Phoenixia

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Phoenixia, formally the Federal Republic of Phoenixia (Packilvanian: luJumhuriyat luIthihad aFanaak), is a transcontinental country located at the boundary of Northern Arcturia and Western Yasteria. Phoenixia is located between the Optia Sea to the east and the Concordian Ocean to the west; it covers an area of 1,043,370 km2 (402,850 sq mi), with a population of over 50 million within its 20 constituent states. Phoenixia is bordered to the West by Mercorea, to the north-west by the Vistari dominion of Valerijk, to the south by Alksearia. The nation's capital and largest city is Bluckingham and its financial center is Wermont Hill.

Federal Republic of Phoenixia

Republika Phoenixiana
luJumhuriyat luIthihad aFanaak (Packilvanian)
Flag of Phoenixia
Flag
Seal of Phoenixia
Coat of arms
Motto: "Peace, unity and brotherhood"
Anthem: "The glory of Phoenixia"
Capital
and largest city
Bluckhingam
Official languagesBilingual
Ethnic groups
(2022)
80% Human

12% Elves 4% Felines

6% Other
Demonym(s)Phoenixian, Phoexy
GovernmentFederal Republic
• Federal President
Antero D'Ascanio
• Federal Chancellor
Clarenzio Metrofane
LegislatureLandsraad
Establishment
• Formation of the Duchy of Arafors
1653
• Unification of Arafors
1822
• Unionist dictatorship
1933-1944
• Republic proclamation
1946
Area
• Total
1,043,370 km2 (402,850 sq mi)
Population
• 2022 census
50,000,000
GDP (nominal)estimate
• Total
500 billion
• Per capita
$10,000
CurrencyPoexar dollar (POXD)
Calling code+277
Internet TLD.phx

History[edit | edit source | hide | hide all]

Unification[edit | edit source | hide]

Phoenixia was unified in a military and political campaign in which the various tribes, city-states and small kingdoms of the Araforsian region were conquered by House Aiden. The unification began in 1732 and ended in 1822 with the proclamation of the Kingdom of Arafors under the leadership of the king Theoledus. The reign of King Theoledus was marked by a wave of industrialization and rapid expansion across the entire nation. The development of industry became an increasingly important factor in national life. In 1845 Arafors began to establish diplomatic relations.

Expansionism[edit | edit source | hide]

The colonization projects date back to 1869 when the Eritia company, active in the naval trade, acquired Cryton Bay on behalf of the government, the first nucleus of the expansion in the area, which would be followed, in 1885, by the occupation of the port city. of Afragola. In 1890, following a military campaign, the entire Principality of Belporto will be in Araforsian hands, being made official by the government as the first colony.

The expansionist aims moved towards Mupek, a territory in the possession of the Rexdelt empire, located in the eastern part of the Optio sea and an important commercial port. In February 1906 the government sends an ultimatum to the ruler Deflek V demanding the cession of Sorxia two territories, but the king refusing to break out the Arafors-Rexdelt war. The conflict ended on October 19 of the same year, with the occupation by Arafors of the Rexdeltian territories.

Red spring[edit | edit source | hide]

The period of the Serz government (1926-1929) was marred by the assassination of King David I on August 6, 1930, and finally his government fell following a vote of no confidence that contested his too weak attitude on the occasion of a great strike. of the port workers of Welberg, following the dissolution of the local Chamber of Labor.

The fall of the Serz government and the economic crisis coincided with the opening of a political crisis, destined to change the political equilibrium matured in recent decades, during which an authoritarian vision of power had been established, which mainly aimed at containing the and social claims.

A series of workers' and peasants' struggles broke out throughout the country, culminating in the occupation of factories in September 1928. In this period there were, above all, peasant mobilizations, workers' demonstrations, occupations of land and factories with, in some cases , attempts at self-management. The unrest also extended to rural areas and were often accompanied by strikes and clashes. Workers demanded shorter working hours, higher wages and greater job security.

