Democratic Republic Of Nyo
The Democratic Republic Of Nyo
Republic Of Nyo
Motto: Peace Through Nyobi Unity
and largest city
|Official languages||Staynish, Nywalli,Norgsveltian|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
• Prime Minister
• 2019 estimate
• Per capita
|Gini (2019)|| 41.5|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.621|
|Currency||Nyo Dollar (ND)|
|Date format||dd ˘ mm ˘ yyyy|
|ISO 3166 code||DRN|
The region was dominated by Kemto-speaking tribes at least 2,130 years ago, who built trade links leading into the Nyo River basin. Nyo was formerly part of the TBD colony of Norgsveldet. The Democratic Republic of the Nyo was established on 5 June 1958 and gained independence from TBD in 1960. It was a communist state from 1963 to 1997, under the name People's Republic of Nyo. The sovereign state has had multi-party elections since 1998, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 2001 Democratic Republic of Nyo Civil War, and President Duma Abuda has ruled since 1999.
The Democratic Republic of Nyo has become the largest oil producer in the Lake Nyo region, providing the country with a degree of prosperity despite political and economic instability in some areas and unequal distribution of oil revenue nationwide. Nyo's economy is heavily dependent on the oil sector, and economic growth has slowed considerably since 2018.
Norgsveldet Colonial era
The Republic of Nyp received full independence from Norgsveldet in 1960. Obuto Akombo ruled as the country's first president until labor elements and rival political parties instigated a nine-day uprising that ousted him. The Nyobi military briefly took charge of the country, and installed a civilian provisional government headed by Elealeh Akoth.
Under the 1966 constitution, Elealeh Akoth was elected President for a five-year term. During Elealeh Akoth term in office the regime adopted "scientific socialism" as the country's constitutional ideology. In 1969, Nyo established relations with East Cerdani, Provisional Military Government of Socialist Chianski, Faethalaria and Stratarian. Elealeh Akoth regime also invited several hundred Stratarin army troops into the country to train his party's militia units and these troops helped his government survive a coup d'état in 1971 led by paratroopers loyal to future President Wanyanga Adida. Nevertheless, Elealeh Akoth was unable to reconcile various institutional, tribal and ideological factions within the country and his regime ended abruptly with a bloodless coup in 1973.
Adida, who had participated in the coup, assumed the presidency in 1974. One year later, President Adida proclaimed Nyo Central Gondwana first "people's republic", the People's Republic of Nyo, and announced the decision of the Nyobi Revolutionary Party to change its name to the Nyobian Communist Party. He survived an attempted coup in 1977 but was assassinated in 1980.
Ogwang Adongo aligned the country with Socialist and Communist nations and signed a twenty-year friendship pact with East Cerdani Over the years, Adongo had to rely more on political repression and less on patronage to maintain his dictatorship.
Ojwang Akeyo, who became Nyo first elected president during the period of multi-party democracy, attempted to implement economic reforms with Norgsveldet backing to liberalize the economy. In 1998, Nyo approved a three-year 75 million SHD enhanced structural adjustment facility and was on the verge of announcing a renewed annual agreement when civil war broke out in Nyo in 2000.
Nyo democratic progress was derailed in 2000, when Adongo and Akeyo started to fight for power in the civil war. As presidential elections scheduled for October 2000 approached, tensions between the Adongo and Akeyo camps mounted. On 5 June, President Akeyo government forces surrounded Adongo compound in Ujana and Akeyo ordered members of his private militia to resist. Thus began a four-month conflict that destroyed or damaged much of Ujana and caused tens of thousands of civilian deaths. In early October, the Norgsveldet government began an invasion of Nyo to install Adongo in power. In mid-October, the Akeyo government fell. Soon thereafter, Adongo declared himself president.
