Tissandra (New Hellenic: Tissandra ['tis'sanr]), officially the Constitutional Monarchy of Tissandra (New Hellenic: Monarchum Tissandrium ['mɔnarkum ˈtis'sanrum]), is a country located in Yasterian Continent. It is divided into six administrative provinces and two special cities, covering an area of 700,525 square kilometres (270,474 sq mi), and has a largely mediterranean climate. With a population of nearly 38.3 million people, Tissandra is not a very populated member state of the Asscociation of Yasterian Nations. Tissandra's capital and is Eranorth, and the largest metropolis is Anuriel. Other major cities include Crecore, Candira, Muriel, Ardenton, Almiere, and Merrimack.
Tissandra's topographically diverse territory extends from the beaches along the Hikaru Gulf in the south, to the Yasterian Range in the north and west, and the Yasterian Great Plains in its east. The country is bordered by Packilvania to the east and Alva to the northwest.
The history of human activity on Tissandran soil spans thousands of years. Throughout the late antiquity period it became extensively diverse, with various cultures and tribes settling on the vast Yasterian Great Plain. However, it was the Coastal Tribes who dominated the region and gave Tissandra its name. The establishment of Tissandran statehood can be traced to 600 bc, when the pagan ruler of the Erathi, a realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Tissandra, conquered huge swaths of the area. The Hellenic Civilisation was founded in 550 bc, and from 500 bc to 300 bc, cemented the creation of a statehood. The Hellenic Civilisation kickstarted the First Golden Era, at which the various peoples of the area integrates into Hellenism and unifiedcultural heritage.
With the passing of prominence and prosperity, the country eventually succumbs into civil war and unrests that lasted through into the 1 ac with the rise of the Clintinian Republic and the Second Golden Era. However, political machinations and cultural fractures led to a coup that ultimately ended the republic in 378 ac. The state splintered into warring fiefdoms and fell into a dark age. Only in the 18th century attempts were made to reunify the area and the identity of Tissandran. After a rennaisance and the revivals in the 15th to 16th century, Tissandran identity began to re-emerge, and by the 18th century, the dozens of states that constitute today's territory of Tissandra has amalgamated into two states, the Republic of Tissandra, and the Kingdom of Tissandra. A war was fought between the two, known as the First Tissandran Civil War, that saw almost a quarter million people died. Following the war, a truce of 50 years was agreed, which pushed the two states into informal economic cooperation, and further unifying the people. Industrial revolution arrived in Tissandra, and changed local economies into a manufacture based economy. After a series of diplomatic incidents, the two states of Tissandra fell into another conflict, known as the Second Tissandran Civil War. In July 1914, the war began with the invasion of the Republic by the Kingdom, followed by a protracted trench warfare for the next three years with limited breakthroughs from both sides. By 1917, the Republic of Tissandra is experiencing a people's revolution, while the Kingdom fell into shortage crisis and encountered a silent coup. In the wake of the 1918, the two state's government essentially dissolved, and a peace treaty was signed, unifying both states into the newly proclaimed Constitutional Monarchy of Tissandra.Tissandra is a developed market and a regional power in Central Yasteria; it has one of the largest economy in the Yasterian Ascociation of Nations by nominal GDP and by GDP (PPP). It provides very high standards of living, safety and economic freedom, as well as free university education and a universal health care system in accordance with YAN standards.
Constitutional Monarchy of Tissandra
Monarchum Tissandrium (Hellenic)
Motto: Vor Rochen Est Kynrei
For King and Country
Anthem: Defenei Auralum (Defender of The People)
The mainland territory of Tissandra, with the Isles of Adam on the Southwest, and the Islands of Veronica and Thamrin on the Southeast.
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy|
|Paverel III von Wittelsbach|
|Johannah Trevors (acting)|
|House of Lords|
|House of Commons|
|11 November 1918|
|700,525 km2 (270,474 sq mi)|
|4.2/km2 (10.9/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|1,350,000,000,000 SHD (₣2,750,000,000,000)|
• Per capita
|35,171 SHD (₣70,242)|
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|607,000,000,000 SHD (₣1,214,000,000,000)|
• Per capita
|15,988 SHD (₣31,976)|
|HDI (2018)|| 0.922|
|Currency||New Guldens (₣)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (Middle Yasteria)|
The origin of the name "Tissandra" derives from the Hellenic Legendarium, which proclaimed that the citizens of the civilization is descendants of Tissa (Tissa dras [Tis'a dr'a]). However, the name was only beginning to be used as an identity in the 15th century. During the rennaisance, prominent philosophers used this name in their works, such as Robert Bertolli's 'People of Tissandra', and Jaem Cato's 'Mighty Swords', both published in 1456. Both books called for national unity, and set trends throughout the region, inciting the ideals of unification.
The first official use of the name came before the First Civil War when the Duke of Eranorth took the title, King of Tissandra, which in ancient hellenic means Descendants of Tissa. This act quickly followed by the formation of the Republic of Tissandra. Hence it quickly gained traction as an identity for the nation.
Modern Tissandrans are predominantly descended from the so called Coastal Tribes of Yasteria. These coastal people were apparently pale in complexion, a little bit taller than native Yasterian, and usually has blonde hair. These tribes origins are unknown, with the oldest evidence suggested that they arrived in modern day's Tissandra coasts at approximately 1000 bc. These tribes were supposedly migrants from other area of the continent, and even possibly an outsider, originating from other landmasses. After their migration into Tissandra, these tribes were quick to develop sophistications in communications and social relationship. These quick adaptation and improvements were the direct result of these tribes' migration and its future domination.
Commerce were evidently a major source of technological discoveries and spreads. Archeologist had found numerous ancient pathways between different tribal settlements. One of the more prominent of the pathways is the one found near Creçore, found by Madison Clooney from the Creçore School of Social Science. The pathway reportedly contained some valuables, including golds and lapis lazuli stones. Tablets were found too in the area, suggesting record keeping were already in place during and after the construction of the pathway. The record keeping from this era did serve as a stepping stone into the formation of old Hellenic.
The main source of the Erathi Civilization is rather scarce. The main source of information from this age is the Ælita Tablet which is the first Tissandran writing ever recorded in history, dating back to 500 bc. The tablet was written in the Erathi Language, a direct precursor to Old Hellenic with only few differences between the two. However, the writing from this age still rely heavily from iconography and picturisation. Apart from the Ælita Tablet, the Chronicle of Kings, written far into the future in 2 ac by the philosopher Danton Aclee is considered pretty comprehensive, although there are some biased account (especially in the crisis that led into Eleana ascension).
The Erathi people were categorised as a Coastal Tribe. However the Erathis were rather uncommon for their lenient relationship with Yasterian natives. This lenient attitude led to the distinction between the true Coastal Tribesmen and the Erathis. Tension grew between the coastal tribes, culminated in King Æthura's conquest between 600 bc to around 570 bc. Æthura was the first king to be chronicled by Danton Aclee's Chronicle of Kings. Evidently, there were Erathi kings before Æthura. But these kings were never recorded in any documentation. The Chronicle of Kings itself was heavily based on the Ælita Tablet and some other clay tablets that was kept inside the Forum of Anuriel. These tablets were destroyed during the Great Anuriel Fire in 1 bc.
Danton stated that Æthura went on to become a fierce warrior from a very young age. His father, assumed to be another Erathi King, was killed during a hunting session, leaving Æthura in charge of the Erathi on the tender age of 12. He was mentored by his uncle, Æran, and quickly raised himself into prominence, gaining the trust of the Erathi. He was the one who migrated his people further inland from the coasts, possibly distancing from other powerful tribes, and founded Eranorth in 600 bc (the word supposedly means 'The House of The Erathis'). He spent the rest of his lifetime conquering surrounding native tribes until around 570 bc, where he was killed trying to cross the Yasterian Range in the middle of winter. Æthura didn't have any heir, and so the leadership went to his cousin from Æran, Æcara. King Æcara succesfully crossed the Yasterian Range and subjugated the tribes beyond the mountains. He then moved his army towards the coastal tribes, subjugating some under his dominion. Æcara only reigned for about 10 years (570 - 560 bc) before being murdered by the order of Æthura's younger sister, Eleana. Eleana accused Æcara of being responsible for Æthura's untimely death.
Eleana went on to become the first Hellenic worshipper in around 550 bc, culminating into the Hellenic Empire that her descendants would built. Danton didn't pointed on how exactly Eleana became a Hellenic worshipper, but the Ælita Tablet briefly stated that Eleana turned into a Hellenic worshipper after certain revelation. Historian tended to agree that the word revelation are pointing to the Celestial Revelation, a series of spiritual revelation recorded in the same era of Eleana. She was apparently attracted to these revelation or even formulated her own. Other than the religion, Eleana biggest achievements were the subjugation of the coastal tribes, and the construction of The Mudway, a huge pathway connecting Eranorth into a coastal area that is now Anuriel. Eleana's conversion into the Hellenic religion prompted her people to follow, difusing Erathi customs and cultural heritage into the religion, forming the Hellenic era.
Elrana died in around 530 bc. By this time, the Hellenist did posses a calendar system, a spiritual calendar consisted of 12 months, counted through the moon cycle, hence the name Olinei Hitus - Moon Date. However, the counting of years is not advent. The Moon Date was popularised by Eleana's heir, King Bostura. Bostura's reign only lasted for 5 years (mainly due to his mother's long age - Bostura was coronated when he was already 60 years old). Bostura was replaced by his grandson, Æneca (Æneca's father and Bostura's heir, Brinæca died before Bostura's coronation). Æneca continued the expansion of the realm. His eastward campaign lasted between 525 bc to 500 bc, and subjugated the territories east of Eranorth. Æneca also oversaw the building of a new summer capital south of Eranorth; Creçore (the word means Pacifier in Old Hellenic). After Æneca, 5 more kings ruled as Eleana's direct descendants :
1. Tærquin Formei (500 - 456 bc)
2. Tærquin Filei Tur (456 - 430 bc)
3. Anurei Ædran (430 - 392 bc)
4. Filei Ædran (391 - 356 bc)
5. Æruth 'Lisserein' (Mighty Raven) (356 - 298 bc)
The Golden Age of The Hellenist
The reign of the 5 kings, especially the reign of Æruth 'Mighty Raven' were described as the golden age of the Hellenic realm. Each kings built their own marks in history, and no one was supplanted by force. The stable power transfer and the great projects suggest that the Hellenic realm was prospering. During these times, great work of literatures were scripted, and many philosopher went down into history. Some of the best known philosopher are Anulli Dreten, a philosopher from Creçore who wrote his testimony on Trine Suppendei (Love and Power), Vulliren of Iesto (today's Candira) who wrote a play on his experience with native Yasterian in the east - Nulf Terrei (The Older Earthlings), and Masciei Nur, the personal chronicler of King Æruth 'Mighty Raven' who wrote many historical accounts of the king.
