Crania

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Kingdom Of Crania

Crania
Flag of Crania
Flag
Coat of arms of Crania
Coat of arms
Kasmiyland And Crania.png
Capital
and largest city
Friborg
Official languagesCranian
Demonym(s)Cranian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Queen
Margratha II
• President
Head of State
Daniel Dudeter
• Prime Minister
Angela Dalian
LegislatureSenate
House Of Commons
Congress
History
• Consolidation
8th Century
• Kasmiy-Crania Alliance
1678
• Constitutional Act
1849
• Gordic Council
1973
Population
• 2020 estimate
48,200,430
GDP (nominal)estimate
• Total
1.5 Trillion SHD
Gini21.2
low
SDI0.917
very high
CurrencyGorio (GO)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
Date formatdd ˘ mm ˘ yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code288
ISO 3166 codeCNR
Internet TLD.CRN


Crania, officially the Kingdom of Crania, is a Gordic country in Northern Yaseteria whose mainland territory comprises the western and northernmost portion Yasteria. The subantarctic Crugen Island is a dependent territory of the Kingdom of Crania. Crania also lay claim to the Antarctic territories of St.Lutherna.

The country shares a long Northern border with Kasmiyland. Crania is bordered by Kasmiyland and Tano to the south-east. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Arctic Ocean. The maritime influence also dominates Crania's climate with mild lowland temperatures on the sea coasts, whereas the interior, while colder, is also a lot milder than areas elsewhere in the world on such northerly latitudes. Even during polar night in the north, temperatures above freezing are commonplace on the coastline. The maritime influence brings high rainfall and snowfall to some areas of the country.

Queen Margratha II of the House of Valmae is the current Queen of Crania. Angela Dalian has been prime minister since 2017 when she replaced Hena Sitckal. As a unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Crania divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet, and the supreme court, as determined by the 1849 constitution. The kingdom was established in 910CE as a merger of many petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for over a thousand years. From 1539 to 1849, Crania was a part of the Kingdom of Kasmiyland-Crania.

Crania have both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities. The Cámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Cámi Parliament and the Crania Freedom Act. Crania maintain close ties with both the League Of Novaris and Asendavia. Crania is also a founding member of the Gordic Council, NSTO, the Antarctic Treaty, and also a member of the WTO. In addition, the Cranian languages share mutual intelligibility with Kasmiyland and Asendavia.

Crania maintain the Gordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, and its values are rooted in Gordic ideals. The Cranian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, and freshwater. The Natural Gas industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product

Cranians enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance, prosperity and human development.The country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is the country with the lowest perceived level of corruption in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, and one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.

History

Early modern history (1536–1849)

After Kasmiyland permanently broke away from the personal union, Crania tried on several occasions to reassert control over its neighbor. King Tefllud IV attacked Kasmiyland in the 1611–1613 Kalmer War but failed to accomplish his main objective of forcing it to return to the union. The war led to no territorial changes, but Kasmiyland was forced to pay a war indemnity of 1 million silver riksdeler to Crania, an amount known as the Älvsbarg ransom. King Tefllud used this money to found several towns and fortresses, most notably Glückserd and Christiania. Crania's large colonial aspirations were limited to a few key trading posts in Itur. The empire was sustained by trade with other major powers, and plantations – ultimately a lack of resources led to its stagnation.

In the Twenty Years' War, Tefllud tried to become the leader of the Lutheran states]] in Kasmiyland but suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Lutter. The result was that the Catholic army under Albret von Wallen was able to invade, occupy, and pillage friborg, forcing Crania to withdraw from the war. Crania managed to avoid territorial concessions, but King Valmar IV intervention in Kasmiyland was seen as a sign that the military power of Kasmiyland was on the rise while Crania's influence in the region was declining. In 1643, Kasmish armies invaded Glückserd and claimed Crania in 1644.

In the 1678 Treaty of Crania, Crania surrendered to Kasmiyland. Crania tried to regain control in the Cranian War (1679–1683) but it ended in failure. Following the Cranian War II (1700–21), Crania managed to restore control of parts of the Crania Coastal Front. Crania prospered greatly in the last decades of the eighteenth century due to its neutral status allowing it to trade with both sides in the many contemporary wars. The Kasmiy considered this a hostile act and attacked Friborg in both 1801 and 1807, in one case carrying off the Cranish fleet, in the other, burning large parts of the Cranish capital. This led to the so-called Crania-Kasmish Gunboat War. Kasmiyland control over the waterways between Crania and Kalatianburg proved disastrous to the union's economy and in 1813 Crania went bankrupt.

The Cranian-Kasmiyland union was dissolved by the Treaty of Staynes in 1849; the Cranian monarchy "irrevocably and forever" renounced claims to the Kingdom of Kasmiyland.

