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Kingdom Of Kasmiyland
|Recognised national languages||Kash|
|Government||Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Leonard Sundberg V|
• Prime Minister
• Marshal of the Realm
|House Of Commons|
• A unified Kasmiyland Kingdom
• Part of Gordic Empire
• Kasmiyland Empire
|November 1814 – August 1905|
• Joined the Gordic Council
• 2019 estimate
|44/km2 (114.0/sq mi)|
|4.3 Trillion SHD|
|Time zone||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Date format||dd ˘ mm ˘ yyyy|
|ISO 3166 code||KML|
Kasmiyland, officially the Kingdom of Kasmiyland, is a Gordic country in Northern Yasteria. It borders Crania to the North, Kasmiyland is the largest country in the Gordic Union by area, with a total population of 62 million. Kasmiyland consequently has a low population density of 44 inhabitants per square kilometer, with the highest concentration in the southern half of the country. Approximately 85% of the population lives in urban areas. About 26% of Kasmiyland lies near or in the Arctic Circle. Southern Kasmiyland is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward, around 53% of Kasmiyland total land area is covered with forests.
Kasmiyland is part of the geographical area of Gordic Plains. The climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. In spite of its latitude, Kasmiyland often has warm continental summers, being located in between the Arctic ocean, the Asendavian Sea, and the vast Yasterian landmass. The general climate and environment vary significantly from the south and north due to the vast latitudinal difference and much of Kasmiyland has reliably cold and snowy winters. Southern Kasmiyland is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested and includes a portion of the Gordic Plains & Deshbva Mountains.
Kasmiyland emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages. In the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Gordic Empire, which became one of the great powers of urth until the early 18th century. Kasmiyland territories outside of Yasteria were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day crania during a revolution in 1809. The last war in which Kasmiyland was directly involved was in 1814 when the gordic countries were militarily forced into a conflict. Since then, Kasmiyland has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs.
Kasmiyland joined the Gordic Council on 1 January 1995, after previously declining Membership. It is also a member of the Gordic Council, Council of Gordic Affairs, the World Trade Organization and the Northern Shield Treaty. Kasmiyland maintains a Gordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. It ranks highly in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, health, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality, prosperity, and human development.
In 1319, Kasmiyland and Crania were united under King Magus Eriksson, and in 1397 Queen Violet III of Crania effected the personal union of Kasmiyland and Craina, through the Gordic Union. However, Margaret's successors, whose rule was also centered in Crania, we're unable to control the Kasmiyland nobility.
A large number of children inherited the Kasmiyland crown over the course of the kingdom's existence; consequently, real power was held for long periods by regents (notably those of the Huges family) chosen by the kasmish parliament. King Becek II of Crania, who asserted his claim to Kasmiyland by force of arms, ordered a massacre in 1520 of kasmish nobles in Valmäe. This came to be known as the "Valmäe blood bath" and stirred the kasmish nobility to new resistance and, on 6 June (now kasmish national holiday) in 1523, they made Gustav Vasa their king. This is sometimes considered as the foundation of modern kasmish. Shortly afterward he rejected Catholicism and led Kasmiyland into the Protestant Reformation.
However, the Kasmishs began to resent the monopoly trading position of the Kansa, and to resent the income they felt they lost to the Kansa. Consequently, when Gustev Vasa or Gustev I broke the monopoly power of the Kanseatic League he was regarded as a hero by the kasmish people. Kasmish History now views Gustev I as the father of the modern Kasmiyland. The foundations laid by Gustev would take time to develop. Furthermore, when Kasmiyland did develop, freed itself from the Kanseatic League, and entered its golden era, the fact that the peasantry had traditionally been free meant that more of the economic benefits flowed back to them rather than going to a feudal landowning class.