Politically, the Hellenic people were more sophisticated than before. Because of the sheer size of the realm, in 412 bc, King Anurei Ædran summoned representatives across the regions of the kingdom to help him managing the realm and to advise him. There were 60 people summoned in that year, and increased into 116 the next year. The king left the decision to appoint representatives to the people they represent, mainly because he was alient to local power structures and politics, begining the tradition of voting and public speeches. This council of representatives was named Amrula Tuis (People's Council). Initially, representatives only serves for a one year term, and can be re-elected for multiple times. But apparently, King Anurei's successor, Filei, didn't like the older members of the council, and changed the rule, limiting each member into three terms of three years.
Filei codified his laws in the first ever written constitution in Tissandra's history, Hickulitei (Black Tablet, the tablet was a rare obsidian stone). The tablet stated the rights and responsibility of the king, the council, the army, and the people in general, mostly refering to further legislations and general customs. King Æthura 'Mighty Raven' supposedly expanded the duty of the council, adding the duty of tax collection and budget allocation as the king's own servants were busy managing the contruction of numerous projects inside the realm. This greatly improved the realm's effectivity in gathering taxes and administering local region and led to the rapidly finished Elid (Emerald) Palace in Creçore. Æthura's heir, Ætimas misteriously dissapeared after his father's death in 298 bc. Some, including Masciei himself, thought that Ætimas ran away to marry a lowly peasant. Because of his disappearance, Eleana's direct line of descendants ended.
A succession war followed Æthura's death, mainly between Garyed Dynasty (a powerful family from Creçore, possibly had a huge support inside the People's Council) and the Dæstan Dynasty (which had a claim through the female line, which they claims to be the descendants of Erina, firstborn daughter of King Tærqui Filei Tur). The war lasted for almost a decade, from 298 bc to 289 bc, creating a devastating effects for the realm. During the duration of the war, many native tribes west of the Yasterian Range cut off ties with the realm, weakening the western frontier. On the same time, the People's Council was suspended and so the nation administration and management were jeopardised. As a result, many public works such as irrigation and postal services stopped working, culminating into widespread hunger and starvation.
The war itself was predominantly a clash between two armies; the army of the Garyed led by Dunirei Garyed, and the army of the Dæstan, led by Castei Dæstan. It is unclear of how the war went on, but historian generally agreed that on the first 5 to six years of war, the Dæstan were on the verge of collapse with evidence showing a siege had happened in Eranorth, and some chronicler, such as Wisserei Luten (disciple of Masciei Nur himself) did stated that the Dæstan done poorly on the first few years, being defeated multiple times and getting besieged by the end of these defeat. His account then stated that during the siege (approximately on the year 293 bc), the Garyed troops were decimated by plague and had to retreat. After this retreat, multiple accounts stasted that on 6th of Lilei (July), the Dæstan marched out from Eranorth and caught the Garyed troops off guard. The date was clearly marked on the Chronicle of Kings as the first victory Castei Dæstan have ever had. The following years saw minor skirmishes and rearguard actions between the Garyed and the Dæstan as the Dæstan forced the Garyed to retreat southward. In the end, the Garyed was besieged inside Creçore, and this time there was no plague. The siege lasted for 14 months throughout the remainder of 289,ending in 15th of Furiei (April). The siege destroyed the Elid Palace and most of the city proper. The Dæstan soon went on to brutally executed every male member of the Garyed Dynasty, imprisoning the women and the daughter. Castei even led some of his troops across the realm to search for Æthura's heir, Ætimas, but returned empty handed. The Council condemned the brutal murder, but couldn't do anything when Dæstan's troops stormed their residences. Nevertheless the war was over.
The starvation continues throughout the council's leadership, and people began to resent. Minor clashes between the people and the troops occured frequently during the interregnum period, while at the same time the council continuously raised their fares and passing laws that would made them almost untouchable by anyone. The number of counselors was periodically reduced, leaving huge areas and population to be represented by only a single counselor. When Cassei aged 16, he was coronated King by the council. The council did revoke the interregnum, but the laws and edicts they passed during the interregnum teared down the king's political power into a ceremonious role. Open rebellion followed Cassei ascendancy in 214, demanding the counselors to resign and a new council to be elected. Cassei was put under house arrest for most of his early years as king while the council went to crush the rebellion.
Abraham was a wealthy merchant from Creçore. He began to preach his monotheistic ideals during the tumultuous times after Cassei's ascendancy in 214. His preacher however didn't went well with the people of Creçore. The local governor seized his wealth and exiled him outside the city. But Abraham's preaching was welcomed by the rural population, and he was becoming a public figure. The accounts of Abraham was written mainly by his follower, but there were some philosopher who viewed his actions with an unbiased point of view (mainly Luicelle of Creçore and Vicentei Ludicca, a counselor). Luicelle chronicled Abraham's first 10 years of preaching as tumultuous and uninspiring. After he was exiled by the governor, his family cut ties from him, forcing him to live out in the open for most of the time. This was until he miraculously saved a drowned boy from a stream, apparently after the boy's heart stopped beating (this is an account from his disciple, written inside Stories of Our Father). His action garnered a lot of attention and soon his preaching is being accepted by huge populace from the countryside. He moved from village to village, garnering more followers and taking some disciple to his ventures. He teached medicine to many people, and preached humility and love. He began to codify his revelations with the help of his disciples, compiling it into the holy text, Dei Promptei (God's Will). The council didn't take Abraham's preaching seriously until the conversion of the governor of Creçore in 204. The governor returned Abraham's confiscated wealth which he quickly distributed among his disciples. His family rejoined him and most of the city converted into Abraham's teaching on 7th of Beria (August) 204. This date is now celebrated as the Day of Plenty. Abraham then decided to move his preaching to Anuriel. His time in Anuriel was harsh, even though now he has a huge follower and disciples following him. The people of Anuriel are more sceptic of Abraham's preaching, while the council was finding ways to make Abaraham as their political pawn. But the biggest shock to the council happened in 202 bc, when King Cassei himself decided to convert and join Abraham's follower. A lot of the city converts following the king. The Hellenic priests demanded that Abraham to be aprehended under the guilty of blasphemy. Their demands was accepted by the council who saw Abraham as a threat against their power and influence. The council dispatched some troops to aprehend Abraham on 12th of January 200. Unknown to the troops, the King was present at Abraham's house wearing a disciple clothing. When the troops assaulted the house, they knocked down most of the disciples - including the King himself, and captured Abraham.
The King died of concussion one week later. This assault and the King's death provoked many to revolt openly against the council. Some members of the council resigned after the King's death, including the writer Aponymei who stated in his account, "... the murder was unjustifiable, even if Abraham was guilty of such, no man should ever betray their king so lowly...". As Cassei hadn't married, the remainder of the council declared yet another interregnum. Without the king, the council is free to decide capital punishment, and so Abraham was hanged in front of the Temple of Angelas (now the Jubilee Plaza of Anuriel). Many myths surrounded his death, but his disciple all stated in the revered second holy text, Stories of Our Father that "... Father's death was swift. His face was calm, and his body was flagrant ... After we burried him ... the ground was blosoming with roses and blue tulips ..." .
The Great Strive
Abraham's execution had become the major turning point for the second interregnum leadership. Many counselors resigned and converted into the Children of Abraham while the nation was plunged deeper into chaos. Major uprising happened all across the country, mainly led through Creçore and its surrounding. After Abraham's funeral, Anuriel was engulfed in turmoil and the counselors moved their troops into the city, resulting in many deaths (account of Julimer Tulii in his book, Bir Hitus (Bloody Times). The rebels were forced to leave the city, while those who stayed were hold captive and even out rightly executed. The counselors began another harsh campaign to crush dissenter across the realm soon after Anuriel had been pacified. The Great Strive continued for almost 200 years until the Great Uprising. During these 200 years, the realm was essentially turned into a kind of an oligarchic republic, with no more kings and elections only for the privileged. The nature of the rebellion during the Great Strive was rather small compared to the Great Uprising that would happen in 10 bc. The Great Strive was only a series of small scale uprising, guerilla warfare and skirmishes with no notable battle or prominent leadership. But the chaotic climate of the time resulted into occasional starvation and shortages across the realm, pushing more and more people over the edge. While at the same time, unpaid mercenaries were terrorizing the civilian population. It is estimated that during the entire duration of the Great Strive, the population of the Hellenic realm fell from 12 million to 8 million (1/3rd of the original number). There are only small number of accounts from this times, as many of the philosopher stopped writing, or moved into other region. Julimer Tulii himself left Anuriel for the Peregrinia Isles after the pacifying of Anuriel.
The Great Uprising
In 10 bc, the people of Creçore forced the administration of the city, mainly the treasurer, outside the city in protest againts further taxation. The Treasurer General, Henrii Maliscer, flees to Anuriel where he requested an army to defeat the insurgents in Creçore. The city, knowing fully that the council would retaliate, asked a dissenter leader, Vinitius Clint, to led the defence of the city. The ensuing Siege of Creçore began in 14th of Mairt (March) and subsequently the Great Uprising also had broken out throughout the realm. During the siege, citizens of Eranorth rose into rebellion, supporting the Creçorean and quickly galvanizing troops, led by Corriel Walteir. The natives also had risen up, but under the guise of freedom ratger than protests. Henrii Maliscer's troops managed to break the Siege of Creçore after 6 month of siege, only to find the city deserted as the populace withdrew calmly and starting the formation of an army. Clint managed to pass over Maliscer's troops and joined Walteir in Eranorth. Following this defeat, Maliscer was court martialled, and replaced by Trevoeir Lucca, a former general that was serving as a counselor during Clint's rebellion. Lucca managed to force Clint and Walteir troops out of Eranorth in 9 bc, and subsequently pushed them back toward the Yasterian Range. His troops however were tired of forced marches and relentless pursuing, leading him into a trap in the Battle of Ridges on 7th of July 9 bc. Lucca was forced to withdrew into Eranorth where he had chosen to gave up the city to avoid sieges. His action however was disliked by the council, and he was forced to resign. Lucca's successor Georgei Teck chosen to defend the route to Anuriel, rather than seeking engagement with Clint and Walteir. On late December of 9 bc, Walteir resigned his post as a general and started campaigning around the country to galvanise more men. Teck attacked Clint's forces after he learnt that Walteir had resigned. Teck was soundly defeated by Clint in the Battle of Messimer in the middle of winter on 24th of December 9 bc.
