Xiopothos

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Republic of Xiopothos

Flag of Xiopothos
Flag
Motto: One Country. One People. Same Peace.
File:Xiopothos Map.png
LocationMap
CapitalHevelin
Largest cityGiu
Official languagesCodexian
Recognised national languagesCodexian
Ethnic groups
(2015 Estimate)
99% Human 1% Other
Demonym(s)Xiopothan
GovernmentUnitary Parliamentary Constitutional Republic
• Prime Minister
Genevive Allen
• Speaker of Parliament
Louis Ginns
• Chief Justice
Jeremy Lintos
LegislatureParliament
History
• Autonomy from Codex
1906
• Independence from Holy Codexian-Columbian Empire
1942
Area
• Total
1,946,050 km2 (751,370 sq mi)
Population
• 2015 estimate
31,915,220
• 2010 census
30,668,687
• Density
16.4/km2 (42.5/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2015 estimate
• Total
$1.3 trillion
• Per capita
$41,115
Gini (2015)33.6
medium
HDI (2015)Increase .936
very high
CurrencyXiopothan Dollar (XD)
Date formatMM/DD/YYYY
Driving sideright (side of road)
Calling code+29
ISO 3166 codeXIO
Internet TLD.xp

The Republic of Xiopothos is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic situated in Aurora. The nation has a diverse climate, which is tropical along the Northern coast, subtropical along the Eastern coast and in parts of the interior, temperate along the Southern coast, and desert in the interior. Xiopothos is populated by around 31.9 million people. The population is relatively diverse, thanks to widespread immigration over the last century. There are three Xiopothan states.

Codex colonized Xiopothos in the mid 18th century during its colonization of the greater Spoiliaverunt Ocean area. Xiopothos' population grew steadily over the next two centuries until, in 1901, it was granted autonomy by the Codexian Empire. Conflict erupted in the 1930s when the Holy Codexian-Columbian Empire sought to revoke that autonomy, leading Xiopothos to declare independence in 1942. Xiopothos subsequently established a stable liberal democracy, which has endured without significant interruption for close to seventy years. Xiopothos is a close ally of the modern Federated Alliance of Free Pacific States and East Malaysia, and helped found the East Pacific Treaty Organization in 2005.

Xiopothos is a developed country with a high standard of living, a medium level of income inequality, and a sizable global domestic product. Xiopothos is a post-industrial nation, though it retains substantial manufacturing and agricultural industries. The 31.9 million Xiopothan people have enjoyed continuous prosperity for decades, achieving a GDP of approximately $1.3 trillion in 2015. Xiopothans enjoy amongst the most comprehensive social safety nets in the world. Xiopothos' economy is largely driven by information technology, manufacturing, agriculture, and the service sector.

Etymology[edit | edit source | hide | hide all]

The word Xiopothos derives from the names of the three Codexian officers that founded the Hevelin colony: Captain Robert Anxion, Lieutenant Commander Jeremy Poter, and Lieutenant Richard Menhos. Anxion served as the first Governor-General of Hevelin, and Poter and Menhos both served in key positions in the colony's administration. All three had died by the time that Codex amalgamated Hevelin and Giu into a single crown colony, which was named Xiopothos to honor the first three Codexians to settle Aurora.

History[edit | edit source | hide]

The East Pacific is currently in the process of revising its regional history, leaving no information available at this time.

Geography and environment[edit | edit source | hide]

Xiopothos comprises a relatively medium land mass on Aurora along with a number of islands of various sizes. It borders Baykalia, Kostromastan, Tuvaltastan and Wahana, and is otherwise surrounded by the Pacific Ocean. The country is located entirely between longitudes 120E and 160E, and between lattitudes 35S and 20S. The Tropic of Makara runs through the Northern portion of the nation.

Xiopothos helms a wide variety of landscapes. Rainforests populate the Northern and Eastern coasts, which feature a tropical and subtropical environment, respectively. The Eastern coast is also defined by substantial mountain ranges. The temperate Southern coast is dominated by beaches and rolling hills. Most of the interior is comprised of subtropical grassland or desert. The vast majority of the population lives along the temperate Eastern coast with the interior containing a very low population density.

Demographics[edit | edit source | hide]

The Xiopothos Census Bureau estimated Xiopothos' population to be 31,915,220 in 2015. Xiopothos' population has more than quadrupled since 1900, when it stood at approximately 7 million. Strong population growth continues today with the population growth rate expected to reach 1.85% in 2016. By 2050, the Xiopothan population is projected to reach approximately 60.6 million. The vast majority of both historical and projected population growth is attributed to immigration. Xiopothan natives constitute less than a percent of the total population. Nearly the entire population is human.