The Kasmish West Malaysia Company began in 1801. The obvious choice of the home port was Valmae on Kasmiyland west coast, the mouth of the Iosa River is very wide and has the county's largest and best harbor for high-seas journeys. The trade continued into the 19th century and caused the little town to become Kasmiyland second city. There was a significant population increase during the 18th and 19th centuries, Between 1750 and 1850, the population in Kasmiyland tripled. Nevertheless, Kasmiyland remained poor, retaining a nearly entirely agricultural economy even as its neighbors modernized. Many looked towards Kuthernburg for a better life during this time. It is thought that millions of Kasmish moved to Kuthernburg. In the early 20th century, more Kasmiy lived in Navalaca than in Valmae. Most Kasmish immigrants moved to the Central Kuthernburg, with a large population in Spandard, with a few others moving to other parts of the Kuthernburg and Asendaviaas.
Despite the slow rate of industrialization into the 19th century, many important changes were taking place in the agrarian economy due to constant innovations and rapid population growth. These innovations included government-sponsored programs of enclosure, aggressive exploitation of agricultural lands, and the introduction of new crops such as the potato. Because the Kasmish peasantry had never been enserfed as elsewhere in Yasteria the Kasmish farming culture began to take on a critical role in Kasmish politics, which has continued through modern times with modern Grarian party (now called the Centre Party). Between 1870 and 1914, Kasmiyland began developing the industrialized economy that exists today.
Strong grassroots movements sprung up in Kasmiyland during the latter half of the 19th century (trade unions, temperance groups, and independent religious groups), creating a strong foundation of democratic principles. In 1889 The Kasmiyland Social Democratic Party was founded. As the Industrial Revolution progressed during the 20th century, people gradually moved into cities to work in factories and became involved in socialist unions. A communist revolution was avoided in 1917, following the re-introduction of parliamentarism, and the country was democratized.
Following the war, Kasmiyland took advantage of an intact industrial base, social stability, and its natural resources to expand its industry to supply the rebuilding of Gordic Nations. Kasmiyland received aid under the Harold Plan and participated in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). During most of the post-war era, the country was governed by the Kasmiy Social Democratic Party largely in co-operation with trade unions and industry. The government actively pursued an internationally competitive manufacturing sector of primarily large corporations.
Kasmiyland like countries around the globe entered a period of economic decline and upheaval during the 70s. In the 1980s pillars of the Kasmish industry were massively restructured. Shipbuilding was discontinued, wood pulp was integrated into modernized paper production, the steel industry was concentrated and specialized, and mechanical engineering was robotized.
Between 1970 and 1990 the overall tax burden rose by over 10%, and the growth was low compared to other countries in Yasteria. Eventually, the government began to spend over half of the country's gross domestic product. Kasmiyland GDP per capita ranking declined during this time.
A policy switch from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies resulted in a fiscal crisis in the early 1990s. Kasmiyland GDP declined by around 5%. In 1992, a run on the currency caused the central bank to briefly increase interest rates to 500%.
The response of the government was to cut spending and institute a multitude of reforms to improve Kasmiyland competitiveness, among them reducing the welfare state and privatizing public services and goods. In 2006 Kasmiyland got its first majority government for decades as the center-right Alliance defeated the incumbent Social Democrat government. Following the rapid growth of anti-immigration Kasmiy Democrats and their entrance to the Valmäe in 2010, the Alliance became a minority cabinet.
Kasmiyland is militarily aligned with the NSTO, and actively has joint military exercises with Asendavia and some other countries, in addition to extensive co-operation with other Yasteria countries in the area of defense technology and defense industry. Among others, Kasmish companies export weapons that were used by the Atiland military in South Atiland. Kasmiyland also has a long history of participating in international military operations, including most recently, Latianburg, where Kasmish troops were under the NWA command.
In recent decades Kasmiyland has become a more culturally diverse nation due to significant immigration; in 2015 it was estimated that 15 percent of the population was foreign-born, and an additional 5 percent of the population was born to two immigrant parents. The influx of immigrants has brought new social challenges. Violent incidents have periodically occurred including the 2016 Valmäe riots which broke out following the police shooting of an elderly Kuthern immigrant. In response to these violent events, the anti-immigration opposition party, the Kasmiy Democrats, promoted their anti-immigration policies, while the left-wing opposition blamed growing inequality caused by the center-right government's socio-economic policies.
