History of the Andorinhões

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The history of the Andorinhões begins with Marabillese discovery in 1412.

Settlement of the islands (1412-1910)

In 1412, the Order of the Holy Cross, an order founded as mercenaries to hire with the goal of protecting pilgrims on their journeys to holy sites on Urth, hired Maurício de Corvos to lead an expedition to explore some parts of the world and to establish a permanent outpost for the activities of the Order. The expedition led to the discovery of the islands of Santa Maria and São Vicente, islands which were uninhabited.

Order of the Holy Cross establishments

In 1435, settlers of the Order arrived at the island of Santa Maria and founded a settlement which became the city of Santa Cruz.

Sovereign Land of the Holy Cross

The Order of the Holy Cross proclaimed the islands to be sovereign and independent in 1487 as the Sovereign Land of the Holy Cross. The proclamation of sovereignty fast-tracked other settlements and many islands acquisitions. The islands of Espírito and Ordem were settled in 1493 and 1501 respectively in a way to assert the sovereignty of the Order in the region.

The Order remained independent from the newly formed government of the Sovereign Land but still retained a powerful role within the administration, serving as the de facto army of the Sovereign Land. They privately settled the islands of Esperança, Trindade and Santa Fé.

By 1549, following some internal controversies, the government of the Sovereign Land severed many official ties with the Order and left the island of Ordem to be the sole private possession of the organisation, taking control of the other islands. The Sovereign Land of the Holy Cross continued the expansionist agenda that had begun under the Order and had settled the islands of São Fernando, São Afonso, Céu, Sagrada Família and São Domingos by 1629.

The Sovereign Land finally acquired the island of Ordem in 1752, ending the private territorial possession of the Order in the archipelago, except for a small land where the Order still holds its headquarters.

With such a massive expansion and still little population, the government had grown considerably and had trouble exercising its rule. The government levied new taxes, especially on the recently acquired islands which angered the newly established populations there, feeling that the more populous islands be the one to provide for the services.

Republicanism (1910-1960)

With the population angered with the government, a small group of merchants, philosophical thinkers, and some nobles started to meet with the goal to find solutions on the issues with the government. Meetings started on the island of Santa Maria and spread through the islands. At first, the solution put forward was to negotiate with the government and to reduce the level of taxes by spreading it more evenly through the years. This proposal was rejected by the government. In 1910, the first Republican groups started to meet and the proposal to overthrow the government and establish a republic grew. By 1911, most of the meetings were happening on the island of Santa Ana, which became a hotspot for Republicanism in the Andorinhões.

Lúpulo Revolution

In 1912, a group of revolutionaries proclaimed the Republic of the Martlet and established the Provisional Government of the Martlet.

Provisional Government of the Martlet

The Provisional Government was proclaimed in São João das Ilhas, which was renamed Lúpulo and proclaimed the capital of the new Republic. This declaration was rejected by the government which was still established in Santa Cruz.

Some islands had received the news of the new government and while most islands decided to remain loyal to the Sovereign Land's government, the island of São Fernando and São Domingos were among the first to switch sides officially in favour of the republicans. The first recorded battle of the revolution was the naval battle in Baía dos Santos which was won by the Sovereign Land's forces.

Republic of Martlet

In 1914, the Sovereign Land's government officially capitulated in Espírito Santo. The Provisional Government was disbanded and the official name of the newly-formed republic was changed to the Republic of Martlet.

The Republic was faced with many challenges, having to rebuild some of the villages and settlements which had been destroyed during the revolution. Mostly on the island of Santo Ambrósio which saw a lot of fighting due to its strategic position.

Socialism (1960-1990)

Silent Revolution

Socialist Republic of the Martlets Islands

People's Republic of the Andorinhas

Constitutionalism (1990-Present)

Democratic Revolution

Constitutional State of the Andorinhões

See also