Constitutional monarchy (1849–present)

A nascent Cranian liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s; after the Revolutions of 1848, Crania peacefully became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849. A new constitution established a two-chamber parliament. Crania faced war against both Kasmiyland and Subrovania in what became known as the Third Crania War, lasting from February to October 1864. This loss came as the latest in the long series of defeats and territorial loss that had begun in the 17th century. After these events, Crania pursued a policy of neutrality in Yasteria.

Industrialization came to Crania in the second half of the 19th century. The nation's first railroads were constructed in the 1850s, and improved communications and overseas trade allowed the industry to develop in spite of Crania. Trade unions developed starting in the 1870s. There was a considerable migration of people from the countryside to the cities, and Cranish agriculture became centered on the export of dairy and meat products. In 1953 Crania became a founding member of Gordic Council, briefly left from 1957-73 then returned to the GC.

Crania was a founding member of the Gordic Free Trade Association (GFTA). During the 1960s, the GFTA countries were often referred to as the Outer Four, as opposed to the. In 1973, Crania rejoined the Gordic Council. The Maastricht Treaty, which involved further Gordic integration, was rejected by the Cranish people in 1992; it was only accepted after a second referendum in 1993, which provided for four opt-outs from policies. The Cranians Accepted the Gorio as the national currency in a referendum in 2000.

Constitutional change in 1953 led to a single-chamber parliament elected by proportional representation, female accession to the Cranian throne. The center-left Social Democrats led a string of coalition governments for most of the second half of the 20th century, introducing the Gordic welfare model. The Liberal Party and the Conservative People's Party have also led center-right governments. In recent years the right-wing populist Cranian People's Party has emerged as a major party—becoming the second-largest following the 2015 general election—during which time immigration and integration have become major issues of public debate.

Military

Cranian armed forces are known as the Cranish Defense. The Minister of Defence is the commander-in-chief of the Cranish Defense, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad. During peacetime, the Ministry of Defence employs around 233,000 in total. The main military branches employ almost 327,000: 125,460 in the Royal Cranian Army, 75,300 in the Royal Cranian Navy, and 96,050 in the Royal Cranian Air Force (all including conscripts).The Cranian Emergency Management Agency employs 32,000 (including conscripts), and about 24,000 are in non-branch-specific services like the Cranian Defence Command and the Cranish Defence Intelligence Service. Furthermore, around 105,000 serve as volunteers in the Danish Home Guard.

Crania is a long-time supporter of international peacekeeping, but since the War in Litop in 2017, Crania has also found a new role as a warring nation, participating actively in several wars and invasions. This relatively new situation has stirred some internal critique, but the Cranian population has generally been very supportive, in particular of the War in Litop.The Cranish Defence has around 12,400 staff in international Missions. These initiatives are often described by the authorities as part of a new "active foreign policy" Crania.

Politics

Politics in Crania operates under a framework laid out in the Constitution of Crania. First written in 1849, it establishes a sovereign state in the form of a constitutional monarchy, with a representative parliamentary system. The Monarch officially retains executive power and presides over the Council of State. In practice, the duties of the Monarch are strictly representative and ceremonial, such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other Government ministers. The Monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and their person is sacrosanct. Hereditary monarch Queen Margratha II has been head of state since 14 January 1972.

Government

The Cranish Parliament is the legislature of the Kingdom of Crania, passing Acts that apply in Crania. The Parliament is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets, approving the state's accounts, appointing and exercising control of the Government, and taking part in international co-operation. Bills may be initiated by the Government or by members of parliament. All bills passed must be presented before the Council of State to receive Royal Assent within thirty days in order to become law.

Crania is a representative democracy with universal suffrage. Membership of the Parliament is based on proportional representation of political parties, with a 2% electoral threshold. Crans elect 175 members to the parliament. Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years, but it is within the powers of the Prime Minister to ask the Monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence, the Parliament may force a single minister or the entire government to resign.

The Government of Crania operates as a cabinet government, where executive authority is exercised—formally on behalf of the Monarch—by Prime Minister and other cabinet ministers, who head ministries. As the executive branch, the Cabinet is responsible for proposing bills and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of Crania. The position of prime minister belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of a majority in the Parliament; this is usually the current leader of the largest political party or, more effectively, through a coalition of parties. A single party generally does not have sufficient political power in terms of the number of seats to form a cabinet on its own; Crania has often been ruled by coalition governments, themselves sometimes minority governments dependent on non-government parties.

Law and judicial system

Crania have a civil law system with some references to Gordic law. Crania resemble Kasmiyland and Kuthernburg in never having developed a case-law like that of South Hills and Staynes nor comprehensive codes like those of Latianburg and Nacata. Much of its law is customary.