Teck's disastrous defeat opened the road for Clint and his forces to besiege Anuriel. His troops started the siege on 8th of Terurei (February) 8 bc, while Walteir manages to found an entirely new army and began to subdue loyalist fortifications around the realm. On 15th of March, the council made a desperate attempt to form a troops consisted of elite mercenaries from beyond the sea and some civilian militias to break Clint's siege. The Battle of Randimen Creek saw Clint's forces defeated and he withdrew toward Eranorth to join his battered troops with Walteir's new army. The counselors, failed to pay tg He mercenaries, allowed them to loot the city of the treasures worth their payments. The looting was supposed to civil and guarded by militias. But when the militias and the people refused the decision, the mercenaries began the Sacking of Anuriel for the entirety of April and May. The sacking resulted in the Great Fire of Anuriel, destroying many historic buildings including the old Summer Palace of Anuriel.
The counselors finally gave into Clint's and Walteir's demand on 5th of June, and dissolve themselves while the rebel troops subdued the unpaid mercenaries into submission. The war was officially ended on 6th of June 8 bc after the Prolidger of The People's Council surrendered his banner symbolically to Clint and Walteir. Walteir resigned his position and gave it up for Clint as he was reportedly 'tired and old'.
The subsequent years between 8 bc to 1 ac were calm as people went home from the war and reconstruction began. Clint gathered and recalled philosophers that had left the country, and merchants from across the nation to reorganised the realm and refilling the emptied treasury. The merchants willingly gave Clint loans to start the reconstruction with only small interest. Clint gathered all of the merchants and their loans into one organization, subsequently creating the first Bank in the nation. Clint and a group of philosopher began to write a constitution (called primus sen (Prime Laws) back then). He then forms a new Council, Nulf Tuis (Council of Elders) , directly elected by the people, each representing a constituency with limited terms of two three-years terms. He also formed the Mour Tuis (Council of Merchants) to observe and advise financial, trade, and production issues and Luter Tuis (Council of War) to administrate the army and navy of the nation, and to appoint Verlicci Luter (War General) on yearly basis.
Clint's government became the first to officially acknowledge a name for the nation, Tissa Dras (Descendants of Tissa) morphing into today's Tissandra, referring to the myth of Hellen and Tissa. Clint was appointed by the Council of Elders to serve as Tissandra's first Consul. He led Tissandra until his death in 12 ac. Clint's greatest achievemnt apart from the reconstruction and the stabilisation of the realm is arguably his implementation of the Clintinian Calendar, a sun based calendar using names from the older Hellenic Moon Dates, the Calendar is much more sophisticated, including the calculation of leap years. His name was imortalized into the years throught the phrase, alurii clintei (after the great Clint).
The Second Golden Age
After Clint's death in 12 ac, the Council of Elders began to elect consuls on 3 years basis. The Council of Merchants and the Council of War began a great project to map the surrounding seas and coasts, finding their way into numerous realms and countries beyond the seas. Tissandra's merchants began to dominate the trades in Yasteria, and backed up by the navy, began to built trading outposts and factories on foreign lands. The revenue the merchants generated is taxes by the government, and so the realm's treasury had never emptied. These huge revenues were distributed in the form of tax incentives and infrastructure projects. One of the Republic's biggest project was the southern irrigation systems, turning Creçore and the southern region of the Republic into a breadbasket. The surpluss of food subsequently boost the population of the nation. The Republic also pardoned the native rebels that didn't join Clint and Walteir's forces. The natives were given citizenship status and equal rights with the Tissandrans. Socially women began to be accepted as equals with mens, although the positions in the councils and the position of Consul has never been given to a woman.
Around 100 ac, Council of Merchant began to dominate the Republic, turning the priorities of the republic into a commercial one with the main objective of gaining as much wealth as possible. This started the Age of Sails for Tissandra, as the Council of War and the Council of Merchant started a ferocious trading campaign against other nations trying to claim as much gains as possible. This brought upon a second golden age for Tissandra that would lasted into 400 ac. Æthura's Landing was built in Anuriel in 124 ac to accomodate with the continuously expanding merchant fleets of the nation. The dockyard was reportedly capabke of building 3 ships in a single week and was built according to the uniquely new assembly line technique. This, combined with steady flow of income into the national treasury, maintain ships and their maintenance, guaranteeing Tissandra's hold of the ocean.
In 367 ac, Admiral Andrew Telii mutinied against the High Seas Command after the navy failed to reinforce his brother, Captain Dæston Telii in a battle against a coalition of foreign traders. Dæston was killed and his ship, the infamous Bus Tuirei (literally Gold Seeker) was sunk. The ship was a flagship of the nation and its sinking hampered the image of the High Seas Command and the Council of War in general. Andrew Telii's mutiny did however ended shortly after it began; Anuriel militia was forced to shoot his ship with fort cannons, sinking the ship halfway, forcing the crews to surrender. Telii however comitted suicide. This act was seen unfavorably by the other naval officer, and soon a silent coup inside the High Seas Command ensued, replacing the older members of the command with young and emotional officers and cadets. This act was condemned by both the Council of Elders and the Council of Merchant, while the Council of War was struck down into chaotic power struggle. The Army Command quickly took over the entirety of the Council of War, and dissolved the High Seas Command to restore order. The Army Command quick and sudden move upsetted many in the navy and the Council of Merchant. The Council of Elders however supported the move, and even rewarded General Macery Hunrei, the War General on the time, with the Medal of Freedom, the highest achievement in the military of Tissandra. The Council of Merchant did not approve the Elders decision and calls for the recreation of a new High Seas Command to restore line of communication with Tissandra's outposts. When this request was denied by the Elders, the Merchant formed the Naval Command in 368, a military branch of its own, free off the influence and decisions of the Council of War. The navy quickly rebranded themselves as merchant marine fleets, focusing on commercial protection rather than a military role.
The power struggle between the three council continued for five years, resulting in deterioration of the navy. The nature of the merchant marine meant that the navy was now funded by profit, cut off from funding from taxes that would have helped the navy to modernise. In the ensuing five years, profit for the Merchant plummeted as their gains would have to be splitted to maintain the navy. The plummeting profits led the Council of Merchants to close down their outposts and factories aboard while the size of the fleet were reduced substantially, effectively ending the Age of Sails. Situation worsened when the army too began to be afflicted by the shortage of funding. The Council of Elders collapsed in 372 after the Council of Merchant and the Council of War passed their motion of disbelief. The new Council of Elders was filled with pawns from both sides (account of Anderson Wells on his book, Fall of The Republic). The power struggle now concentrated in the Council of Elders for the next three years resulting in some murders and assasinations. In 375,for the first time since the last 300 years, tax rate was increased. Civil unrest began to appear on the streets as people attributed the deteriorating nature of the nation to the three council. Consul Maxwell Frein (leading from 372 - 377) began a campaign to pass referendum against the three council, to disbanded them and give the consul more authority to decisively end the debacle. His proposition was popular with the people, but before it was voted for, the consul mysteriosly disappeared in Creçore.
Coup of 378 and The Splintering
A year after Frein's dissapearance, Macery Hunrei launched a coup and toppled both the Council of Elders and the Council of Merchants. Before he disbanded the other councils, members of both council dispersed into their local regions and began arming their people against a future conflict. However there were no unity between the members, resulting into a splinter between regions. The members began to act as their own leader, forming their own republics, duchies, and even kingdoms (Byshlia was the first kingdom formed during these times). Tissandra fell into the hands of these warlords and each regions soon break any affliction with the other, as if declaring their own independence.
Situation became dire when Macery was killed in a strive with the citizen of Anuriel in 379. The city plunged into chaos, while the Council of War dispersed themselves, following the lead of other counsellors, taking over their represented regions and began ruling it for themselves in the wake of the power vaccum, leaving the city in the hand of the Mayor. When the people of Argentum began marching toward Anuriel, led by a former member of the Council of Elders, Mushad Treien, now Consul of Argentum and the leader of the Region of Welli, Ferrel Marigold, called for all leadership to gather in Anuriel to decide the future of the nation peacefully. The Great Meeting of Anuriel were held, and Ferrel managed to dissuade any kind of hostility for a brief period as a truce of five years was signed. However, the meeting failed to reunite the nation. After a truce of five year, each states plunged into periodic wars against one another and gave rise to feudalism and serfdom.
Historian disagree on what was the main cause that led into such catastrophic downfall. Jamison Trident proposed in his testament, The Struggle for Power, a Mistake We Should Learn From, that the fall of the High Seas Command and the humiliating defeat againts the coalition is the main reason of the downfall. He also propossed that the recent golden era and expansion in wealth led to the regions becoming more self sufficient. At this moment, regions developed their own identity. These development was supposed to be small, if its not for the annual elections that were organized during the time of the republic. These elections were used as a platform for the politician who had berrated and undermined their rivals from mostly neighboring regions. The nature of the elections itself made the counselors much more powerful, effectively governing the regions they represented. Some even argued that the power struggle that started the splintering contained some shady acts done by the counselors, and the splinter was just a means to cover these acts. One way or another, the Republic no longer existed in 380 ac.
Hundred States Era
Between 380 ac to 770 ac, there were little historical record, and little progress made by the Tissandrans. The so called Warring States Period happened in these years, practically a sporadic warfare and strive between the self declared warlords, nobilities and the natives. Population wise, from the estimated 12 million citizen of the republic, by the end of 800 ac, was evidently reduced to mere 4 million. This huge fall of population and density was mainly atributed to the resurgence of old world plagues, particularly diarrhea and cholera which were subdued by Republican sanitations and flowing waters. The destruction of Republican infrastructure furthered the resurgence, leading to massive outbreaks in 392, 426, 451, 562, and 663.
