstaybishlia and Kuthernburg. The country has imported weapons from Stratarin and the Ethalria (Republic). Uspalrian imports were significantly diminished during the existence of the Uspalrian regime, but smaller arms sales have tentatively resumed under the new governments of Sarentria and Durentria. Imports from Stratarin have completely collapsed after the Stratarin regime became enemies of the country and eventually led to that nation’s collapse.
Training and personnel
The country has a total manpower of 559,500 soldiers, but the professional volunteer full-time military consists of 186,500 officers (1% of the population) and a reserve force of 373,000 reservists (2% of the population). This is because during the Auroran-Pacific War, a limited form of conscription was reinstated whereby retired member of the armed forces were asked to serve, all able-body applicants were accepted and military training was cut short. To ensure the advantage of the Oan military apparatus, a vigorous recruitment campaign began and has remained. During peacetime, reservists are organized in militias according to geographic distribution and have greater firearms carrying rights than citizens who were not part of the armed forces. During war, they are integrated into the active armed forces. To attract and retain talent, military increased salaries, offered housing and car allowances, large pensions and adopted new strategies such as a mobile application offering perks such as discounts to military personnel on everyday shopping to regular updates and online community for military officials not on active duty.
Well before the APW, the Oan defence community recognized the country’s small size, geographic vulnerability and high population densities in a few heavily urbanized areas. It also acknowledged that foreign powers typically had far larger populations, resources and better protected territories. Thus, the armed forces developed a highly skilled naval component, trained its army for long, intensive guerilla and urban warfare, a highly skilled engineer corps to man its ICBM fleet, and trained its pilots to be among the most skilled and brave warriors in the skies. This is achieved through a long period of continuous domestic and foreign training (largely in Great Morstaybishlia) and experience through frequent foreign combat deployments. As part of its institutional culture, the force encourages ruthlessness and inscrutable precision, building its core strength around highly skilled joint force and centrally coordinated Advanced Operations Task Teams (AOTTs).
The primary supplier of handguns, safety gear, body armour, handheld rocket launchers and guided missiles is Oan Arms, a state-owned for-profit corporation of the government of the Oan Isles. Metatron Corporation, a privately owned for-profit company originating from the Oan Isles, produces integrated circuits for the military.
The primary supplier of naval vessels is the Oan subsidiary KAE-Oan Shipyards of KAE Systems plc (from Kuthernburg). Most the ships are assembled in the city of Tauranga a te Toka. But a lot of design, research and development is done in Kuthernburg and many intricate parts are shipped to the Oan Isles for assembly. This company also has a joint venture with Oan Arms to produce the Silent Killer unmanned aerial combat vehicles.
The primary supplier of rocket launch, military satellites, radar and other electronic warfare systems is Ferrus Industries, a armaments company from Great Morstaybishlia. The primary supplier of armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles, towed and self propelled artillery and main battle tanks is Trech, another major company from Great Morstaybishlia. The primary supplier of aircraft is Allegiance from South Hills.
Lower Ethalria was a provider of military equipment such as handheld guns and munitions. However, following the take over of that country by a fascist military dictatorship which renamed that country to Uspalria, all sale of military equipment ceased. Even though it was eventually defeated and partitioned into Sarentria and Durentria (now members of the United Nations of the Auroran Continent), sales of military equipment have not resumed. Despite the legality of the moratorium banning sales of military equipment from these countries being challenged in the Auroran Court of Justice by the respective governments of those nations, there is no traction to restore these sales.
Stratarin formerly provided Cherkov J-10 multi-purpose jets for the Oan Air Force. However following the coup in that country by Mikhail Starikov which overthrew Viktor Drugov, no sales of military equipment have resumed.
The Navy has the following commissioned and non-commissioned vessels:
- 2 x amphibious assault vessels
- 2 x cruisers
- 3 x destroyers
- 4 x frigates
- 5 x corvettes
- 5 x tank landing vessels
- 3 x mine countermeasures vessel
- 2 x replenishment vessels
- 4 x diesel powered air propelled stealth submarines
- 3 x diesel powered air propelled ballistic missile submarines
And an undisclosed number of transport and support vessels. Excluding the vessels mentioned above, the Oan Navy has 2 destroyers and 1 cruiser under construction, scheduled for release in 2023 and there is 1 minesweeper, 1 diesel powered air propelled stealth submarine undergoing maintenance and repairs schedule for completion in 2023. Of the vessels currently in active service 1 destroyer and 1 minesweeper will be decommissioned in 2023.