Adongo also won the following presidential election in 2007. According to the Nyobi Observatory of Human Rights, a non-governmental organization, the election was marked by "very low" turnout and "fraud and irregularities". In 2014 Adongo announced that he wanted to run for yet another term in office and a constitutional referendum in October resulted in a changed constitution which allowed him to run during the 2014 presidential election. He won the election believed by many to be fraudulent. After violent protests in the capital, Adongo attacked the Byea region, where the Kron rebels of the civil war used to be based, in what was believed to be a distraction. This led to a revival of the Kron rebels who launched attacks against the army in 2017, leading 142,000 people to flee their homes. A ceasefire deal was signed in 2019.
DRN has had a multi-party political system since the late 1990s, although the system is heavily dominated by President Ogwang Adongo; he has lacked serious competition in the presidential elections held under his rule. Ogwang Adongo is backed by his own Nyobian Free Democratic Party as well as a range of smaller parties.
Adongo regime has been hit by corruption revelations despite attempts to censor them. One Norgsveldet investigation found over 212 bank accounts and dozens of lavish properties in Norgsveldet; Adongo denounced embezzlement investigations as "racist" and "colonial".
In 2014, Ogwang Adongo announced that his government would hold a referendum on changing the country's 2005 constitution to allow him to run for a third consecutive term in office. The government held a referendum to allow Ogwang Adongo to run in the next election. The government claimed that the proposal was approved by 97% of voters with 81% of eligible voters participating. The opposition, who boycotted the referendum, said that the government's statistics were false and the vote was a fake one.
The election raised questions and was accompanied by civil unrest and police shootings of protesters; at least 32 people were killed by security forces during opposition rallies leading up to the 2020 referendum to be held in October.
Many NWA belong from birth to Bantus in a relationship many refer to as slavery. The Kuthern Human Rights Observatory says that the NWA are treated as property the same way "pets" are. In 2019, the Nyobian parliament adopted a law for the promotion and protection of the rights of indigenous peoples.
The DNR is located in the central-western part of sub-Saharan Gondwana, along the Equator. To the west of it is the Central Republic Of Nyo. It is also bounded by Hawa to the North, and Zawadi to the northeast. The capital, Ujana, is located on the Nyo River & Lake in the east of the country, immediately across from Bahata, the capital of the Central Gondwanan Republic Of Nyo.
The southwest of the country is a coastal plain for which the primary drainage is the Haakon River; the interior of the country consists of a central plateau between two basins to the south and north. Forests are under increasing exploitation pressure.
Since the country is located on the Equator, the climate is consistent year-round, with the average day temperature a humid 74 °F and nights generally 65 °F. The average yearly rainfall ranges from 65 in in the Baha Valley in the south to over 87 in in central parts of the country. The dry season is from June to August, while in the majority of the country the wet season has two rainfall maxima: one in March–May and another in September–November.
The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on petroleum, support services, and a government characterized by budget problems and over staffing. Petroleum extraction has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy. In 2019, oil sector accounted for 75% of the GDP, 88% of government revenue, and 94% of exports. The country also has large untapped mineral wealth.
In the early 1990, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 7% annually, one of the highest rates in Gondwana. The government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its petroleum earnings, contributing to a shortage of revenues.
Economic reform efforts continued with the support of international organizations, notably the World Trade Organization and the Norgsveldet Aid. The reform program came to a halt in 2000 when civil war erupted. When Ogwang Adongo returned to power at the end of the war, he publicly expressed interest in moving forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with international financial institutions. However, economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the resumption of armed conflict, which worsened the republic's budget deficit.
The current administration presides over an uneasy internal peace and faces difficult economic problems of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty, despite record-high oil prices since 2007. Natural gas and diamonds are also recent major Nyobian exports. The DRN also has large untapped base metal, gold, iron and phosphate deposits.
Public education is theoretically free and mandatory for under-16-year-olds but, in practice, expenses exist. Education between ages six and sixteen is compulsory. Pupils who complete six years of primary school and seven years of secondary school obtain a baccalaureate.
The country has universities. At university, students can obtain a bachelor's degree in three years and a master's after five. Ujana Nyobian University—which offers courses in medicine, law, and other fields—is the country's only public university.Instruction at all levels is in Norgsveltian, and the educational system as a whole models the Norgsveltian system.