The measles outbreak of 663 was the biggest in term of the fallouts and the death toll amongst the other breakouts. The outbreak was speculated to have started during the siege of Candira by the forces of Duke Mercia of Wimbling after a dispute over land distribution following King Tartas of Candira's death in 662. The siege, which happened for almost 4 months, ended after a quarter of the population of the city died of measles. The soldiers of Wimbling supposedly carried the disease home, and because the centrality of Wimbling's location on Tissandra, the disease rapidly spread. The spread primarily happened during the Long Knive War, between Duke Aberoly of Eranorth and the Republican forces of Anuriel. The war was huge compared to other conflicts of the period, involving more than 200,000 man on both sides. The long and pitched battles fought in the war contributed to the spread, that by 665, both nation stopped attacking each other due to the horrid losses caused by the outbreak. Candira was later abandoned in 672,and would only be repopulated again almost a century later in 769.
The outbreak of 663 managed to stop al.ost every conflict between the states of Tissandra, effectively silenced the region for three centuries. People of the period called the time as The Great Silence, due to the isolation and desolate nature of the region. Many people were confined to cities and the surrounding countryside, leaving the vast lands that were populated subdued by the nature. Forests regrow and the last Tissandrans fled the northern territories, leaving it to the Hama people and the natives. It was at this period that the vast majority of Republican artefacts were lost to the elements, and that there were no attempt to preserve it, as the Confine of the Children of Abraham closed their doors from outsiders and prevent any of their members from travelling more than 3 miles from their confine after the measles outbreak. However the presence of the Church amongst the people began to increase, due to the rise of insecurity and superstition.
The Eldest began to take political roles in Tissandra in 801, after the Church's ban on Solstice Parade in Eranorth was enforced by Eldest Humphrey III even though it wasn't approved by the Duke of Eranorth, Winston IV. The Eldest recruited more than a thousand of militant fanatics to enforce his will. Few clashes between The Eldest and the Duke led to the Duke's flight from Eranorth after the burning of the Glassing Fort. Humphrey III then raised Silvan I, Winston IV's younger brother, as the new Duke of Eranorth. Silvan and his predecessor were essentially a servant to The Eldest which turned to Duchy of Eranorth into their base for proselytizing the Children's religiousness throughout the region.
The period of this proselytizing was called The Second Revival, and it was a great success for the Church and the region in general. As preacher began to spread across the nation, Eldest Nicholas X repealed the seclusion of the Confines in 863, and encouraged preachers and clergies to educate people in religious matters, and openly helping in social matters. In 912, the Church was gifted a Cathedral by the Consul of Anuriel, Gillian Æthal after the death of his preacher friend Damerine Wiser (a dominant figure in the proselytizing in Anuriel). The Cathedral was christened by Eldest Nicholas XIV as the Cathedral of Saint Damerine. However, an attempt by Nicholas XIV to build a confine in Creçore was denied by the Kingdom of Argentum, even though Creçore is one of the holy cities for the Children of Abraham, the King, Thæara, was Hellenic. It was only after what was called the Miracle at Creçore, on which the preacher Mychæl saved the King from an assassination attempt by procuring a 'heavenly light' from his hand. The miracle was canonized, even though some in the Heavenly Council disputed it as the King was found unconscious after the attempt. Thæara converted into the religion, and endorsed the Church, founding the Confine of Saint Mychæl as a pilgrimage resting site and center of proselytising in the south.
By the year 1000, the region was almost entirely endorsing the Church, resulting in a relatively peaceful nature of the era. The Eldest and the Heavenly Council owned huge influence over the region, and have capabilities to mediate conflicts and granting forgiveness even for kings and queens of the regions. The relative peace returned the population growth, restoring it into arround 8 million by 1000. Commercial activities resumed unhindered, and general prosperity was rising. People began to repopulate the countryside and reopened old trade routes, while foreign goods returned to Anuriel as merchants returned to the region to trade. By 1400, the population of the region had reached 16 million people, and cities like Eranorth and Anuriel had doubled in size.
By the end of the fourteenth century, the Church began to steadily lose political power over the region. As commerce and population doubled, monarchy and autocracy naturally returned to maintain order on the region. One such example was in the heart of the Church itself in Eranorth, where Duke Abercromby was granted by the Heavenly Council to reinstated his own council to manage financial affairs. As financial affairs included the payment of troops and mercenaries, the Church was essentially gave up their political enforcer, the militant clergies to the Duke who disbanded it in 1406 after a claim that the militant was poorly equipped and trained yet very highly paid. They were replaced by the Holy Guard, paid and trained by the Duke.
The relative peace during the Revival led to an era of scientific and art rediscovering. This era, known as the era of the Awakening, saw old Hellenic arts and Clintinian sciences renewed. Even though the Church proposed that arts is wasteful, some prominent church members hired artist such as Dætgyr of Creçore and Carl Flavian to built magnificent churches. Dætgyr was also employed by Eldest Humphrey XVI to built the Grand Cathedral of Saint Nicholas of Tein in Eranorth, which now became the headquarter of the Church. Extravagant living spread amongst the nobily who began to patronizing the arts and science as a political manouvre. Duke Millard of Portista employed certain Aramdillo Meducci to rebuilt the Acqueduct of Portista, and also expanding it with a Ferucci Screw, a method of pumping water unknown since the fall of the Republic. This was however a political move as the aqueduct drained water from the highlands of the Kingdom of Candira, prompting the Kingdom's subjects to pay for their own water. Armadillo Meducci soon gained fame as a historian and scientist. He reinvented a lot of ancient findings, and also experimented on his own. His finding resulted in the discovery of water stream powered weaving mills that is arguably one of the earliest example of a complicated engineering. Due to his invention, the region dominated fabric trade in Yasteria for centuries to come. Overall, the years between 1400 into 1800 was a period of progress and rediscoveries for the region, the so called Awakening. Although warfare and disputes still happened between states, the increasingly centralised nature of nation-states throughout the region began to polarised power into the three ancient capitals of the Tissandran people; Eranorth, Anuriel, and Creçore. This meant that by the end of the 17th century, there were only three main states and few outlying principalities and free cities (with the exception of Kingdom of Candira), all centered in Eranorth (Kingdom of Tissandra), Anuriel (Republic of Anuriel), and Creçore (Grand Duchy of Argentum). The relatively non-destructive nature of warfare in this period gave way to an interlinked commerce and social necessity between the states, prompting nationalism and unification throughout the region.
The Industrial Revolution
The 18th century saw the First Industrial Revolution, as the renewing of the coal powered well pumps led to the discovery of machine pumps. The machine pumps were used to pums out water from coal and ore mines, boosting production more than double the times, and making prices for fuel to drop. Many cotraptions were made at this time; the Spinning Harry (a string threading machine built by Harry Jennings), and the steam powered factories which sprung out across the realm. Some older institutions, like banks and universities transforms into the modern structure we see now, while locals began to build free schools as education became more important. This era also marked by massive urbanization, as cities swelled in size. Arround 1772, railway network began to extends across the nation, and in 1781 the first steam boat canal was opened. Roads also widened, and the first toll ways was opened between Anuriel and Creçore in 1765.
Although education and income began to increase, the quality of live were actually decreasing, as people working inside factories were lacking in terms of physical protection. Many accident happens, while coal and iron soot began to affect worker's health. Child labour was extensive too, and they were also exposed with lacks of protection. There were no regulations, and many profiteers try to use this lack of government intervention to amass wealth as much as possible, culminating into the return of the Oligarchy as these people began to assert more and more political influence through their financial ones.
The Late 18th Century
Neverthelles, the disparates states finally decrease in number, as duchies and republics increase in power and size. The Duchy of Eranorh started a ferocious conquest and diplomatic annexations throughout the 15th and 16th century. They aggressively married off their members of Dynasty, the House of Chalois, to form alliances, and to annex far away lands. The shrewd practice managed to bring half of the realm into the Duchy's command. By the year 1701, The nation was half unified under Eranorth. During this time, the Palace of Glass was built in the suburbs of Eranorth to showcase the might of the Duke. When the Palace is finished in 1714 ac, during the time of Duke Charles XXVI, he coronated himself inside the palace as the first King of the descendants of Tissa; forming the Kingdom of Tissandra. The local polities and royalty already under Eranorth's influence are subsequently annexed after his coronation. But the southwestern part of the realm denies the coronation, and declares Charles' claim unfounded. They gathers to form the Coalition for Tissandra, headed by the President of Anuriel (formerly Consul of Anuriel). The two factions maintain their cohesion throughout the rest of the 18th century, until the middle of the 19th century, with each claiming to be the rightful government for Tissandra. But only after Anuriel formally annexed all of the Coalition's members, including the Grand Duchy of Argentum, and formed the Republic of Tissandra in 1864, hostilities between the two nation escalated into all out war.
The First Civil War
The First Civil War lasted for more than 3 years between 1865 to 1868, resulting in half a million casualties, and almost a quarter million deaths. The war was primarily fought among the borders, with each side trying to invade the others. There were four stages of the war, according to historian, The Gulf Campaign, The Massif Central Campaign, The Highland Campaign, and The Greenfields Campaign.
The Gulf Campaign was an attempt of the Kingdom to invade the Republic and to besiege Anuriel. The campaign was a failure, after waves of Royalist Army were defeated along the coasts of Hikaru Gulf. The largest battle of this campaign was the Battle of Dren Bridge on 21st of September 1865, where 75,000 Royalist attempted to cross a bridge near Dren Village. The Royalist were forced to retreat and stop the invasion. The Massif Central Campaign was the second attempt of the Royalist to invade the Republic. This campaign was more succesful, and led to the Siege of Aminore, a strategic fortress that supplies Anuriel, on the 9th of April 1866. The siege were called off when the Republic invaded the Kingdom in the Highland Campaign. The Highland Campaign was the longest of the other campaigns, and led to the evacuation of Eranorth on 7th of December 1866, and the Battle of Carrack on 16th of February 1867. The Republican was defeated at that battle and had to retreat back to Eranorth. They were once again defeated at the Battle of Marygold on 2nd of April 1867, and forced to withdraw back to the Republican territory in the Long Retreat that lasted until November 1867.
The winter of 1867 saw only small skirmishes with no major battles, as both sides are preparing for a last attempt to invade the other. The last phase of the war, The Greenfields Campaign, was a series of intelligence confusion and miss information that led into both army marching to one another. The Battle of Greenfields lasted for five days (4th to 9th of March 1868), resulted in almost 10,000 casualties and ended in a draw, as both troops agreed into a cease-fire. A truce of 50 years was signed on the 11th of March 1868.