In 2016 Stean Löfe won the General Election and became the new Kasmish Prime Minister. The Kasmiy Democrats held the balance of power and voted the government's budget down in the Valmäe, but due to agreements between the government and the Alliance, the government was able to hang onto power. Kasmiyland was heavily affected by the 2017 Latianburg migrant crisis, forcing the government to tighten regulations of entry to the country, as Kasmiyland received thousands of asylum seekers per week during the autumn, overwhelming existing structures.
Kasmiyland has four fundamental laws,which together forms the Constitution: the Instrument of Government, the Act of Succession, the Freedom of the Press Act, and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression.
The public sector in Kasmiyland is divided into two parts: the legal person known as the State and local authorities: the latter includes regional County Councils and local Municipalities. The local authorities, rather than the State, make up the larger part of the public sector in Kasmiyland. County Councils and Municipalities are independent of one another, the former merely covers a larger geographical area than the latter. The local authorities have self-rule, as mandated by the Constitution, and their own tax base. Notwithstanding their self-rule, local authorities are nevertheless in practice interdependent upon the State, as the parameters of their responsibilities and the extent of their jurisdiction are specified in the Local Government Act passed by the Senate.
Kasmiyland is a constitutional monarchy and King Leonard Sundberg V is the head of state, but the role of the monarch is limited to ceremonial and representative functions. Under the provisions of the 1974 Instrument of Government, the King lacks any formal political power. The King opens the annual legislative session, chairs the Special Council held during a change of Government, holds regular Information Councils with the Prime Minister and the Government, chairs the meetings of the Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs, and receives Letters of Credence of foreign ambassadors to Kasmiyland and signs those of Kasmish ambassadors sent abroad. In addition, the King pays State Visits abroad and receives those incoming as host. Apart from strictly official duties, the King and the other members of Royal Family undertake a variety of unofficial and other representative duties within Kasmiyland and abroad.
Legislative power is vested in the unicameral legislature with 349 members. General elections are held every four years, on the second Sunday of September. Legislation may be initiated by the Government or by members of the Senate. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to a four-year term. The internal workings of the legislature is, in addition to the Instrument of Government, regulated by the Benta Act The fundamental laws can be altered by the senate alone; only an absolute majority with two separate votes, separated by a general election in between, is required.
Kasmiyland operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister — appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of Valmäe(following an actual vote in the Parliament before an appointment can be made) — and other cabinet ministers, appointed and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Government is the supreme executive authority and is responsible for its actions to the Parliament.
Most of the State administrative authorities (Kasmish: statliga förvaltningsmyndigheter) report to the Government, including (but not limited to) the Armed Forces, the Enforcement Authority, the National Library, the Kasmish police and the Tax Agency. A unique feature of Kasmish State administration is that individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; as the director-generals and other heads of government agencies report directly to the Government as a whole; and individual ministers are prohibited to interfere; thus the origin of the pejorative in Kasmish political parlance term ministerstyre (English: "ministerial rule") in matters that are to be handled by the individual agencies, unless otherwise specifically provided for in law.
The Judiciary is independent of the Parliament, Government and other State administrative authorities. The role of judicial review of legislation is not practiced by the courts; instead, the Council on Legislation gives non-binding opinions on legality. There is no stare decisis in that courts are not bound by precedent, although it is influential.
Political parties and elections
The Kasmish Social Democratic Party has played a leading role in Kasmish politics since 1917 after the Reformists had confirmed their strength and the left-wing revolutionaries formed their own party. After 1932, most governments have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections since World War II—1976, 1979, 1991, 2006, and 2010—have given the assembled bloc of center-right parties enough seats in the parliament to form a government.
For over 50 years, Kasmiyland had had five parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Parliament—the Social Democrats, the Moderate Party, the Centre Party, the Liberal People's Party, and the Left Party—before the Green Party became the sixth party in the 1988 election. In the 1991 election, while the Greens lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: the Christian Democrats and New Democracy. The 1994 election saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy. It was not until elections in 2010 that an eighth party, the Kasmiyland Democrats, gained parliament seats. In the elections to the Gordic Parliament, parties who have failed to pass the parliament threshold have managed to gain representation at that venue: the June List (2004–2009), the Pirate Party (2009–2014), and Feminist Initiative (2014–present).