Most estimates put the number of foreign-born Xiopothans around 21.3%, and put the number of first-generation immigrants around 38.7%. Major sources of immigration include the Free Pacific States, Pax-Draconica, and uncivilized Aurora. A majority of immigrants are skilled laborers, but refugees constitute a substantial minority. Xiopothos formally maintains a policy of multiculturalism, adopting numerous initiatives designed to promote ethnic and racial harmony. These initiatives have also aimed at promoting better relations with Xiopothan natives, who have historically faced substantial discrimination.

Though tempered by significant immigration rates, Xiopothos is encountering many of the demographic issues facing most developed nations. Xiopothos' birth rate is 13.8 per thousand per year, and its fertility rate is just 1.97 per mother. Xiopothos' population skews towards the elderly; the average age of the civilian population in 2010 was 38.8 years. Xiopothos also has a high suicide rate, estimated around 14.9 per thousand per year for men and 4.4 per thousand per year for women.

Men and women constitute approximately equal proportions of the population, though men represent the majority of children, while women represent the majority of seniors. As of 2007, 52% of Xiopothans age 18 and over were married, 7% were widowed, 8% were divorced, and 33% had never been married. Women now work mostly outside the home and receive a majority of bachelor's degrees. The Xiopothan Census Bureau estimates that approximately 990,000 Xiopothans, or roughly 3.1% of the adult population, identify themselves as homosexual, bisexual, or transgendered. Polling from various media outlets supports this conclusion.

Approximately 89.2% of Xiopothans live in urban areas (including suburbs); about half of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000. Over 20 incorporated places had populations over 100,000 in 2008, two cities had more than one million residents, and one city had more than two million inhabitants (Giu). There are 4 metropolitan areas with populations greater than one million. Every noteworthy city is located along the coast; Xiopothos' extremely low population density is explained by its largely uninhabited interior.

The official language of Xiopothos is Codexian, which is spoken almost universally throughout the nation. Xiopothan Codexian is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, and differs slightly from other varieties of Codexian in grammar and spelling. According to the 2010 census, Codexian is the only language spoken at home for close to 83% of the population, and one of the languages spoken at home for another 14% of the population. A host of other Auroran languages including native Xiopothan constitute the remaining 3%. Multilingualism is common in Xiopothos with an estimated 58% of the population speaking two or more languages.

Religion[edit | edit source | hide]

Religion in Xiopothos
Religion Percent
Catholic
  
27.3%
Protestant
  
32.4%
Other Christian
  
2.6%
Other
  
3.6%
Irreligious
  
24.9%
Undefined or not stated
  
9.2%

The Xiopothan Constitution guarantees freedom of religion, and mandates a separation of church and state. Christianity is the dominant religion practiced in Xiopothos, practiced by 62.3% of the population. A majority of Christians are Protestants, but a substantial minority are Catholics. Xiopothos has amongst the lowest rates of religious adherence in the world with only approximately 9% of Xiopothans attending church weekly.

Xiopothos is becoming increasingly irreligious, following the trend of most developed nations. Approximately 24.9% of Xiopothans reported being irreligious in a 2012 poll, while another 9.2% were unsure. Xiopothans under age 30 are particularly likely to be irreligious, and the highest rates of religious adherence are seen in persons over 65 years old. Low marriage and child-birthing rates amongst the irreligious is a major contributing factor to Xiopothos' negative population growth rate.

Health[edit | edit source | hide]

Xiopothos is amongst the healthiest nations on Urth, thanks to a heavy commitment to its healthcare system. Life expectancy in Xiopothos in 2010 was 79.5 years for men and 84.0 years for women. The infantry mortality rate in 2015 was estimated at 4.37. A study by the Codexian Journal of Medicine rated the quality of medical care in Xiopothos within the top five in the world, beating out even the Federated Alliance of Free Pacific States.

Yet Xiopothos faces immense healthcare challenges. The nation has the highest skin cancer rates in the world. Cigarette smoking is incredibly common, constituting the largest preventable cause of death and disease, responsible for 7.8% of preventable deaths. Hypertension ranks as the second largest preventable cause of death at 7.5%. Obesity is also an immense issue with approximately 63% of Xiopothos' adult population being either overweight or obese. Obesity accounts for 7.5% of preventable deaths, making it the third largest preventable cause of death. Additionally, residents of rural areas tend to receive much less healthcare, tend to receive a lower quality of care, and tend to be less healthy generally. Finally, Xiopothos is facing a small shortage of primary care physicians and registered nurses, a problem that is expected to intensify over the next several decades.