The East-West Division and The Second Industrial Revolution
The fifty year of truce between the Kingdom and the Republic of Tissandra were colloquially known as the East-West Division. During the period, the Reconstruction Era between 1868 to 1888, rejuvenate both nations and relieved them from old rivalries and grudges. The advent of the Second Industrial Revolution during the period also saw a more united economic stature between the two states. Invention of electric radios and new newspaper companies bring unifying opinions to the public, and woven a closer identity between the two states. However, politically, the Kingdom and the Republic still argued about each other's jurisdiction and influence over the thousand years old nobility and polity structure. Incidents occured often, but the truce prevent further military exploits.
The Second Industrial Revolution saw gas lights, radio signal, and cable telephones distributed among the masses. These inventions allows factories to run almost 24 hours a day with worker shift, and also increased the productivity and the livelihood of the markets with the advent of real time stock exchange. New regulations were put by both nation's government, to protect the safety and health of the workers, breaking the power base of the Oligarchs. But welfare laws regarding minimal wages and social benefits were still non-existent. Around this time the socialist ideals were imported to Tissandra. This, and the following Communist Manifesto, brought far left politics to the nations, opposing both the conservative values of the Kingdom, and the capitalistic values of the Republic. Their movement attract many urban workers who promptly joined their rank. Socialist and Communist movement formed political party that existed in both nations, such as the Socialists for a United Tissandra Movement Party, the Commune of Tissandra, and the United Worker's Front, and campaigned for welfare policy and unity.
The Second Civil War
In 16th of April 1914, negotiations started in Varreylaigh, a village in the border between the two nations, to determine the outcome of the 50 year truce that will end in 1918. The negotiations ended in failure when both the Kingdom and the Republic's concession only culminated to demands of each other's subjugation. The subsequent failure also fueled into a heated debate between the two leaders of the delegations, Prince Maximilian VII, King Ludwig XXII's cousin, and Minister of Foreign Affairs for The Republic of Tissandra, Retired Major General Richard Heather. The problem became personal when a duel challenge was proposed resulted in both men's death. The duel became a diplomatic crises between the two nations, as the Royal Family was quick to distributes propaganda, demanding justice over the Prince's live. Ludwig XXII apparent unstable and emotional behavior, reinforced by many warmongering elites in Tissandra's nobility pushed the Kingdom's council to declare an ultimatum to be presented into the Republic, asking the Republic to open its borders for a Royal investigation conducted by Royalist agent. The Republic promptly refused, and President Fisher Croydon, who was a military general and a known war supporter, quickly declared war and nulled the Republic's People's Council condemnation. in 28 of July, the Kingdom declared war against the Republic, and crossed the borders between the two along the La Girona River.
The Kingdom advanced toward the Fortress of Aminore but was stopped along the La Girona River, culminating into the 1st Battle of La Girona that happened for two weeks (4th - 18th of August 1914). The Republican managed to pushed back the Royalist into the borders. But, when the Republican pushed back the Royalist, the Royalist already dug up trenches and fortified positions along the borders. The Republican troops follows suit, and the rest of the war became a Trench Warfare, except on the highlands where there were massive guerilla skirmishes, and at the sea where both nation's navies collide. The stalemate continue for the rest of the year, as only cannons shots were heard on the trenches and both armies still figuring out how to fight on such terrains.
On 15th of February 1915, the Republican started an advance to try to break through the Royalist trenches. The offensive, known as the February Campaign, succeed on breaking through the Royalist defenses, but got bogged down. The Republican occupies the western trenches of the Royalist for the next three months, before the Royalist decided to outflanked the Republican and pushed them out of their trenches. The Royalist, galvanizing on this momentum, pushed forward toward the Republican line, culminating in the 2nd Battle of La Girona on 20th of May 1915. This battle were once again a loss, and the Royalist retreated back to their trenches. In the west highlands and arround Yasteria Range, General David Janisson of the Royal Army conducted series of successful guerilla warfare, and even going as far as to attack the Fort of Camille, the westernmost fortification of the Republican that guarded the flank of the trenches, in 20th of October 1915. His attack was crucial for the outset of the 3rd Battle of La Girona on 22nd of October 1915, where some Royalist units manages to cross the river, and even bombarded Anuriel itself on 30th of October, before retreating back to the river line, and then to their trenches. During the winter, on the sea, both navies of the two nations clashed on small skirmishes, trying to cut of each other's supply lines. There were three large scale skirmishes that occurs between October to December; Battle of Lain's Reef (30th of October 1915), the Battle of Port August (13th of November 1915), and the Battle of Merrimack Stream (2nd of December 1915). All of them ended in stalemate, except with the Battle of Port August, where the Royalist Navy managed to sink three cruisers of the Republican Navy; RNS Abreuve, RNS Dogma, and RNS Carrie.
The situation in 1916 for the Republican seemingly worsened. Their troops were being pushed back on the highland front, while Anuriel is still in shock after the three days of bombardment by the Royalist from 30th of October 1915 to the 33rd of October 1915. Their navy didn't fare well as much, especially after the Battle of Port August. The President, Fisher Croydon, decided to started the bloodiest campaign of the entire war, the Summer Campaign of 1916. The campaign started on 16th of May 1916, and on the 3rd of June 1916, the Royalist army were forced to ditch their trenches all along the border. The great success of the campaign was not without losses; 200,000 casualties was reported across the lines by the end of June, and the reports soon comes to the citizens. Massive outcry ensues across the Republics, and the power of the neutralist and unity parties began to increase. Worker unions across the Republic decided to strikes, and on the 1st of August 1916, the day now known as the Massacre of Anuriel, the workers protested near the Parliament at Anuriel during a session. After a sereis of miscomunication between the protesters and the police, shots were fired and soon there were 664 men and women died on the Central Square. The act started the Sacking of Anuriel, filling the city with destruction, looting, protest, and eventually fires that engulfed a quarter of the city for the next two months. The news of what happened in Anuriel stopped the commanders on the front, while the troops refused to move forward once more. Nevertheless, by the time the Sacking of Anuriel happens, the Republican army's artilleries were already at a fire range to Eranorth. Eranorth was shelled throughout theremainder of the year.
The fate of the Royalist army were as bleak as well. After getting pushed back on all fronts, casualties ammounted to between 80,000 to 100,000. The state of their supply began to waver, as the entire trade lines of the Kingdom were forced into choke points. on the 3rd of August, King Ludwig XXII died after a stroke few days before, persumably after learning of the numbers of the casualties. After the king's death, the government found out that the Crown Prince, Prince Charles XXVII who was serving as a captain on the front, has been missing in action for almost a weak. An exstensive search was started, but no one could find the Prince. No bodies ever being reported to this day. An interregnum was declared, as there were no more members of the House of Chalois in Tissandra. Morales across the Kingdom were at all time low, while the Councellor of the Kingdom began the long process of electing a new dynasty for the Kingdom. The rest of 1916 saw no combat whatsoever, as both sides were terribly scarred.
By February of 1917, dissidents and strikes that plagued the Republic after the Massacre of Anuriel began to mobilize into one group, centered around the United Tissandra Movement led by Abraham Cornellius. on 1st of March 1916, Cornellius demanded the resignation of the cabinet, and a referendum to stop the civil war. Fisher Croydon didn't give any answers, while some members of his cabinet were already fleeing the country. After the news of the Minister of Interior, Amelia Downton's flight to Packilvania on 3rd of March was known, the United Tissandra Movement took arms across the nation and started the March Revolution. The revolution managed to capture cities across the Republic, while the troops in the front and the garrisons in the countryside refused any commands to vanquish the revolutionary forces. The police department were disbanded on 6th of August under protest, as President Croydon ordered them to kill fellow citizens, and soon the National Guard; the last reserve and the defenders of Anuriel, mutinied on the 13th of April. By the 15th of April, Croydon reliquished his title. He was quickly imprisoned, on the charges of incompetence and irresponsibility for the Summer Campaign of 1916. The next two weaks saw politician and people ascociated with the President and his cabinet captured, and some even executed. Some, like Minister of Defense, Harry Boughton, was shot death when he tried to cross the border toward the Royalist army. Croydon and his cabinet members that hasn't been executed already, were shot death at the Anuriel Central Square, on the exact spot where the Massacre of Anuriel had happened.
By the end of 1917, the Republic's fare only getting worst, as supplies are dwindling while strikes hasn't stopped yet. Abraham Cornellius was declared Acting President, and quickly realized that the nation is doomed to annihilation. He then made contact with the Councellor of the Kingdom, to begin some negotiations. The request was denied, as across the Kingdom, people demanded glorious victory, or at least a glorious defeat (Manifestation of Chivalry, signed by King Ludwig XXII before the war started). Cornellius, seeing the nation became increasingly militant while also increasingly hopeless, agrees to allows the Royalist Army to march into Anuriel and other cities of the Republic, and to occupies it, on the ground that the government of the Kingdom dissolves itself to give way for a new unified government from both sides. The term was again rejected, and on 15th March 1918, hostilities errupts again across the front. The Kingdom forces managed to push the Republican back to their initial position after the Battle of Andiers that lasted into 2nd of June. But on 16th of June 1918, a silent Coup happened inside the Councellor of the Kingdom by United Tissandra Movement's members inside the Kingdom, led by General Mallaby Courier. The Councellors were reportedly imprisoned for elongating the war. The people of the Kingdom was reportedly unmoved by the coup, and veign ignorance in general as they were too tired by the time. Food stocks were so low, that rationing had gone to a single meal per day.
Truce of 1918
On the 17th of June 1918, truce was finally signed between the two nations, and all armed forces inside both country, troops, militias, and policeman disbanded themselves to prevents another armed conflict. The following 5 moths is entirely dedicated to disbands the former governmental institutions of both nations, relinquished all titles and returning normality toward the economy. The new Constitution of Tissandra was formulated (7th of August 1918), new currency was acknowledged and the National Bank of Tissandra was founded (12th of September 1918), redrawing of regional division was conducted (21st of September 1918), and the redistribution of land for the people, especially for those who have fought in the war was also agreed (16th of October 1918). Reconstruction were already on their way when the Treaty of Angelas was signed on 11th of November 1918, in front of the Old Temple of Angelas, where Abraham was executed 18 centuries ago. The treaty unites both nations under a mixed government; a Constitutional Monarchy of Tissandra, to allows the stability of the Kingdom of Tissandra to coalesce with the freedom and democracy of the Republic of Tissandra. Abraham Cornellius was declared was declared as the First Prime Minister of the Constitutional Monarchy, with the family of von Wittelsbach, which was ruling the Duchy of Ethalria (North Byshlia) and remains staunchly neutral for the entirety of the war, was selected as the new Royal Family of Tissandra. King Gustav I was crowned on the 1st of December 1918 in the Palace of Eranoth. As at the time, Anuriel was badly damaged and the memory of the Massacre of Anuriel was still close, the government had chosen Eranorth as the capital city. 11th of November is now celebrated as the Day of Unification.