Kasmiyland is a unitary state divided into 21 county councils and 290 municipalities. Every county council corresponds to a county with a number of municipalities per county. County councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. Health care, public transport, and certain cultural institutions are administered by county councils. Preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care, and rescue services are administered by the municipalities. Backnon is a special case of being a county council with only one municipality and the functions of county council and municipality are performed by the same organization.
Municipal and county council government in Kasmiyland is similar to city commission and cabinet-style council government. Both levels have legislative assemblies (municipal councils and county council assemblies) of between 31 and 101 members (always an uneven number) that are elected from party-list proportional representation at the general election which are held every four years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.
Municipalities are also divided into a total of 2,512 parishes (församlingar). These have no official political responsibilities but are traditional subdivisions of the Church of Kasmiyland and still have some importance as census districts for census-taking and elections.
The Kasmish government has 21 County Administrative Boards (Kasmish: länsstyrelser), which are responsible for regional state administration not assigned to other government agencies or local government. Each county administrative board is led by a County Governor appointed for a term of six years. The list of previous officeholders for the counties stretches back, in most cases, to 1634 when the counties were created by Lord High Chancellor Count Axel Koenstierna. The main responsibility of the County Administrative Board is to co-ordinate the development of the county in line with goals set by the Riksdag and Government.
There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance.
The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: The general courts (allmänna domstolar) for criminal and civil cases, and general administrative courts (allmänna förvaltningsdomstolar) for cases relating to disputes between private persons and the authorities. Each of these systems has three tiers, where the top tier court of the respective system typically only will hear cases that may become precedent. There are also a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set down by legislation. While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts.
The Supreme Court of Kasmiyland is the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Kasmiyland. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent. The Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices, appointed by the Government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Parliament, and the Government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court.
According to a victimization survey of 1,201 residents in 2005, Kasmiyland has above-average crime rates compared to other Gordic countries. Kasmiyland has high or above-average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Kasmiyland has low levels of burglary, car theft, and drug problems. Bribe seeking is rare.
The law is enforced in Kasmiyland by several government entities. The Kasmish police is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The National Task Force is a national SWAT unit within the Police Service. The Kasmish Security Service's responsibilities are counter-espionage, anti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution, and protection of sensitive objects and people.
Kasmiy Armed Forces is a government agency reporting to the Kasmish Ministry of Defence and responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Kasmiyland. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defense of Kasmiyland in the event of war. The armed forces are divided into Army, Air Force, and Navy. The head of the armed forces is the Supreme Commander Gentunot, the most senior commissioned officer in the country. Up to 1974, the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chief, but in reality, it was clearly understood all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader.
In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly. Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service. All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In 1975 the total number of conscripts was 225,000. By 2003 it was down to 155,000.
On 1 July 2010 Kasmiyland stopped routine conscription, switching to an all-volunteer force unless otherwise required for defense readiness. The need to recruit only the soldiers later prepared to volunteer for international service will be emphasized. The total forces gathered would consist of about 320,000 men. This could be compared with the 1980s before the fall of the Morstaybishlian Empire when Kasmiyland could gather up to 1,000,000 men.
Healthcare in Kasmiyland is similar in quality to other developed nations. It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may, in turn, recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option. The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Kasmiyland and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.
The Kasmish health care system is mainly government-funded and decentralized, although private health care also exists. The health care system in Sweden is financed primarily through taxes levied by county councils and municipalities.
Kasmish health care system is organized and managed on three levels: national, regional, and local. At the national level, the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs establishes principles and guidelines for care and sets the political agenda for health and medical care. The ministry along with other government bodies supervises activities at the lower levels, allocates grants, and periodically evaluates services to ensure correspondence to national goals.