The Ministry of Health operates the Xiopothan government insurance system, which provides public health insurance to all residents. Known as "Medicare," this government insurance program is paid for through taxes, and is also available to visitors for a small fee. Private health insurance is also available, and is used by many to supplement government insurance. Most hospitals, pharmacies, and drug manufacturers are private, and most pharmacies and drug manufacturers are for-profit entities. The government directly operates only certain specialty hospitals, such as military hospitals. The government spent approximately $4,950 on healthcare in 2015, constituting 12% of GDP, and another .75% was spent by individuals privately.

Education[edit | edit source | hide]

Xiopothan Educational Achievement(2015)
Highest Level of Education Proportion of Population
Secondary Diploma 75%
Tertiary Diploma 58%
College or University Diploma 37%
Postgraduate Diploma 8%

The Xiopothan population often ranks amongst the most highly educated in the world. Nearly 75% of Xiopothans have secondary diploma, and it nearly ever child at least completes primary school. Furthermore, approximately 58% of Xiopothans have a tertiary diploma, and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is amongst the highest in the world. 38% of Xiopothans have a university or college degree, a rate that is against amongst the highest in the world. Literacy is universal.

The Ministry of Education operates the national education system, providing free preschool, primary education, and secondary education through a network of schools operated directly by the ministry. Children are required to attend school from roughly age 5 to age 16, except if homeschooled, and are able to attend from roughly age 3 to age 18. Vouchers are provided for some of the approximately 6% of children that attend parochial or nonsectarian private schools, and a tax refund is provided for the approximately 1% of children that are homeschooled. The government spends over $9,000 per student.

Xiopothos has 43 government-funded university and three private universities, along with a number of other specialist institutions that provide approved courses at the higher education level. Studies indicate that Xiopothos is amongst the most expensive nations to attend university. Despite the availability of government grants and work-study programs, many students turn to state and private loans to pay for school.

Government and politics[edit | edit source | hide]

Xiopothos is a unitary state parliamentary constitutional republic and representative democracy. Governance is conducted at the national level by the unicameral Parliament and the Judiciary as provided by the Constitution of Xiopothos, the supreme legal document of the nation. Municipalities provide local governance, and are granted limited home rule under the constitution. The Parliament exercises legislative authority including the power to make laws, declare war, approve treaties, control government spending, and remove government officials. The Parliament elects from amongst its members the Prime Minister, who is the head of state and chief of government. The Prime Minister is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, appoints members of the cabinet and judiciary with the consent of Parliament, and generally oversees the execution of laws. The common law judiciary, comprised of the Constitutional Court and lower courts, interprets laws and overturns those found unconstitutional. The Constitutional Court, led by the Chief Arbiter, has nine members, who serve for renewable ten year terms.

The Parliament is comprised of 256 members, who are elected through instant runoff voting to represent single-member districts. A nonpartisan commission conducts redistribution following each decennial census, though the total number of constituencies is set by law by Parliament. There is presently a member of parliament for approximately every 48,700 citizens. Elections are scheduled every five years, but Parliament can call snap elections at anytime, resetting the 5-year clock. Parliament determines the length of elections. Most elections involve multiple candidates as there are no primary elections. Elections are generally considered free and fair. Universal suffrage exists for all citizens aged 18+.

The government operates under a multi-party system. Two parties have dominated politics since the 1960s: the centre-left Progressives and the centre-right Conservatives. The right wing Nationalist Party has also picked up some seats since the mid-2000s on a platform largely focused on defense, foreign affairs, and national security. The Progressive Party presently holds a majority in Parliament, possessing 389 seats. The Conservative Party is the formal opposition, holding 240 seats. The Nationalist Party controls 12 seats, and the final nine seats are occupied by independents. The Progressive Party is generally more popular in the more densely populated coastal areas, while the Conservative Party draws its strongest support from the more sparsely populated Xiopothan interior.