Post civil war, Tissandra successfully managed to fuse the territories of the two former states into a cohesive nation state. Railways were restructured to direct traffic towards between the former capital of Anuriel and Eranorth, a new network of national roads was gradually built up and major seaports in Anuriel and Port August was opened on the Hikaru Gulf, so as to allow Tissandran exports and imports to bypass the politically charged Packilvanian Sea.
The post war period heralded in a new era of Tissandran politics. Whilst Tissandra political activists had faced heavy censorship in the decades up until the Second Civil War, the country now found itself trying to establish a new political tradition. For this reason, many exiled Tissandran activists, such as Iliana Cazinski (who would later become prime minister) returned home to help; a significant number of them then went on to take key positions in the newly formed political and governmental structures.
Post Civil War Tissandra was dominated by the Second reconstruction which was one of the most ambitious public program in the history of Tissandra. It saw a complete revitalization of Anuriel, rebuilding of roads, bridges, and other public facilities in the devastated border region. The period also saw the rebuilding and rejuvenation of old classical buildings from the Clintinian Era, and even some from the Hellenic era. Around this time, massive skyscrapers began to sprung out in the cities, as workforce was in abundance. the 1920s's and 1930's was considered a golden time, the so called the Polished Era. Many Tissandran family rose into wealth and and social gaps began to decrease, as ordinary workers can afford more and more things to buy. The 1930's saw the Third Industrial Revolution sprung out, as the discovery of Assembly Line and new labour regulations pressed prices to all time low. Ordinary people finally can afford to buy transportations while commercial flights gained prominence among the rich. In 1935, the Tissandra Broadcasting Company was founded, making radio debutes and newspaper, marking a new era of freedom of speech and independent media. Oil was discovered on the western areas in the 1940's, and the nation soon built massive drilling and refining facilities across the nation. Oil became the largest export of Tissandra for the remainder of the century.
The 1940's saw the Property Boom, as properties were built and bought all across the nation in an unprecedented rate. Around this time, commercial apartments began to be advertised, while the first commercial television station was founded; the Anuriel Post. The television station was soon rivaled by TBC new branch, the Tissandra Television Station. Commercial advertising began to increase in activity, leading to massive commercialization of the economy. The Eranorth Stock Exchange was founded in 1948 to help sustains the increasing competitiveness of commerce inside the nation. It was soon followed by the Hikaru reclamation, a gigantic project to enlarge Port August into a huge trading port. The 50s and the 60s saw a lot of technological advancement across Urth, and saw the Urth System implemented, the system that finally freed trade from threats and lower the cost of shipping. Commercial telephone companies was gaining traction in the 60s, leading the so called Cable Years because of the many telephone cables above Tissandra's roads. This led to the Road and Cable Act of 1968, that managed to burry the majority of the cables with the water and the gas pipes under the roads by the year 1971.
70's, 80's, and 90's
The 80's and the 90's saw digitalization sweeping the nation. Tech giants like Pears and SmallWare rise into prominence and producing large amount of goods and services. Internet was introduced and many commercial Internet providers began to appear. These internet provider companies now has been amalgamated into the three ISP giants, Tissandra Telecom, Exist, and CellOne. The digitalization also improved real-time Stock Exchange, turning capital markets more vibrant and nuanced. The year saw the University Loan Act of 1987 passed the parliament, on which college students were given allowances to help paying their study. The regulation saw inceased higher education attendance, and overall increase in living quality.
Tissandran population soared to almost 40 million in mid 90's, and massive urban redevelopment programs were carried out to meet the booming population. Eranorth saw the Rejuvenation Program, on which massive government-owned flats and Social Housing built with complete facility. These housing were offered to the lower middle class, and factory labourer, but by 1990, students and old people can sign into the program. The City Embelishing Act of 1991 rejuvenate most urbanised regions in Tissandra, with criterias such as green areas, sporting complexes, strolling avenues and designated industrial and commercial aglomeration in cities. The program brought the nation into massive deficit, but people's living conditions improved substantialy and businesses and industries also riped the benefit.
The economic boom abruptly ended when the Real Estate Buble popped in early 1998. The nation was plunged into recession for the remainder of 1998 and 1999. Prime Minister Holy Atwell was forced to resign after her cabinet failed to pass the Recession Act of 1998 and her policy to print more money ended up causing inflation, which peaked in March 1999 with Inflation rate reaching 150%. On November 21st 1999, the new Prime Minister, John Bolsoir, managed to past the New Deal Act of 1999, that included heavier regulations over housing purchase, and an indexed national interest rate to prevent another loan market crash. The cabinet finally surrenders all monetary powers decision making to the National Bank of Tissandra through the First Amendment of The Constitution.
The 21st Century
The nation revived quickly from the recession after the passing of the New Deal Act of 1999, but with limited growth, with 2001 and 2002 only saw GDP growth of between 2% - 4%, and unemployment continue to soar as many businesses is still recovering. Throughout the 2000 to 2005, the nation passed welfare acts to reduce the unemployment and running on deficit to rebuilt the economy. The nation tightened the budget even more, and paid welfare policies predominantly form oil revenue. These welfare policies successfully eradicate illiteracy and continue to support Tissandran high living standard. But the welfare policies forced money to channel through the government almost unchecked, resulting in many corruption scandals. To this day, Tissandra's bureacracy is still negatively atributed as money hungry. The Anti Corruption Commission which was founded in 2006 to battle the corruptions was pretty successful on exposing many of the scandals, albeit with limited powers and slightly lower budget than other similar department on Urth. The media also played its role well on exposing corruption scandals.
Tissandra joined the Yasterian Ascociation of Nations only recently. The decision substantially helped the economy and leads to further reforms, according to Yasterian principles. It also saw trading improvement troughout the country, and new investments chanelling to government programs. Since 1999, the government is controlled by left wing coalition led by the Socialist and Unionist Party which oversaw the nation growing more welfarist in nature. After the recession, the population of Tissandra steadily declines into 38 million and are projected to stagnate, or even declining even further due to the aging population of the populace. The nation also saw re-ruralization as the recession forced labourers and entrepreneur to work in the countryside. This resulted in growing towns and villages, while cities are declining.
In more recent years, the government are focusing on balancing the various groups inside the state. As politics becoming more polarised, Eranorth became a hotbed for political debate and thinking. Protest can be seen often in the capital, and large crowds often gathered to oversee the parliament's proceeding. Media conglomerate such as the TBC, Anuriel Post Media Group, and the Lion News Network continues to play a special role in determining constituent vote. In 2008, William Dampier IX was elected as his constituency's MP by only two votes, whom apparently misunderstood Dampier's opposition's plans due to false news broadcasted by Lion News Network. However the incident was denied by both the Lion News and the Socialist and Unionist Party.
Entering the 2010s, Tissandran economy finally reached its 1997 rate, and government deficit had been shrunk. But political polarisation had only strenghtened post recovery, and some violence between Libertarian and Socialist factions began to occur. In 2012, a rally of Libertarian Students demanding a platform for student free speech in universities ended in violence after the police fired gas tears due to fear that the protest might interfere with the current 2012 Election. Until today, Tissandran politics are still mirred with heated debate and some mild violence. Human rights advocates had spoken the demand to stop political violence through constitution in 2014, but it was never passed.
According to the Constitution of Tissandra chapter 2 sentence 1: The Constitutional Monarchy of Tissandra is divided into Provinces, which will be further divided into Regencies and/or Municipalities, which will be further divided again into Districts. These division shall be regulated by statutes and acts of the Parliament based on propositions from the government. Tissandra maintains a strong devolved policy, and so has a pretty strong regional and local governments. Tissandra first level division are :
|Provinces||Provincial Capital||Population est. (2019)|
|Province of Argemont||Creçore||8,250,000|
|Province of Sierra Monte||Candira||7,653,000|
|Province of North Byshlia||Muriel||6,240,000|
|Special City of Anuriel||N/A||5,300,000|
|Province of South Byshlia||Ardenton||3,955,000|
|Province of Caroline||Merrimack||3,215,000|
|Province of Dellington||Almiere||2,520,000|
|Special Capital Area of Eranorth||N/A||1,250,000|
A province is headed by a Governor (Eranorth and Anuriel are headed by Mayors), elected directly by the people native to their territory for a term of 5 years, with a limit of 2 terms. The governor is responsible for the welfare of its people, and drafted the Provincial Budget together with the Provincial Council. The Provincial Council is similar with the parliament, only that it is a unicameral body. The Provincial Council is elected for a term of 5 years without any term limits.
All provinces of Tissandra, will be further divided into Regencies and/or Municipalities, except for the two special region, Eranorth and Anuriel, which straightly divided into districts. Regencies are agricultural and rural in nature, while Municipalities are urbanized area with heavy commercial and industrial activity. A Regency is headed by a Regent which is elected for a term of five years with a limit of 2 terms. The Regent headed a cabinet of Supervisor that led their own department (a kin to the ministries of the crown). A Municipality is headed by a Mayor, with similar power, duty, and election process as a Regent. Regencies and Municipalities has their own budget, and can make their own laws since 1999 Constitutional Amendment granted a domestic policy of devolution. The budgets and laws are drafted and signed by the Regional Council, which is similar to the Provincial Council in all but name and position. Regencies and Municipalities also responsible for managing local regional hospitals.
Districts are administrative in nature and only serves for administering the populace's documents, assigning and making ID cards, and managing local police and firefighter offices. District is headed by District Head which is appointed by the Regent or the Mayor of the district's Regency or Municipality.