To cope with the uprisings of the masses, the great industrialists and landowners turned to action squads, paramilitary organizations founded by the nationalist politician Leone Ausilio, who presented himself as the defender of order and bourgeois society in an anti-socialist function. There followed episodes of violence against trade unions, organizations, newspapers and left-wing parties. Very famous was the assault on the headquarters of the socialist newspaper "Red Star" which for the first time made the action teams and Leone Ausilio stand out at national level.

It was the Trentini government, led by the conservative Ambrogio Trentini, to deal with the uprisings of the masses exceptionally appointed by the parliament awaiting the accession to the throne of a new king.

The government initially reacted by harshly suppressing the demonstrations, but later decided to accept the requests of the works in an attempt to restore order and avoid the risk of a communist revolution that seemed to be on the horizon. Through the laws n.421 and n.423 respectively, the working hours were reduced from 55/60 hours per week to 48 and the national labor inspectorate was created to monitor the safety at work and the economic conditions of workers. The government tolerated the squad actions that it saw as a passing evil that would disappear over time.

On 29 September 1930, at the age of 35, Tomaseo Poter II ascended the throne after the assassination of his father. Although he was a man committed to constitutional government, he looked with suspicion at the left parties who then dominated politics and saw squadron violence a necessary evil to eradicate socialism.

Rise of the Unionism[edit | edit source | hide]

Unionist violence had grown in intensity during the summer of 1930, culminating in rumors of a possible coup. On May 19, during the unionist congress in Watts, Ausilio announced the transformation of the unionist movement into a party. In the September elections, the unionists coalesced with the popular front of Giò Crema, obtaining 34 parliamentarians.

On March 15, 1931, Ausilio Leone led action squads and unionist supporters in a march on Phoxia. Prime Minister Ambrogio Trentini and his cabinet have drafted a martial law decree, and sent to the king who rejected it.

Tomaseo was tired of the recurring crises of the parliamentary government and welcomed Ausilio as a "strong man" who imposed "order" in Phoenixia. By midnight on March 16, Ausilio had been appointed President of the Council of Ministers, at the age of 39, with no previous experience in politics, and with only 34 unionist deputies at the congress. Although the king stated in his memoirs that it was the fear of a civil war that motivated his actions, it was very likely that he received some "alternative" advice, perhaps from archconservative Armando Fruck and General Fabio Merco Bat, that it would have been better to do a pact with Ausilio.

In December the Cerpolo law was approved, aimed at ensuring an absolute majority of seats for the unionists; that with the elections of April 1932, held under the weight of squad violence, they became the masters of Parliament. On May 3, after denouncing the electoral fraud of the government, the liberal deputy Mattia Perotti was assassinated: the indignant reaction to this murder threw Unionism and Ausilio into a state of serious crisis, which was however overcome thanks to weakness and divisions of the opposition and the support of the king.

The king did not move against the abuses of power of the unionist regime even when Ausilio dropped any pretense of democracy. Tomaseo II signed without protest, laws that eliminated freedom of speech and assembly, abolished freedom of the press and declared the Unionist Party as the only legal party in Phoenixia. Although, officially, the unionist party in Phoenixia was ruled by a "grand council" until the Civil War, Leone Ausilio really had almost all the power in the country.

The Unionist imposed authoritarian rule and crushed political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values ​​and a rapprochement with the Paxist magisterium. In 1934, union laws were passed, which organized the economy into twelve separate trade unions of employers and workers. Unions were largely state-controlled and were used primarily to suppress opposition and reward political loyalty. Although the unions could not protect workers from all economic consequences, they were responsible for managing social security benefits and could sometimes negotiate contracts for the benefit of the workers.

The Unionist imposed authoritarian rule and crushed political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values ​​and a rapprochement with the Paxist magisterium.

Under Unionism, the definition of Phoenixian nationality rested on a militaristic foundation and the "new man" ideal in which loyal Phoenixians would shed individualism and autonomy and see themselves as a component of the Phoenixian state and they would be prepared to sacrifice their lives for it. Membership and approval of the Unionist Party became mandatory for people to obtain "full citizenship", as those who did not swear allegiance to the party were banned from public life and could not get employment.

In 1937, laws were passed to broadcast propaganda newsreels before all feature films in theaters. These newsreels were more effective in influencing audiences than propaganda films or the radio, as few citizens at the time had radio receivers. Unionist propaganda was widely featured in posters and state-sponsored art.