The judicial system of Crania is divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. Articles sixty-two and sixty-four of the Constitution ensure judicial independence from government and Parliament by providing that judges shall only be guided by the law, including acts, statutes, and practice.

Foreign Relations

Crania maintains embassies in 61 countries. 42 countries maintain an embassy in Crania all of them in the capital, Friborg.

Geography

Much of the country is dominated by mountainous or high terrain, with a great variety of natural features caused by prehistoric glaciers and varied topography. The most noticeable of these are the fjords: deep grooves cut into the land flooded by the sea following the end of the Ice Age. Behaskdna is one of the world's deepest fjord, Crania has about 230,000 lakes. There are 2,057 registered islands. Permafrost can be found all year in the higher mountain areas and in the interior of Laksmo county. Numerous glaciers are found in Crania.

The land is mostly made of hard granite and gneiss rock, but slate, sandstone, and limestone are also common, and the lowest elevations contain marine deposits. Because of the Yasteria-Itur Stream and prevailing westerlies, Norway experiences higher temperatures and more precipitation than expected at such northern latitudes, especially along the coast. The mainland experiences four distinct seasons, with colder winters and less precipitation inland. The northernmost part has a mostly maritime Subarctic climate, while Svaltja has an Arctic tundra climate.

Because of the large latitudinal range of the country and the varied topography and climate, Norway has a larger number of different habitats than most countries. There are approximately 36,000 species in Crania and adjacent waters. The Gordic Shelf large marine ecosystem is considered highly productive.

Climate

The southern and Eastern parts of Crania, fully exposed to Arctic storm fronts, experience more precipitation, and have milder winters than the Western and far northern parts. Areas to the east of the coastal mountains are in a rain shadow and have lower rain and snow totals than the west. The lowlands around Siujavari have the warmest and sunniest summers, but also cold weather and snow in the wintertime.

Because of Crania's high latitude, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. From late May to late July, the sun never completely descends beneath the horizon in areas north of the Arctic Circle, and the rest of the country experiences up to 20 hours of daylight per day. Conversely, from late November to late January, the sun never rises above the horizon in the north, and daylight hours are very short in the rest of the country.

Wildlife

The total number of species include 8,000 species of insects, 11,000 species of algae, 600 species of lichen, 820 species of mosses, 1,320 species of vascular plants, up to 3,650 species of fungi, 240 species of birds, 44 species of mammals, 30 fresh-water species of fish, 120 salt-water species of fish, 650 species of fresh-water invertebrates, and 1,700 species of salt-water invertebrates. About 28,000 of these species have been described by science.

Seventeen species are listed mainly because they are endangered on a global scale, such as the Gordic beaver, even if the population in Norway is not seen as endangered. The largest predator in Cranish waters is the sperm whale, and the largest fish is the basking shark. The largest predator on land is the polar bear, while the brown bear is the largest predator on the Crania mainland. The largest land animal on the mainland is the elk. The elk in Crania is known for its size and strength and is often called, "king of the forest".

Enviroment

Attractive and dramatic scenery and landscape are found throughout Crania. The South-west coast of southern Crania and the coast of northern Kasmiyland present some of the most visually impressive coastal sceneries in the world. The country is also home to the natural phenomena of the Midnight sun during summer, as well as the Aurora borealis known also as the Northern lights.

Economy

Crania enjoy the third-highest GDP per-capita among Yasteria countries (after Kasmiyland), and the eight-highest GDP (PPP) per-capita in the world. Today, Crania ranks as the third-wealthiest country in the world in monetary value, with the largest capital reserve per capita of any nation. The standard of living in Crania is among the highest in the world.

The Cranian economy is an example of a mixed economy; a prosperous capitalist welfare state it features a combination of free market activity and large state ownership in certain key sectors, influenced by both liberal governments from the late 18th century and later by social democratic governments in the postwar era. Public health care in Crania is free , and parents have 46 weeks paid parental leave. The state income derived from natural resources includes a significant contribution from petroleum production. Norway has an unemployment rate of 3.2%, with 74% of the population aged 15–74 employed. People in the labor force are either employed or looking for work.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources including petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the 1930s, which led to a boom in the economy. Crania has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the world in part by having a large amount of natural resources compared to the size of the population. In 2019, 31% of state revenues were generated from the petroleum industry.

Resources

Oil

Export revenues from oil and gas have risen to over 44% of total exports and constitute almost 24% of the GDP. In 1983, the Cranian government established the sovereign wealth fund, which would be funded with oil revenues, including taxes, dividends, sales revenues and licensing fees. This was intended to reduce overheating in the economy from oil revenues, minimize uncertainty from volatility in oil price, and provide a cushion to compensate for expenses associated with the ageing of the population.

