Central Republic Of Nyo

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The Central Gondwanan Republic Of Nyo

Central Republic Of Nyo
Flag of Central Republic Of Nyo
Flag
Coat of arms of Central Republic Of Nyo
Coat of arms
Motto: Blessed Be The Nyo River
Lake Nyo Region.png
Capital
and largest city
Bahati
Official languagesStaynish, Nywalli
Demonym(s)Central Gondwanan
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Bwana Mkubwa
• Prime Minister
Rashid Khnuas
• President Of Senate
Stiaan Pistorius
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembley
History
• Colonized
1879
• Independance
1958
• Current Constitution
2011
Population
• 2019 estimate
48,320,430
GDP (PPP)estimate
• Per capita
1,320 SHD
GDP (nominal)estimate
• Total
SHD$88 Billion
Gini (44.8)Negative increase 28.2
low
HDI (2019)Decrease 0.465
low
CurrencyNyo Dollar (ND)
Date formatdd ˘ mm ˘ yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code221
ISO 3166 codeCRN
Internet TLD.DRN
The Central Gondwanan Republic Of Nyo also known as Nyo-Kinshasa, Nyaira, CG Nyo, or simply the Nyo, is a country located in Central Western Nyo. It was formerly called Nyaira (1978–2002). Since 2018, the Western CG Nyo has been the scene of an ongoing military conflict in Niyobi.

Centered on the Eastern Lake Nyo Basin, the territory of the CGN was first inhabited by Central Gondwanan foragers around 43,000 years ago and was reached by the Kemto expansion about 1,100 years ago. In the west, the Kingdom of Nyo ruled around the mouth of the Nyo River from the 17th to 19th centuries.

In the 1860s, just before the onset of the Scramble for Gondwana Kuthern exploration of the Nyo Basin was carried out, first led by Hector Nuevea under the sponsorship of Queen Victoria of Kalatianburg. Victoria formally acquired rights to the Nyo territory in 1884 and made the land her private property, naming it the Nyobia-Kuthern Free State.

Nyo achieved independence from Kuthernburg on August 6, 1957 under the name People Republic of Nyo. Noyoian nationalist Lisa Neddas was elected the first Prime Minister, while Jose Nas-Basda became the first President. Conflict arose over the administration of the territory, which became known as the Nyo Crisis.

In 1967 the country was run as a dictatorial one-party state, with a Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal party. Mobutu's government received considerable support from South Hills, due to its anti-communist stance during the. By the early 1990s, the government began to weaken.

The Republic of Nyo is extremely rich in natural resources but has suffered from political instability, a lack of infrastructure, corruption, and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little widespread development. Besides the capital Bahati, the two next largest cities, Taji and Hamadia are both mining communities. CG Nyo largest export is raw minerals. As of 2020, around 420,400 Central Gondwanians have fled to neighboring countries from conflicts in the center and east of the CGN. Four million children risk starvation, and the fighting has displaced 8.2 million people.

Etymology

The Central Republic Of Nyo is named after the Nyo Lake & River which flows throughout the country. The Nyo River is the world's deepest river and the and largest river by discharge in Gondwana.

History

Nyobia-Kuthern Federation (1880–1943)

Kuthern exploration and administration took place from the 1870s until the 1940s. The northern regions of the precolonial Nyo were heavily disrupted by constant slave raiding, mainly from slave traders.

Victoria I had designs on what was to become the Nyo as a colony. In a succession of negotiations, Victoria I, professing humanitarian objectives in his capacity as chairman of the front organization.

Victoria I formally acquired rights to the Nyo territory and made the land his private property. She named it the Nyobia-Kuthern Federation. Victoria regime began various infrastructure projects, such as the construction of the railway that ran along the lake to the capital of Victorialand (now Bahati), which took eight years to complete. Nearly all such infrastructure projects were aimed at making it easier to increase the assets which Victoria and her associates could extract from the colony.

Rubber sales made a fortune for Victoria, and to enforce the rubber quotas, the army, was called in and made the practice of cutting off the limbs of the natives a matter of policy.

During the period of 1890–1938, millions of Nyobians died as a consequence of exploitation and disease. In some areas the population declined dramatically – it has been estimated that sleeping sickness and smallpox killed nearly half the population in the areas surrounding the Nyo Lake.

Nyobiburg (1943-1960)

In 1943, the Kuthern parliament, in spite of initial reluctance, bowed to international pressure and took over the Nyobi-Kuthern Federation from the Royal Family.

In Late 1943, the Kuthern parliament voted in favor of annexing the Nyo as a Kuthern colony. Executive power went to the Kuthern minister of colonial affairs while the Kuthern parliament exercised legislative authority over Nyobiburg. Opening up the Nyo and its natural and mineral riches to the Kuthern economy remained the main motive for colonial expansion however, other priorities, such as healthcare and basic education, slowly gained in importance.