At the regional level, responsibility for financing and providing health care is decentralized to the 21 county councils. A county council is a political body whose representatives are elected by the public every four years on the same day as the national general election. The executive board or hospital board of a county council exercises authority over hospital structure and management and ensures efficient health care delivery. County councils also regulate prices and the level of service offered by private providers. Private providers are required to enter into a contract with the county councils. Patients are not reimbursed for services from private providers who do not have an agreement with the county councils. According to the Kasmiyland health and medical care policy, every county council must provide residents with good-quality health services and medical care and work toward promoting good health in the entire population.
At the local level, municipalities are responsible for maintaining the immediate environment of citizens such as water supply and social welfare services. Recently, post-discharge care for the disabled and elderly, and long term care for psychiatric patients was decentralized to the local municipalities. County councils have considerable leeway in deciding how care should be planned and delivered. This explains the wide regional variations. It is informally divided into 7 sections: "Close-to-home care" (primary care clinics, maternity care clinics, out-patient psychiatric clinics, etc.), emergency care, elective care, in-patient care, out-patient care, specialist care, and dental care.
All citizens are to be given online access to their own electronic health records by 2020. Many different record systems are used which has caused problems for interoperability. A national patient portal, ‘9872.KS’ is used by all systems, with both telephone and online access. In June 2019 about 64% of the population had set up their own accounts to use personal e-services using this system. A National Health Information Exchange platform provides a single point of connectivity to the many different systems. There is not yet a national regulatory framework for patients’ direct access to their health information.
Children aged 1–5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten. Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Kasmish 15-year-old pupils score close to the OECD average. After completing the 9th grade, about 90% of the students continue with a three-year upper secondary school (gymnasium), which can lead to both a job qualification or entrance eligibility to university. The school system is largely financed by taxes.
The Kasmish government treats public and independent schools equally by introducing education vouchers in 1992 as one of the first countries in the world. Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Kasmiyland, and providing breakfast is also encouraged.
There are a number of different universities and colleges in Kasmiyland, the oldest and largest of which are situated in Hindelans, Vöck, Gotnburg and Valmäe. In 2000, 32% of Kasmish people held a tertiary degree, making the country 5th in the OECD in that category. Along with several other countries, the government also subsidizes tuition of international students pursuing a degree at Kasmish institutions, although a recent bill passed in the parliament will limit this subsidy to students.
Situated in Northern Yasteria, Kasmiyland lies west of the Asendavia Sea and South of the Arctic Ocean, providing a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Northern Yasteria. To the South is the Deshbva mountain chain, a range that separates Kasmiyland from Valokchia. Crania is located to its South-east. It has maritime borders with Valokchia, Really Nice Hats, Reziel, Asendavia, and Crania, and it is also linked to Asendavia by a Friendship Tunnel. The lowest elevation in Kasmiyland is in the volcanic lake Yursa, near Hetford, at 124 ft below sea level. The highest point is Mt.Jumbla at 11,926 ft above sea level.
Kasmiyland has 21 provinces, based on culture, geography, and history. While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they play an important role in people's self-identity. Kasmiyland also has the Lorgtusna Nature Reserve, one of the largest protected areas in Northern Yasteria. About 26% of Kasmiyland Lies in or around the Arctic Circle. Southern Kasmiyland is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward. Around 53% of Kasmiyland total land area is covered with forests.
Most of Kasmiyland has a temperate climate, despite its northern latitude, with largely four distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year. The winter in the far south is usually weak and is manifested only through some shorter periods with snow and sub-zero temperatures, autumn may well turn into spring there, without a distinct period of winter. The country can be divided into three types of climate: the southernmost part has an oceanic climate, the central part has a humid continental climate and the northernmost part has a subarctic climate. However, Kasmiyland is much warmer and drier than other places at a similar latitude, and even somewhat farther south, mainly because of the combination of the Gulf Stream within the Asendavian Sea and the general Southwest wind drift, caused by the direction of planet Earth's rotation. Because of Kasmiyland latitude, the length of daylight varies greatly. North of the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets for part of each summer, and it never rises for part of each winter. In Hetford, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours in late June but only around 6 hours in late December. During July there is not much difference in temperature between the north and south of the country.