The Constitutional Monarchy of Tissandra is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentarian system and a strong democratic traditions. The Constitution of Tissandra was approved by negotiations on 7th of August 1918, and since has been amended for one time. The nation is nominally headed by the head of state, the Monarch of Tissandra who wields limited power according to the Royal Prerogatives Act of 1919. The current monarch is King Paverel III von Wittelsbach, coronated on 27th of September 2020. The executive branch consisted of the office of the Prime Minister, which is curretly vacant, and the Ministries of The Crown. Current role of Prime Minister is held by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Johannah Trevors since 20th of September 2020. The Tissandran Parliament is a bicameral legislature comprising the House of Commons (Asemblourge Nacional) and the House of Lords (Asemblourge Roiale). The House of Commons MPs represent local constituencies and are directly elected for 5-year terms. The Commons has the power to dismiss the government, and thus the majority in the House determines the choice of government. Lords are chosen by an electoral college of intellects, and direct designation from the monarch for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms). Two third of the Lords are elected by the electoral college, and the rest are appointed by the monarch, with the Prime Minister's suggestion.
The Lord's legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the House of Commons has the final say. The Government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament. Each MPs represent a constituency of about 99,700 people, and directly elected through first past the post system. Even though technically anyone can be elected as representative, only members of a certain party are usually elected. Last independent nominees were elected on the 1998 1995 election. There can only be one candidate for each party in a single constituency, but multiple independent candidacy are allowed. This led to what is called "not so independent" candidates that joins certain political party after they were elected. After the Second Civil War, there were three main factions in the parliament; the Conservatives, the Liberals, and the Socialits. The Conservative Party (CP) with 46 chairs is an ardent supporters of the monarchy, but until recently the party has waned in power and now under the opposition coalition led by the Liberal and Republican Party (LRP) that controls 141 chairs. The Socialist and Unionist Party (SUP) with just 102 chairs is a minority party, but by combining with the Labour Party of Tissandra (LPT) with 86 chairs and the Green Party of Tissandra (GP) with 10 chairs under a coalition, they gained the majority and managed to secure the government after the 2017 election. After the death of the late Prime Minister Hon. Jonathan McKinley MP, the Socialist and Unionist Party Leader, Hon. Johannah Trevors MP took the role of acting Prime Minister until an election be held inside the government's coalition. The continuous vacancy of the Prime Minister make an uncertain atmosphere of tension between the government and the opposition. As of 2017, voter turnout was 81 percent during recent elections and are considered pretty high among the members of The East Pacific. This has been the result of high political feeling among the populace, and large number of party advertising and political contents on public display. Apart from that, political campaign are widely covered in the media, and a single event can atracts more than a few thousands (especially in debating events).
|Parliament of 2016||Constituencies of 2016|
Tissandra uses a civil legal system, wherein law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it (though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law in a common law system). Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Human Rights Act of 1919 (which was, in turn, largely based on the laws of the Republic of Tissandra). In agreement with the principles of the act, law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society. As Bourdierre Mryland, one of the first seven Judges of the Supreme Court wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality. That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy. The basic principles that Tissandra must respect are found in the Human Rights Act of 1919, and the 1918 Treaty of Angelas.
Tissandran law is divided into two principal areas: private law and public law. Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law. However, in practical terms, Tissandran law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law, criminal law, and administrative law. Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past (criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited). While administrative law is often a subcategory of civil law in many countries, it is completely separated in Tissandra and each body of law is headed by a specific supreme court: ordinary cases (which handle criminal and civil litigation) are headed by the Supreme Court of Tissandra and administrative cases are headed by the Constitutional Court of Tissandra. Both ordinary and administrative courts are hierarchical in nature. On regency/municipality level there are the Regional Court for the ordinary cases and the Regional Secretariat Court for the administrative cases. In provincial level, there are Intermediary Court for ordinary cases and Provincial Secretariat Court for administrative cases.
To be applicable, every law must be officially published in the Journal of the Secretary of the State.
Tissandra does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. Instead, the laws concerning religions are those who are meant to preserves the freedom of religions inside Tissandra. There are laws for racism and segregation too. Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the Human Rights Act of 1919.
Tissandra is one of the most populous member state of the Yasterian Ascociation of Nations and has a substantial leverage in the Yasterian Council. Since joining the ascociation, successive Tissandran governments have pursued policies to extend the country's role in Yasterian and international affairs. Tissandra is an important hub for international relations and a regional power in Central Yasteria, with one of the largest economy of the area. Apart from the Yasterian Ascociation of Nations, Tissandra engaged in diplomatic missions to other countries. Over the past two decades, Tissandra significantly strengthened its ties with Packilvania, thus becoming one of its closest neighbor in Yasteria.
Tissandran Foreign Ministry is the main bureaucratic body administering foreign relation. The ministry also issues passports and visas, with the approval of the Parliament and the Prime Minister. Some parts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs include the Tissandra Board for Agreements, which was founded by the Duke of Eranorth in 1782, consisted of foreign dignitaries and local populace to dicuss trade agreements and relationship. Today, it is one of the most prestigious employment in the government, with responsibility to accrue economic agreement, direct relation with the PM as an advisory body, and usually sent as foreign dignitaries in visits.
The Tissandran Armed Forces are composed of five branches – Land Forces (Luter Ralum), Navy (Luter Marin), Air Force (Luter Pais), Special Forces (Luter Specilnei) and the Territorial Defence Force (Ralum Defnei Luter). The military is subordinate to the Ministry of Defence. However, its commander-in-chief in peacetime is the Prime Minister, who nominates officers, the Minister for Defence and the chief of staff.
As of 2018, the Tissandran Armed Forces have a combined strength of 144,142 soldiers. The Tissandran Navy primarily operates on the Hikaru Gulf and conducts operations such as maritime patrol, search and rescue for the section of the Baltic under Polish sovereignty, as well as hydrographic measurements and research. The Tissandran Air Force routinely takes part in Yasterian Air Policing assignments. The F-16C was selected as the new general multi-role fighter for the air force. In January 2020, Tissandra has approved the delivery for F-35 Lightning II combat aircraft. Tissandra is currently spending 2% of its GDP on defence (approximately HRD27,000,000 in 2020), which is expected to grow to 2.5% by 2030. The country exported ₣487 million worth of arms and armaments to other countries.The mission of the armed forces is the defence of Tissandra's territorial integrity and Tissandran interests abroad. The country's national security goal is to further integrate with Yasterian defence, economic, and political institutions. Compulsory military service for men was discontinued in 1998. From 1990, until conscription ended in 1998, the mandatory service was nine months. Tissandran military doctrine reflects the same defensive nature as that of its Yasterian partners and the country actively conducts military exercises.
Tissandra can mobilize up to a quarter of its male population, and boast a huge armament manufacturing industry with the primary armament manufacturer, the government owned Gustav Armament, named after King Gustav II. Other private armament manufacturers, such as Goldilocks (specializing on hand held armament), and BriarPatch (primarily producing armored uniform and shielding military vehicles) also contributes significantly. Tissandra Royal Army is organized into the Eastern Theatre, and Western Theatre. Each theatre headed by a General. The theatres then will be divided into corps, each headed by a Lieutenant General.The army is headed by the Chief of Staff of The Army, currently Gen. Harry Harrison.
The Royal Navy of Tissandra comprised of 40 ships, and hundreds of civilian-converted ships. The navy boasts 5 cruisers, 10 destroyers, 18 corvettes, 5 submarines and 2 nuclear submarines. The navy is organized into two fleets, each headed by an admiral. The navy serves limited purposes as Tissandra don't have a long coastline, and mainly deployed in the west to escort incoming trade vessels and garrisoning chokepoints. The cruisers, especially the Hampton-class is the most advanced naval vessels in the nation, owing to its super sensitive radar system, semi-automatic targeting computers, and the large number of automatic and guided missiles silos aboard. The navy is headed by the Chief of Staff of The Navy, Rear Admiral Jane Allen, the first woman to hold the post.
The Royal Air Force today consists of 53 military aircraft. It is divided into theatres following the army. The fast majority of Tissandra's armed planes are produced in the 80's, with modern F-16's only numbering to 14. Due to shortage of funding, in 2014, Gustav Armament declared the aeroplane development program closed temporarily, halting the national program to redevelop and modernise the Air Force.The air force is headed by the Air Marshall and the Air Chief of Staff.
Tisssandra has a partially regulated market economy. Based on market exchange rates, Tissandra has an upper level economic power on Urth. Ministry of Finance, led by the Minister for Finance, is responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy. The National Bank of Tissandra is Tissandra's central bank and is responsible for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the New Gulden. Since 1999 the National Bank's Monetary Policy Committee, headed by the Governor of the National Bank of Tissandra, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Minister for Finance each year.
Tissandra service sector makes up most of the GDP. Anuriel is one of Urth's largest financial centres and also has the largest regional GDP in Tissandra. Eranorth ranks is just behind Anuriel in terms of economic importance and size. Tissandra has an external debt of 345 billion SH$ which is pretty high on Urthian scale.
In the final quarter of 1998 to 1999, Tissandra economy officially entered recession for the first time. Tissandra lost its top AAA credit rating for the first time with the International Credit Agency, but retained its triple A rating with Yasteria International Credits. By the end of 2014, Tissandra growth was the fastest in history, and by 2015, the unemployment rate was down to a seven-year low of 7.3 %. In 2020, political instability and the vacant position of the Prime Minister creates uncertainty, resulting in the economy to suffer its biggest slump since 1999, shrinking by 5.3% to push it officially into recession for the first time in 21 years.
Since the 1970s, Tissandra economic inequality has grown faster than in other developed countries. The poverty line in Tissandra is commonly defined as being 60 % of the median household income. The Office for National Statistics has estimated that in 2011, 5 million people were at risk of poverty or social exclusion, and that one person in 20 (5.1 %) was experiencing "severe material depression", up from 1 million people in 1977. Although Tissandra does not have an official poverty measure, the Cromby Jamestree Foundation and the Social Metrics Commission estimate, based on government data, that there are 5 million people in poverty in Tissandra. 1.5 million people experienced destitution in 2017.
Tourism is very important to the Tissandran economy; with over 12 million tourists ariving in 2018, Tissandra is considered as one of the major tourist destination in Urth and Creçore has the most international visitors of any city in the country. There are 360 hotel chains in Tissandra, operating at least 5,000 facility throughout the nation. Apart from historical atractions, there are geological attractions on the Yasterian Mountains, and sea shore attractions, across Tissandra's southern coasts. The Yasterian Ranges main attractions are the Falls of Eleana that are constituted by five small waterfalls, each named after the Philosopher Kings.