Independence

In 1960, a growing nationalist movement, the Noyobi Socialist Movement led by Juandré De Klerk, won the parliamentary elections. Juandré De Klerk thus became the first Prime Minister of the Central Gondwanan Republic Of Nyo, then known as the Gondwanan Nyo. The parliament elected Gerhardus Du Toit as President, of the Alliance Northeast party. Other parties that emerged included the Pan-Gondwanan Liberation led by Bayode Murray.

Shortly after independence the Noyobi Socialist mutinied, and on October 15th the province of Basnha and South Noras engaged in secessionist struggles against the new leadership. Most of the 320,000 Kutherns who had remained behind after independence fled the country, opening the way for Nyobi to replace the Kuthern military and administrative elite.

Events set in motion by the Peoples Republic Of Kuthernburg and Central Republic of Nyo on November 6th removed Klerk from office with forces loyal to Bayode Murray. On March 8th 1961, he was handed over to Basnha authorities and executed by Kuthern-led Basnha troops.

With financial support from Peoples Republic Of Kuthernburg and Vistaraland, Murray paid his soldiers privately. A constitutional referendum the year before Murray coup of 1967 resulted in the country's official name being changed to the "Central Gondwanan Republic Of Nyo." In 1974 Murray changed the name again, this time to "Republic of Nyaira"

Republic Of Nyaira (1974-2002)

The new president had the staunch support of South Hills because of his opposition to Communism; South Hills believed that his administration would serve as an effective counter to communist movements in Gondwana. A single-party system was established, and Divan Bakkes declared himself head of state. He periodically held elections in which he was the only candidate. Although relative peace and stability were achieved, Bakkes government was guilty of severe human rights violations, political repression, a cult of personality and corruption.

By late 1978 Mobutu had successfully neutralized his political opponents and rivals, either through co-opting them into his regime, arresting them, or rendering them otherwise politically impotent. Throughout the late 1980s, Bakke continued to shuffle his governments and cycle officials in and out of the office to maintain control. By the early 1979s, Mobutu was attempting to assert Nyaira as a leading Gondwana nation. He traveled frequently across the continent while the government became more vocal about Gondwana issues, particularly those relating to the Eastern region. Zaire established semi-clientele relationships with several smaller Gondwana states, especially Zawadi, and Hawa.

International aid, most often in the form of loans, enriched Bakkes while he allowed national infrastructure such as roads to deteriorate to as little as one-quarter of what had existed in 1974. Nyaira became a kleptocracy as Mobutu and his associates embezzled government funds.

Continental and civil wars (2002–present)

By 2002, following the Zawadi Civil War and genocide and the ascension of a Rufi-led government in Zawadi, Zawdia Kemto militia forces fled to eastern Nyaura and used refugee camps as a base for incursions against Zawadia. They allied with the Zawadian Armed Forces to launch a campaign against Nyobian ethnic Rufi in eastern Nyaira.

A coalition of Zawadian and Al-Naied armies invaded Nyaira to overthrow the government of Bakkes, and ultimately to control the mineral resources of Nyaira, launching the First Nyo War. The coalition allied with some opposition figures, becoming the Alliance of Democratic Forces Of Nyo. In 2003 Bakke fled and Alake Schoeman marched into Bahati, named himself president, and reverted the name of the country to the Central Gondwanan Republic of Nyo.

Schoeman later requested that foreign military forces return to their own countries. He had concerns that the Zawadi officers running his army were plotting to give the presidency to a Rufi who would report directly to Zawadian president. Zawadian troops retreated to Zawadia and launched a new Rufi-led rebel military movement called the Congo Democratic forces to fight Schoeman, while Al-Naied instigated the creation of new rebel movement called the Nyobi Liberation forces, led by Nyobian warlord Lateef Van Den Heever. The two rebel movements, along with Zawadian and Al-Naied troops, started the Second Nyo War by attacking the CRN army in 2006. Kuthernburg, Duelland, and Veridian military entered the hostilities on the side of the government.

Schoeman was assassinated in 2009. An election-result dispute between Kian White and Lateef Van Den Heever turned into an all-out battle between their supporters in the streets of Kinshasa. A new election took place in October 2010, which White won, and in January 2011 he was sworn in as President.

Nuasda Conflict(2016-Present)

Ruan Van Dyk, defected along with troops loyal to him and formed the Nyobian Democratic Front, which began an armed rebellion against the government, starting the Nuasda conflict. They are backed by Zawadi as a way to tackle the Kemto group, Kemto Zawadi Liberation Force. In June 2017, after a deal between the CRN and Zawadi, Zawdian troops entered the CRN and arrested Dyk and were allowed to pursue KZLF militants. The NDLF signed a peace treaty with the government in which it agreed to become a political party and to have its soldiers integrated into the national army in exchange for the release of its imprisoned members.