General elections were held in the form of a referendum on March 24, 1938. Ausilio used a referendum to confirm a one-party Unionist list. The proposed list was approved by 98.43% of the voters. Universal male suffrage, legal since 1912, was reserved for men who were members of a unionist trade union or association, soldiers and members of the magisterium. As a result, only a small fraction of the population could vote.

Ausilio and the main unionists were anticlerical and atheists, but they recognized the opportunity for warmer relations with the great Paxist Magisterium to gain greater consensus among the population.

In 1939 Ausilio and the Paxist Great magister Diego Serjovic reached an agreement that put an end to a stalemate that dates back to 1845. Paxism became the religion of the state which (other religions were tolerated), paid salaries to magisterium officials in Phoenixia. Religious marriages were recognized (previously couples had to celebrate the civil ceremony) and introduced religious instruction in public schools. In turn, officials had to swear allegiance to the unionist regime, which had veto power over their selection.

Cartegine Revolution[edit | edit source | hide]

On June 16, 1940 in Cartegine there were various protests in the automobile and textile factories, the largest demonstrations during the Unionist dictatorship, against the high cost of living. The cause of the success of the strikes was also thanks to the Cartaginese edition of the national newspaper which had resumed its clandestine publication thanks to Gaetano Valerio in a farmhouse in Swingle. This also contributed to the spread of the strike in the Meerle area after it spread to Cartegine thanks to a wide spread of clandestine leaflets. The initial causes of the demonstration were for the scarcity of foodstuffs and for denouncing the too high prices, in fact since 1939 the cost of living had doubled due to inflation caused by the massive issue of money.

The protest was the beginning of the Cartegine Revolution or Phoenixian Civil War which will see opposing pro-unionists and partisans.

The strikes soon lost almost any link with the original cause and became a more general anti-government demonstration. When anti-government protesters demonstrated in Cartegine in June 1940, Leone Ausilio perceived the demonstrations as a political threat and on June 17 ordered military forces to open fire, killing and injuring women, children and the elderly. The revelation of Ausilio's responsibility resulted in a massive spread of riots and civil unrest across the country, reaching the capital Phoxia.

On the morning of June 20, the news arrived of the suspicious death of Rover Relver, Chief of the Defense Staff, later confirmed as suicide (he tried to incapacitate himself with a shoulder wound but a bullet severed an artery), the news is it was given by an anonymous informant (his identity was never discovered) from the secret services to the press who immediately published it. Believing that Relver had been murdered, the ordinary soldiers went to the side of the revolution almost en masse. The disillusioned commanders viewed Ausilio as a lost cause and made no effort to keep their men loyal to the government.

Ausilio made a desperate attempt to address the crowd gathered in front of the government building, but people in the square began throwing stones and other bullets at him, forcing him to take refuge in the building along with his family and a circle of loyalists. Then Ausilio and his wife Marta along with the circle of close associates fled the capital by helicopter, but were soon captured by the military

After being tried and convicted of high treason, torture and economic sabotage, they were immediately shot on June 23. As soon as Tomaseo learned of the clashes between the police and the posters, he organized the escape with the royal family to an unknown location.

After the war, an institutional referendum was called in which women also took part for the first time. A new constitution was adopted, the government abolished the monarchy and the right of primogeniture establishing a federal democratic republic. The king was replaced by a president elected for a seven-year term. The last king was deposed and exiled to a remote area of the country.

Federal Republic[edit | edit source | hide]

In September 1947, the leaders of the old ruling class were arrested and tried for treason, in the Karingberg trial. The new government immediately embarked on a program of reform. It introduced a number of progressive measures, including the abolition of slavery and the introduction of compulsory education up to 17 years.

In 1953 large oil fields were found in the center in the central area of the Optio Sea. The government created the Phoenixian National Fund to invest the oil proceeds in infrastructure projects.

Dømin War[edit | edit source | hide]

In the late 1950s there were a series of quarrels and disputes between the federal government, the Afragola Dømin and the Yallo minority in the state of Afragola. The most notable was the 1961 suspension of the ultra-nationalist Only Yallo! and its formal abolition in 1963 and the ban on its members from public office.