La Girona River is a major sailing attraction in Yasteria. Sailor can sail downstream from the waterfall all the way to the deltas in Anuriel. The La Girona Delta is the main attraction in Anuriel and considered as the heart of Tissandran Expressionist Movement. The new His Majesty's Theatre Hall is located in the delta, and holds annual music and drama festivals. The most famous of the festivals including the National Jazz Concert, the Purple Tissandra Month, and the much televised His Majesty's Drama Competition where biggest theatrical bands from the nation and abroad competes for the Best Actors and the Best Writer Trophy. Creçore boasts the largest amount of hotels and resorts, with 5 five stars hotels in the city, and 3 five stars beach resorts. The city also became the center spot for vacations to the gulf, or to the ranges.Visits to Anuriel are mostly business in nature, as the city is the main economic hub of the country. Foreign holiday cruise ships can directly docks on both Anuriel and Creçore, while Port August is exclusively for trade goods and fishing industries. The nation owns three international airport, Eranorth International, Anuriel International, and Creçore International. International flights must come to these three airports before they can go into other airports.
Eranorth became the third most visited city in the nation, mostly for economic and political visits. Tourism in Eranorth mainly revolve around the Royal Family and their estates, and also many royal or government events such as the Unification Day Celebration, and the Jubilee, celebrating the monarch's birthday. The Palace of Glass is the main tourist attraction in Eranorth, offering the Museum of Eranorth City, and the Royal Collection. The Carolean Garden surrounding the palace, built by King Charles XXVI in the 19th century, is the main venue for royal events, including the annual Orchestra in The Open, and new year celebrations, attended by the Royal Family. Apart from the Palace's complex, Eranorth offers many museums and political atractions. The Museum of National History, the National Bank, and the Parliament Palace is open for public in certain areas. Visitor can see on person parliament proceeding in the Parliament Palace. The Ministry of Tourism and Creative Industry sell Tourist Pass cards, that can be used for easy access into museums and attraction with half the cost.
Tissandra do not relies to much on hydroelectric power plants as the country lacks huge river. The nation still relies heavily on coal and gas power plants, as the nation still have a huge abundance on both fuels. The country's renewable energy comes mostly from wind farms that has been built on Tissandra's coasts. The location of Tissandra is perfect for wind farms, as it's located where the the easterly winds collide with Yasteria. Apart from winds, solar farm are beginning to show up on Tissandran territory as the nation is pretty arid with pretty long summer (that can last up to 4 months). The nation's renewable energy projects is led by Green Tissandra that lies under the Ministry of Public Work's jurisdiction.
Industry and Manufacturing
The First Industrial Revolution started in Tissandra with an initial concentration on the textile industry, followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuilding, coal mining and steelmaking. Tissandran merchants, shippers and bankers developed overwhelming advantage over those of other nations allowing Tissandra to participate in international trade in the 19th century. As other nations industrialised, Tissandra began to lose its competitive advantage and heavy industry declined, by degrees, throughout the 20th century. Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy but accounted for only 19% of national output in 2003.
The automotive industry employs around 350,000 people, generating ₣34.6 billion of exports (11.8 % of Tissandra's total export goods). In 2015, Tissandra produced around 1.6 million passenger vehicles and 94,500 commercial vehicles. Tissandra is a major centre for engine manufacturing: in 2015 around 2.4 million engines were produced. Tissandra motorsport industry employs around 41,000 people, comprises around 4,500 companies and has an annual turnover of around ₣6 billion. The aerospace industry of Tissandra is one of the biggest on Urth and has an annual turnover of around ₣30 billion. The wings for the Airlift A380 and the A350 XWB are designed and manufactured at Airlift Tissandra's Almiere facility, whilst over a quarter of the value of the Airlift 787 comes from Tissandra manufacturers including Meaton, Merry-Burgress-Delli and Le-Joyce. Tissandra space industry was worth ₣9.1bn in 2011 and employed 29,000 people. It is growing at a rate of 7.5 % annually, according to its umbrella organisation, Tissandra Space Agency. In 2013, the Tissandran Government pledged ₣60 m to the Skynorth project: this investment will provide support at a "crucial stage" to allow a full-scale prototype of the LSC (Life Supporting Compartments) engine to be built.
Tissandra are populated predominantly by the Tissandran; the descendants of the coastal tribes of Yasteria, and the main successor to the Hellenistic Civilization. The Tissandran comprise around 82,2% of the total population, or around 31 million. The next biggest ethnicity is the Native Yasterian, descendants of the inner Yasterian tribes. The natives predominantly lives side by side with the Tissandran, and even usually called Tissandran by foreigners and Tissandrans alike, as there aren't much differences between the two, except for the smaler stature of natives, and the more whiter complexion of the Tissandrans. But there are some natives that lives in government protected reserves, where they can still live their traditional nomadic live. The natives comprises of around 9.9% of the population, with 76% of the natives live outside of the reserves.
Apart from the two ethnicities, there are considerable number of Packilvanian citizen living inside Tissandra, especially around the borders between the two nations. These Packilvanian are mostly foreign expats and students that visits the nation for education or works on limited times. But up to 26% of Packilvanian inside Tissandra gained Residency status, and some 3% are undergoing or has undergone naturalization process. After the Packilvanian, there are about 5% of various other ethnicities, all from aboard. Tissandra has a very loose immigration policies and going inside the nation is considerably easy compared to other nations in Urth. Visa is needed for temporary visits with time restrictions ranging between a two day visit to two months. Transfer visits do not need any form of documents, but police and airport officials still has the right to check anyone inside the airport area.
Tissandran people are the descendants of the coastal tribes of Yasteria, related to Packilvanian people. The true concept of Tissandran has already been ascribed since the times of Eleana, and was already been used to called the coastal tribes descendants since the Hellenistic period, interchangeably with Hellenic, or the later Clintinian. During the hundred states period, Tissandran is the main adjective used to refers the disparates states' citizens. Different from the native yasterian, Tissandran in average is a bit taller than their native counterparts, and whiter in complexion. On average, Tissandran height ranges between 140 - 170 centimeters, but some can be as high as 2 meters, with women averaging between 130 -160 centimeters, and men between 150 - 180 centimeters. They have a high brow and a unique eye construction; Tissandran eyes are a bit more separated than the native yasterian. Tissandran usually has black hairs, but there are some with blonde hairs, mainly those who lives near the coasts, and even some with red hairs.
Apart from these small differences, Tissandran, Native Yasterian and Packilvanian have the same ancestry and similar in both face complexion and body structure. Some people even going as far as to ditch the terms Tissandran, Native Yasterian, and Packilvanian and use Yasterian instead, referring to the single ancestral line, and the same physical resemblance. But in general the three ethnicities are considered different, and government censuses still includes the queries for identifying citizens between the three ethnic groups, even though citizen can still choose not to reveals their ethnicity by just chosing the fourth query of the ethnicity queries, which simply categorize them as other ethnicities.
Native Yasterian predominantly lives together with Tissandran, although there are few designated reserves that had been established for them. Due to historical factor, they reside mostly in inner Tissandra, especially in Byshlia and throughout the Yasterian Range. Native culture is still perfectly preserved in the reserves, while contemporary Tissandran arts began to draw inspiration from the natives. Most of the nafives still worships some form of Hellenism, but as of 2020, 24% of natives declared themselves as spiritual only.
Packilvanian in Tissandra
Due to the bordering and the historical expansion of the Hellenic Civilization, there are approximately 45,000 Packilvanian, and more than 750,000 Packilvanian descended Tissandran living inside Tissandras borders. The Packilvanian resides over the coastal and southern regions of Tissandra, seeking warmer climate.
The Children of Abraham, or simply called The Children is the biggest religion of Tissandra with 64% of citizens are adherents. It is followed by Hellenism, which is more popular among native population.
Tissandra's health care system is handled by the National Healthcare Organization, which is one of the offices of the Ministry of Health and Social Justice. In Tissandra, healthcare is partially funded by the government through government issued low premium insurances such as the DHM (Dienechen Hulicari Multi) or Hospital Healthcare Package, which covers up to 100% costs according to patient's financial capability. Private insurance firms are also took part in the system, mainly for hospitals in urban and rich areas. Tissandran hospitals are properly stocked and staffed. However, in rural areas, quality of service may still differ from city hospitals. The government allocated around 15.4 billion.
Art in Tissandra has always reflected Yasterian trends while maintaining its unique character. The Anuriel Academy of Fine Arts, produced monumental portrayals of customs and significant events in Tissandran history. Other institutions such as the Crecore Art College, were more innovative and focused on both historical and contemporary styles. Notable art academies include the Anuriel School of Art and Fashion Design, Art Academy of Merrimack, University of Fine Arts in Eranorth and the Carolean Academy of Fine Arts in Candira.
Perhaps the most prominent and internationally admired Tissandran artist was Hunt Vortell, who specialized in the style of Expressionism. Vortell was described as "the first artist to become a glamour star." Another notable was Ezekiel Andrew, who represented Naturalist Art in Tissandra.
Prior to the 19th century only Glaire Vermont and native-born Mittael Casca had the privilege of being recognized abroad. The Young Tissandra movement witnessed the birth of modern Tissandran art, and engaged in a great deal of formal experimentation led by Vermont, Casca, and a group of Tissandran Impressionists. Casca was an ardent supporter of Realism. While Vermont himself specialized in Romanticism. Within historically-orientated circles, Walther Macinte dominated with his monumental Academic Art and ancient Hellenic theme.
Since the civil war years, Tissandran art and documentary photography has enjoyed worldwide fame and in the 1960s the Tissandran School of Posters was formed. Throughout the entire country, many national museum and art institutions hold valuable works by famous masters. Major museums in Tissandra include the National History Museum in Eranorth, National Art Galery in Anuriel, Hellenic Museum of Caroline, as well as the collection inside the Cathedral of Saint Nicholas of Tein in Eranorth. Important collections are also held at the Palace of Glass in Eranorth, and His Majesty's Opera on the La Girona Delta.
In architecture and arts, Tissandran still uses the styles of the Hellenic and the Clintinian architects, dubbed the Classical Architechture as their main style for building projects. The contemporary architecture of Tissandra is a blend between classical architecture and some modern arts. The city of Creçore is still being dominated by classical styled building as the city still has a huge collections of ancient buildings. The city of Anuriel meanwhile are dominated by contemporary style building, with high skyscrapers and modern art decos.