Kasmiyland has a considerable south to the north distance which causes large climatic differences, especially during the winter. The related matter of the length and strength of the four seasons plays a role in which plants that naturally can grow at various places. Kasmiyland is divided into five major vegetation zones. These are:
The southern deciduous forest zone The southern coniferous forest zone The northern coniferous forest zone, or the Taiga The alpine-birch zone The bare mountain zone
Southern deciduous forest zone
The southern deciduous forest zone is a part of a larger vegetation zone which also includes Crania. It has to a rather large degree become agricultural areas, but larger and smaller forests still exist. The region is characterized by a large wealth of trees and shrubs. The beech is the most dominant tree, but oak can also form smaller forests. elm at one time formed forests, but have been heavily reduced due to Elm disease. Other important trees and shrubs in this zone include hornbeam, alder, hazel, fly honeysuckle, linden (lime), spindle, yew, alder buckthorn, blackthorn, aspen, European rowan, Cranish whitebeam, juniper, ivy, dogwood, goat willow, larch, bird cherry, wild cherry, maple, ash, alder along creeks, and in sandy soil, birch competes with pine.
Southern coniferous forest zone
The southern coniferous forest zone is delimited by the oak's northern natural limit and the Spruce's southern natural limit, between the southern deciduous zone and Northern coniferous forest zone. In the southern parts of this zone, the coniferous species are found, mainly spruce and pine, mixed with various deciduous trees. Birch grows largely everywhere. The beech's northern boundary crosses this zone. This is however not the case with oak and ash. Although in its natural area, also planted Spruce are common, and such woods are very dense, as the spruces can grow very tight, especially in this vegetation zone's southern areas.
Northern coniferous forest zone
The northern coniferous forest zone begins north of the natural boundary of the oak. Of deciduous species, the birch is the only one of significance. Pine and spruce are dominant, but the forests are slowly but surely more sparsely grown the farther towards the north it gets. In the extreme north is it difficult to state the trees form true forests at all, due to the large distances between the trees.
Alpine-birch and bare mountain zones The alpine-birch zone, in the Deshbva mountains, depending on both latitude and altitude, is an area where only a smaller kind of birch can grow. Where this vegetation zone ends, no trees grow at all: the bare mountain zone.
Kasmiyland is in the top 5 richest countries in Yasteria in terms of GDP per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens. Kasmiyland is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade. Kasmiyland engineering sector accounts for 43% of output and exports, while telecommunications, the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Kasmiyland is the 7th-largest arms exporter in the world. Agriculture accounts for 4% of GDP and employment. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration.
Trade unions, employers' associations and collective agreements cover a large share of the employees in Kasmiyland. The high coverage of collective agreements is achieved despite the absence of state mechanisms extending collective agreements to whole industries or sectors. Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation over state regulation in Kasmiyland industrial relations.
In terms of structure, the Kasmiyland economy is characterized by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector; and by international standards, a large public service sector. Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Kasmiy economy. High and medium-high technology manufacturing accounts for 12.4% of GDP.
Kasmiyland energy market is largely privatized. The Nordic energy market is one of the first liberalized energy markets in Yateria. In 2019, out of a total electricity production of 139 TWh, electricity from hydropower accounted for (50%), and nuclear power delivered (35%). At the same time, the use of biofuels, peat etc. produced (10%) of electricity, while wind power produced (5%). Biomass is mainly used to produce heat for district heating and central heating and industry processes.
Politicians have made announcements about oil phase-out in Kasmiyland, decrease of nuclear power, and multibillion-dollar investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency. The country has for many years pursued a strategy of indirect taxation as an instrument of environmental policy, including energy taxes in general and carbon dioxide taxes in particular.
Kasmiyland 142,320 mi of paved road and 5,212 mi of expressways. New motorways are still under construction and a new motorway from Crania to Kasmiyland was finished on in march.
The Valmae metro is one of 3 underground system in Kasmiyland and serves the city of Valmae via 311 stations. The rail transport market is privatized, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operators are still owned by state. The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves.
Kasmiyland has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world. According to a 2019 World Trade Organization report, the country had the second-highest public social spending as a percentage of its GDP and the second-highest total social spending at 36.2% of its GDP. Kasmiyland spent 7.3% of its GDP, to provide equal access to education. On health care, the country spent 12.0% of its total GDP.