The government controls its petroleum resources through a combination of state ownership in major operators in the oil fields and the fully state-owned Samco. Finally, the government controls licensing of exploration and production of fields. The fund invests in developed financial markets outside Crania. Spending from the fund is constrained by the budgetary rule , which limits spending over time to no more than the real value yield of the fund, originally assumed to be 5% a year, but lowered in 2020 to 4% of the fund's total value

Oil fields

Between 1972 and 2015, Cranian companies drilled 6,322 oil wells, mostly in the Cranish Sea.

Fish industry

Crania is also the world's fifth-largest exporter of fish. Fish from fish farms and catch constitutes the second largest (behind oil/natural gas) export product measured in value.

Electricity

Hydroelectric plants generate roughly 98–99% of Cranias electric power, more than any other country in the world.

Mineral resources

Crania contains significant mineral resources, and in 2017, its mineral production was valued at 7.4 Billion SHD. The most valuable minerals are calcium carbonate (limestone), building stone, nepheline syenite, olivine, iron, titanium, and nickel.

Crania Pension Fund

In 2020, the Government Pension Fund controlled assets surpassed a value of 2.6 Trillion. It is the largest sovereign wealth fund in the world. The fund controls about 1.9% of all listed shares in Yasteria, and more than 2.2% of all the publicly traded shares in the world. The Cranish Central Bank operates investment offices in Sani Bursil, Luthernburg, and Pollok.

The investment choices of the Cranish fund are directed by ethical guidelines; for example, the fund is not allowed to invest in companies that produce parts for nuclear weapons. Crania's highly transparent investment scheme is lauded by the international community. The future size of the fund is closely linked to the price of oil and to developments in international financial markets.

Transport

Due to the low population density, narrow shape and short coastlines of Crania, its public transport is less developed than in many Yasterian countries, especially outside the major cities. The country has long-standing water transport traditions, but the Cranish Ministry of Transport and Communications has in recent years implemented rail, road, and air transport through numerous subsidiaries to develop the country's infrastructure. Under discussion is development of a new high-speed rail system between the nation's largest cities.

Cranias main railway network consists of 3,432 mi of standard gauge lines, of which 1,211 mi is double track and 892 mi high-speed rail while 62% is electrified at 15 kV  16.7 Hz AC. The railways transported 61,921,200 passengers and 41,783,000 tonnes of cargo. The entire network is owned by the Cranish National Rail Administration. All domestic passenger trains except the Airport Express Train are operated by Gordic Transit. Several companies operate freight trains. Investment in new infrastructure and maintenance is financed through the state budget, and subsidies are provided for passenger train operations. GT operates long-haul trains, including night trains, regional services and four commuter train systems.

Crania has approximately 63,829 mi of road network, of which 51,200 mi are paved and 2,122 are motorway. The four tiers of road routes are national, county, municipal and private, with national and primary county roads numbered en route. The most important national routes are part of the Yasterian route scheme. The two most prominent are the Yasteria route Y-12 going north–south through the entire country, and the Y-2 which follows the Coast. National and county roads are managed by the Cranish Public Roads Administration.

Crania has the world's largest registered stock of plug-in electric vehicles per capita. In March 2018, Crania became the first country where over 1 in every 100 passenger cars on the roads is a plug-in electric. The plug-in electric segment market share of new car sales is also the highest in the world. Crania would like to ban sales of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles as early as 2022 In June 2020, 68% of new cars registered were electric.

Of the 104 airports in Crania, 66 are public, and 38 are operated by the state-owned Tivas. Seven airports have more than one million passengers annually. A total of 55,212,675 passengers passed through Cranish airports in 2019, of whom 22,321,458 were international.

Demographics

Population

Historical population
Year Pop.
1500 320,400
1665 692,400
1735 740,300
1801 822,320
1855 1,700,300
1900 6,540,300
1950 15,320,000
2000 28,400,300
2010 38,920,300
2019 48,200,430
2060

(projected)

72,300,400
Source: Statistics Crania.

Crania population was 48,200,430 people in 2019. Cranish are an ethnic North Asendaviac people. Since the late 20th century, Crania has attracted immigrants from southern and central Yasteria, Aurora, Novaris, Concord and beyond.

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2020 was estimated at 1.56 children born per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.1. In 2020 the median age of the Cranish population was 36.5 years.

In 2019, an official study showed that 76% of the total population have at least one parent who was born in Crania. More than 5.7 Million individuals are immigrants and their descendants; there are 2.3 Million children of immigrants, born in Crania.