The Oan Air Force has the following air craft
- 30 x 5th generation Air superiority fighter jets
- 40 x 4th generation Air superiority fighter jets
- 50 x Multi-purpose combat jets
- 60 x Striker craft
- 20 x Bomber craft
- 90 x transport craft
- 20 x electronic warfare craft
- 25 x unmanned aerial combat vehicles
- 40 x Marine patrol air craft
- 30 x reconnaissance aircraft
- 150 x training aircraft
And an undisclosed number of transport air and support air craft.
Land vehicles and artillery
The army does not focus on conventional warfare. This proved decisive in the attempted and failed invasion of Uspalria. The country lacked the logistical capabilities and heavy fire power and sheer numbers needed to maintain a large presence in a country as vast as Uspalria. Thus, it mainly focuses on self-propelled artillery, infantry fighting vehicles, mid-range fighting vehicles and a few main battle tanks. It thus developed highly potent rocket-launching land systems and has a large stockpile of mines. The mines have faced considerable criticism which restricted their use in the APW.
The Oan Isles is a member of the United Nations of the Auroran Continent. The UNAC has a policy that discourages nations from fighting each other in war to settle disputes and it has internal mechanisms to prevent the types of wars that the continent experienced. Despite, its initial misgivings, the Oan Isles participates in this body and contributed to its mechanisms. The country is a military ally with Great Morstaybishlia and Kuthernburg. It shares intelligence, technology and resources and they vow to protect each other from external threats. It is also a member of the Peacekeeping Forces of Urth, contributing to multilateral peacekeeping missions throughout the planet. The Oan Isles is also formally responsible for protecting the Kohatu Isles from foreign threats, maintaining a permanent presence in those countries as the dominant member of the Polynesian Union. The Oan Isles is also part of the Intercontinental Regional Security Accords, a military alliance of democratic nations.
The Army forms the terrestrial component of the armed forces. It is responsible for combat and other operations on land. It employs approximately half of the military combat personnel. It has a single command structure (or headquarters) located in the capitol. The army is made up of 55 battalions which specialise in aerial assault, mechanised infantry, armoured artillery and light role infantry. There is an emphasis on the combined deployment of the various specialisations to maximise effectiveness in combat. As a result of the high level of urban development, relatively small size in relation to other armies, distances between islands and density of jungles in the Oan Isles, the army has adapted its doctrine to focus on urban and guerilla warfare.
The Navy forms the maritime component of the armed forces. Because the Oan Isles is an island nation, the navy forms the first line of defence against an invasion. This has resulted in a shift in funding to the navy. The largest portion of the research, development, maintenance, upgrade and procurement of technology is taken up by the navy. The navy is a green water navy. It can be deployed in the South Pacific Ocean as far as Stratarin and as far west as the eastern edge of the Packilvanian Ocean and as far south as the Southern Ocean. It has an amphibious infantry component (not a fully fledged marines) centered on its two amphibious assault vessels. Including which, it has a naval aviation division staffed by air force pilots.
The air force forms the aerial component of the armed forces. The air force is the smallest force by personnel, but its technology budget is equal to the army. Although the army focuses on maintaining and upgrading existing technology, the air force has been able to make substantial procurements of new aircraft. The air forces leases air craft to the other branches and works in partnership with the navy to equip the naval aviation division with specialised naval aircraft. The air force is equipped with both rotary and fixed wing aircraft. It has three groups made up of air combat, air support and training aircraft and facilities. Its combat procurement has focused on strike aircraft and multirole aircraft. It has worked with Kuthernburg to develop, test and deploy drones for combat and reconnaissance.
Army and Air Force officer ranks:
- General (Tianara)
- Lieutenant General (Rutene Tianara)
- Major General (Meiha Tianara)
- Brigadier General (Pirikiaere Tianara)
- Colonel (Kanara)
- Lieutenant Colonel (Rutene Tianara )
- Major (Meiha)
- Captain (Kapehene)
- First Lieutenant (Rutene Tuatahi)
- Second Lieutenant (Rutene Tuarua)
Army and Air Force warrant officer ranks:
- Chief Warrant Officer (Tumuaki Whaimana )
- Master Warrant Officer (Tohunga Whaimana)
- Lieutenant Warrant Officer (Meiha Whaimana)
- Warrant Officer (Whaimana)
Army enlisted ranks:
- Command Sergeant Major (Whakahaua Hekerangi Meiha )
- Sergeant Major (Hekerangi Meiha)
- First Sergeant (Hekerangi Tuatahi)
- Master Sergeant (Tohunga Hekerengi)
- Staff Sergeant (Kaimahi Hekerengi)
- Sergeant (Hekerengi)
- Corporal (Kaipaha)
- Specialist (Tohunga)
- Private First Class (Akomanga tuatahi takitahi)
- Private (Akomanga)
Air Force enlisted officer ranks:
- Flight Sergeant
- Lance Corporal