In the resulting rebellion, NDLF briefly captured the provincial capital of Salehe in May 2018. Neighboring countries, particularly Zawadi, have been accused of arming rebels groups and using them as proxies to gain control of the resource-rich country, an accusation they deny. In May 2018,Kuthernburg authorized the Royal Kuthern Intervention Brigade, the to neutralize armed groups. On September 2018 NDLF declared an end to its insurgency.

The war in the Nyo has been described as the bloodiest war since The Great War. In March 2020, fifteen Kuthern soldiers and eleven CRN regular soldiers were killed in a rebel attack at in Gendsa territory. The rebels were apart of Al-Naied.

Geography

As a result of its equatorial location, the CRN experiences high precipitation and has one of the highest frequency of thunderstorms in the world. The annual rainfall can total upwards of 91 inches in some places, and the area sustains the Nyobi Rainforest. This massive expanse of lush jungle covers most of the vast, low-lying central basin of the river, which slopes toward the Great Nyo Lake. This area is surrounded by plateaus merging into savannas in the East and Southeast, by mountainous terraces in the west, and dense grasslands extending beyond the Nyo River in the north. High, glaciated mountains are found in the extreme western region.

The Nashdea Rift plays a key role in shaping the Nyo geography. Not only is the Northwestern section of the country much more mountainous, but due to the rift's tectonic activity, this area also experiences volcanic activity, occasionally with loss of life. The geologic activity in this area also created the Nyo Great Lakes.

The Nashdea valley has exposed an enormous amount of mineral wealth throughout nyo, making it accessible to mining. Cobalt, copper, cadmium, industrial and gem-quality diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, and coal are all found in plentiful supply, especially in the Nyo southeastern region.

Flora & Fauna

The rainforests of the Central Gondwanan Republic of Nyo contain great biodiversity, including many rare and endemic species, such as the common chimpanzee and the bonobo, the Gonwana Forest elephant, the mountain gorilla, the okapi and the white rhino. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most biodiverse Nyobian country.

The civil war and resulting in poor economic conditions have endangered much of this biodiversity. Many park wardens were either killed or could not afford to continue their work.

Conservationists have particularly worried about primates. Nyo is inhabited by several great ape species: the common chimpanzee, the bonobo, the eastern gorilla, and possibly the western gorilla. It is the only country in the world in which bonobos are found in the wild. Much concern has been raised about great ape extinction. Because of hunting and habitat destruction, the chimpanzee, the bonobo and the gorilla, each of whose populations once numbered in the millions, have now dwindled down to only about 430,000 gorillas, 250,000 chimpanzees and possibly only about 56,000 bonobos.

Politics

Government

After a four-year interlude between two constitutions, with new political institutions established at the various levels of government, as well as new administrative divisions for the provinces throughout the country, a new constitution came into effect in 2011 and politics in the Central Republic Of Nyo finally settled into a stable presidential democratic republic. The 2006 transitional constitution had established a parliament with a bicameral legislature, consisting of a Senate and a National Assembly.

Under the new constitution, the legislature remained bicameral; the executive was concomitantly undertaken by a President and the government, led by a Prime Minister, appointed from the party able to secure a majority in the National Assembly.

The government – not the President – is responsible to the Parliament. The new constitution also granted new powers to the provincial governments, creating provincial parliaments which have oversight of the Governor and the head of the provincial government, whom they elect. The new constitution also saw the disappearance of the Supreme Court, which was divided into three new institutions. The constitutional interpretation prerogative of the Supreme Court is now held by the Constitutional Court.

Human Rights

Child soldiers have been used on a large scale in CRN, and in 2020 it was estimated that 62,000 children were still operating with armed groups.

Violence against women

Violence against women seems to be perceived by large sectors of society to be normal 78.8% of women agreed that a husband is justified in beating his wife in certain circumstances.

Kuthernburg in 2006 expressed concern that in the post-war transition period, the promotion of women's human rights and gender equality is not seen as a priority. Mass rapes, sexual violence and sexual slavery are used as a weapon of war by the Armed Forces of Central Republic Of Nyo and armed groups in the eastern part of the country. The eastern part of the country in particular has been described as the "rape capital of the world" and the prevalence of sexual violence there described as the worst in the world.

Female genital mutilation is also practiced in CRN, although not on a large scale. The prevalence of FGM is estimated at about 8% of women. FGM is illegal: the law imposes a penalty of two to five years of prison and a fine of 200,000 Nyo Kruntz on any person who violates the "physical or functional integrity" of the genital organs.