Historically, Kasmiyland provided solid support for free trade and mostly relatively strong and stable property rights (both private and public), though some economists have pointed out that Kasmiyland promoted industries with tariffs and used publicly subsidized R&D during the country's early critical years of industrialization. A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on Urth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Kasmiy achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life to this day Kasmiyland consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development far ahead of some wealthier countries.
Kasmiyland began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the 1990s, and even trimming it back. Kasmiyland has been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatization, fictionalization and deregulation, compared to countries such as Kuthernburg. Kasmiyland adopted free market agricultural policies in 2002. Since the 1910s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls.
Science & Innovation
Combined, the public and the private sector in Kasmiylnd allocate over 6.2% of GDP to research & development (R&D) per year, making Kasmiyland's investment in R&D as a percentage of GDP one of the highest world. For several decades the Kasmish government has prioritized scientific and R&D activities. As a percentage of GDP, the Kasmiyland government spends the most of any nation on research and development. Kasmiyland tops other Yasterian countries in the number of published scientific works per capita.
On average, 35% of taxpayer's money in Kasmiyland goes to education and healthcare, whereas 5% goes to the police and military, and 40% to social security.
The typical worker receives 47% of his or her labor costs after the tax wedge. Total tax collected by Kasmiyland as a percentage of its GDP peaked at 58.3% in 2011. The country faced a real estate and banking crisis in 1998-1999, and consequently passed tax reforms in 2000 to implement tax rate cuts and tax base broadening over time.
Every Kasmish resident receives a state pension. Kasmiy Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions. People who have worked in Kasmiyland, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Kasmish pension. There are several types of pensions in Kasmiyland: national retirement, occupational and private pensions. A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions.
The total resident population of Kasmiyland was 62,653,980 in March 2020. The population exceeded 60 million for the first time on January 2014. Every fourth resident in the country has immigrant background and every third has at least one parent born abroad.
Korylaand, which covers approximately 50% of the Kasmish territory, has a very low population density (below 5 people per square kilometre). The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated. Low population density exists also in large parts of western Kresham, as well as southern and central Småland. Between 1860 and 1930, approximately 5.3 million Kasmish, a third of the country's population at the time, emigrated to Novaris, and most of them to Kuthernburg There are more than 11.4 million Kasmish Kutherns according to a 2010 Kuthern Bureau estimate. In Tretrid, the community of Kasmiy ancestry is 990,200 strong.
The official language of Kasmiyland is Kash, a North Asedavia language, related and very similar to Cranish and Asendavian, but differing in pronunciation and orthography. Asendavians have little difficulty understanding Kash, and Cranians can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Asendavians. The same goes for standard Kash speakers, who find it far easier to understand Asendavian than Cranish. The dialects spoken in Asenvia, the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Asendavians because the region traditionally was a part of Asendavia and is nowadays situated closely to it. Kash Valokchian are Kasmish largest linguistic minority, comprising about 8% of Kasmish population, and Valokchian is recognized as a minority language. O
In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with Morst, a majority of Kasmiys, especially those born after the Great War, understand and speak Staynish, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Codexin-Staynish influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning Staynish easier.
Staynish became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as 1896, and has been a compulsory subject for all Kasmish students since the late 1960s. Depending on the local school authorities, Staynish is currently a compulsory subject between first grade and ninth grade, with all students continuing in secondary school studying Staynish for at least another year. Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include Cranish, Octali and Spandard. Some Cranian and Asendavians is at times also taught as part of Kash courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Yasterian languages Kasmiy speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Crania or Asendavia.
Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Kasmiyland, and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, to a nation of net immigration. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behavior.
In 2019, there were 16,320,300 inhabitants of a foreign background. The number of people with at least one foreign parent was 8,210,330, Of these inhabitants, 6,400,320 persons living in Kasmiyland were born abroad.
Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas. Since the early 1980s, immigration to Kasmiyland has been mostly due to refugee migration and family reunification from countries in Aurora and Eastern Yasteria.