Government and finance[edit | edit source | hide]

Total Xiopothos government spending (2015)
Area Percent
of GDP
Billions
of $FD
Welfare and social policy 12.2% 160.2
Healthcare 12.0% 158.0
Education and science 4.5% 48.9
Defense 3.2% 42.0
Infrastructure 2.0% 25.9
Law & order 1.0% 12.8
All Other 3.8% $50.2
Debt interest 2.4% $31.1
Total 41.1% $539.1

The Xiopothan national government gains revenue primary through a progressive income tax, though the government also imposes corporate, import, inheritance, and gift taxes taxes. Municipalities gain revenue primarily through sales and property taxes. Capital gains are treated as regular income. Taxes collected by the government amounted to approximately 40% of GDP in 2015, a total of $525.3 billion. Municipal taxes accounted for 9% of that total.

The national government is responsible for the lion's share of spending, which it overwhelmingly focuses on welfare, healthcare, social policy, and education. The national government spent 67.2% of its budget on these areas in 2015, amounting to $367.1 billion, 28.7% of GDP. The national government and municipalities together spend $539.1 billion in 2015, approximately 41.1% of GDP. There was a $13.8 billion deficit, equating to 1.1% of GDP, and this deficit drove national debt to $485.1 billion, 35.9% of GDP. Xiopothos usually enjoys interest rates in the mid single digits, thanks to the strength of the Xiopothan Dollar.

Law enforcement and crime[edit | edit source | hide]

The Ministry of the Interior is responsible for law enforcement in Xiopothos. The Interior Ministry generally exercises this responsibility through municipal police departments and through the National Police Service. Most municipalities maintain a local police department, which conducts most law enforcement operations, though it must comply with strict national requirements. The National Police Service conducts most law enforcement operations in areas without a municipal police department, particularly rural areas. All police officers are members of the National Police Service in addition to municipal departments, and the NPS can override municipal officials at any time. Several other national agencies have specialized duties such as protecting civil rights, ensuring national security, and apprehending fugitives.

Xiopothos has a relatively low crime rate, even for a developed nation. There were just 1.8 murders per 100,000 persons in Xiopothos in 2014, a five year low. Yet sexual assaults did reach a five year high in 2014 with approximately 88 victims per 100,000 persons. Overall, there were 92.1 major crimes per 100,000 persons in Xiopothos in 2014, such classification including murders, sexual assaults, and kidnappings. There is a high degree of gun ownership amongst the population, but semi-automatic and automatic weapons are nearly prohibited, and gun crime is rare. Crime rates tend to be higher in Xiopothos' cities, but more crimes go unsolved in more rural areas.

Xiopothos has a low incarceration rate. There were approximately 196 prisoners per 100,000 persons in Xiopothos in 2015, a total of 62,554. A majority of the prisoners, 51%, were persons sentenced to prison after being convicted of committing a violent crime. A plurality of the remaining prisoners, 21%, were persons in pre-trial detention. Capital punishment is prohibited by the Xiopothan constitution, and the longest sentence received by any prisoner is life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. Prisons and jails are operated exclusively by the government.

Military[edit | edit source | hide]

Xiopothos military branches overview (2015)
Branch Funding in
Billions
of $FD
Active Duty
Personnel
Reserve
Personnel
Army 10.4 36,916 38,410
Navy 18.5 8,750 10,743
Air Force 7.2 9,860 8,519
General Defense 5.4 N/A N/A
Total 41.4 82,741 48,454

The Prime Minister of Xiopothos is the commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. The prime minister selects the leaders of the Xiopothan military, the civilian Defense Minister and the uniformed Adjutant, with the consent of Parliament. The Xiopothan Defense Ministry administers the armed forces, which are divided into three services: the Army, Navy, and Air Service. The Ministry of Defense also supervises the Maritime Security Ministry during wartime. In 2015, the Defense Ministry supervised approximately 82,741 active duty personnel, 57,020 reserve personnel, and 48,454 civilian personnel (not including contractors).

Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime. The Xiopothan Navy is the largest service, and is largely designed to conduct expeditionary operations. The Xiopothan Army and Xiopothan Air Service are smaller, and are focused more on defensive operations. Most Army and Air Service units are based along Xiopothos' land border, and commonly support the various law enforcement agencies charged with border security. Most naval forces are based in the nation's largest cities by contrast. Xiopothos spent $41.4 billion on its armed forces in 2015.

Foreign affairs[edit | edit source | hide]

The Republic of Xiopothos is a small power with little international influence, few diplomatic exchanges, and a small foreign affairs ministry. Xiopothos is a member of the East Pacific Treaty Organization, and most of its foreign policy is focused around promoting the interests of that organization. Outside the context of the EPTO, Xiopothis is well-known for its substantial commitment to aid, committing approximately $9 billion to humanitarian programs in 2015.