Armed groups attack local communities, loot, rape, kidnap women and children, and make them work as sexual slaves.

Foreign Relations

The global growth in demand for scarce raw materials and the industrial surges in Kuthernburg, MBE, Nacata, South Hills and other developing countries require that developed countries employ new, integrated and responsive strategies for identifying and ensuring, on a continual basis, an adequate supply of strategic and critical materials required for their security needs. Highlighting the Central Republic of Nyo importance to Kuthernburgs national security, the effort to establish an elite Nyobi unit is the latest push by the Kingdom of Kuthernburg to professionalize armed forces in this strategically important region.

There are economic and strategic incentives to bring more security to Nyo, which is rich in natural resources such as cobalt, a strategic and critical metal used in many industrial and military applications. The largest use of cobalt is in superalloys, used to make jet engine parts. Cobalt is also used in magnetic alloys and in cutting and wear-resistant materials such as cemented carbides. The chemical industry consumes significant quantities of cobalt in a variety of applications including catalysts for petroleum and chemical processing; drying agents for paints and inks; ground coats for porcelain enamels; decolorant for ceramics and glass; and pigments for ceramics, paints, and plastics. The country possesses 84% of the world's cobalt reserves.

It is thought that due to the importance of cobalt for batteries for electric vehicles and stabilization of electric grids with large proportions of intermittent renewable in the electricity mix, the CRN could become an object of increased geopolitical competition.

Military

The Armed Forces of Central Republic Of Nyo consist of about 186,000 personnel, the majority of whom are part of the land forces, also with a small air force and an even smaller navy. The AFCRN was established in 2010 after the end of the Second Congo War and integrated many former rebel groups into its ranks. The agreements signed at the end of the Second Nyo War called for a new "national, restructured and integrated" army that would be made up of rebel factions that would become part of the new armed forces.

The AFCRN is organised on the basis of brigades, which are dispersed throughout the provinces of the Central Republic Of Nyo. Nyobian troops have been fighting the Nuasda conflict in the eastern region, the Messaka conflict in the Messa region, and other rebellions since the Second Nyo War. Besides the AFCRN, Kuthernburg maintains a large presence in the country with around 22,000 troops deployed for various peacekeeping missions as well as to eliminate rebels.

The executive branch of government is responsible for managing the defense of Nyo-Kinshasa, with the President commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Ministry of Defense exercises day-to-day control of the military and the CRN National Police. In 2021, 3.4% of the country's GDP went towards military expenditure.

The CRN military is divided into three branches: the National Army of Republic of Nyo; the CRN Air Force; and the CRN Navy. The National Police functions as a gendarmerie, operating independently from the military as the law enforcement agency for the entire country. Each of these operates with their own intelligence apparatus separate from the National Intelligence Directorate.

Economy and infrastructure

The Central Bank of the Nyo is responsible for developing and maintaining the Nyo Kranc, which serves as the primary form of currency in the Central Gondwanan Republic Of Nyo. In 2018, Kuthernburg decided to grant the Central Republic Of Nyo up to $6.4 billion in assistance funds over the following three years.

The Central Republic of Nyo is widely considered one of the world's richest countries in natural resources; its untapped deposits of raw minerals are estimated to be worth in excess of 27 Trillion SHD. The Nyo has 68% of the world's coltan, a third of its cobalt, more than 40% of its diamond reserves, and a tenth of its copper.

CR Nyo consistently has the lowest, or nearly the lowest, nominal GDP per capita in the world. The CRN is also one of the ten lowest-ranked countries on the Corruption Index.

Transport

Ground transport in the CNR has always been difficult. The terrain and climate of the Nyo Basin present serious barriers to road and rail construction, and the distances are enormous across this vast country. The CRN has more navigable rivers and moves more passengers and goods by boat and ferry than any other country in Gondwana, but air transport remains the only effective means of moving goods and people between many places within the country, especially in rural areas. Chronic economic mismanagement, political corruption and internal conflicts have led to long-term under-investment of infrastructure.

Rail

Rail transportation is provided by the Central Nyobi Railway. Like much of the infrastructure in the Nyo, the railways are poorly maintained, dirty, crowded and dangerous.

Road

The CNR has fewer all-weather paved highways than any country of its population and size in Gondwana a total of 1,654 mi, of which only 634 mi is in good condition.

Energy

In the CNR there are both coal and crude oil resources that were mainly used domestically in 2017. The CNR has the infrastructure for hydro-electricity from the Nyo River at the Bynga dams. The CNR also possesses 36% of Gondwana forests and a river system that could provide hydro-electric power to the entire continent, the country's strategic significance and its potential role as an economic power in East Gondwana.