In a climate of tension, political elections were held in 1964 which led to the election of the liberal Armando Bello. during the voting there were reprisals and attacks against the Afragola town hall in New Arsfly and the state court of justice which validated the electoral result. the federal government has opened a secret investigation under the code name "Libera Tana", jointly conducted by the PFIS and DNS to find the agressors.

In October 1965 there was the arrest of members of the Yallo Extrem Rey group, made up of 34 ultra-nationalist extremists accused of terrorism, subversive activities and conspiracy against the state.

In January 1966, a Yallo far-right group, YZero, kidnapped and killed Governor Bello along with his wife, and senior members of the military and DSA. At the same time there were secessionist movements, identified with the name Ter Base, which launched military offensives to conquer the central-eastern area of ​​Dømin.

The cities of Opock, Uprella, Manga, Polpette and the state capital, New Arsfly fell to the rebels. The occupied territories were placed under the leadership of a military junta, nicknamed the Majors due to the military rank of the members.

In May 1966 thanks to Mirhaime's support and arms supplies there was a counter coup in the cities of Grevasio and Lesbos organized by federal soldiers against the occupation of the junta.

From June to October 1966, pogroms against non-Yello minorities occurred in secessionist-controlled areas, between 8,000 and 30,000 individuals were killed, half of them children, and caused the flight of more than a million or two million to the eastern region under the Federal government of Phoenixia.

At the beginning of the new year, in January 1967 there was an internal struggle within the junta that ended with the defeat of the anti-communists and the official proclamation of the Socialist Republic of Bours, led by Field Marshal Harry Svista and the Revolution Supreme Council.

In an attempt to stop the persecution of minorities in conflict zones and to avoid more dead and new waves of refugees, the federal government he tried to negotiate with the self-proclaimed secessionist republic.

A round of negotiations took place between February and April, later known as Jahel's deal, in which the federal government, represented by the diplomat Madek Beta, and Svista agreed to grant more self-determination to the Dømin of Afragola, to grant protection to the Yallo and to end hostilities, letting the displaced people come to the aid and arresting the rebels.

Despite having shown good intentions and willingness to collaborate, Svista disavowed the agreement by labeling it as "unsustainable and immature"; He officially declared the separation of the territories occupied by the SRB, managed by local sections of the Bours communist party, from the Federal Republic of Phoenixia.

The government immediately issues an embargo on the RSB isolating the secessionists. The Federal President Martin Nettuno approved the urgent strategic plan (USP) in which he ordered the general mobilization of the Phoenixian Armed Forces (also called Federal Armed Forces).

In June 1967, the rebel offensives that come to besiege the city of Villoise resume, Redows and Delphinia do not hold up and fall into the hands of the SRB while a strong resistance is created in Villoise and that opens a breach.

(In the 1960s, the government began to diversify the economy. It promoted tourism. It also introduced a program of urban renewal, which involved the construction of new towns and the demolition of slums.

Between 1967 and 1971, the government initiated a policy of economic liberalization. It has enabled individuals to acquire stakes in many state-owned enterprises and it has encouraged foreign investors to enter the domestic market. Emblematic was the opening of the Wermont Hill Stock Exchange where large companies were first listed. The state turned into an institutional investor thanks to the Phoenixian  that became a sovereign fund. In 1971 Phoenixia became a member of the International Forum. In 1975, the government announced plans for a satellite that will rotate in orbit to the planet.

In 1976, a plebiscite was held in which the people voted to change the constitution. The new constitution established a monocameral legislature. It also granted the people the right to recall their elected representatives.

In the 1980s, the government embarked on an industrial expansion program, particularly in the energy, telecommunications and transportation sectors by implementing a favorable tax regime for people wishing to open business in Phoenixia. During this time, a digital service network called "PhoenixNet'' was developed that allows people to use their computers to access government services.*

A new currency, the Phoenix dollar, was adopted with the aim of replacing the old currency with a more stable and attractive one for forex investors. In 1983 the capital was moved from Phoxia to Bluckingham.)

Geography and environment[edit | edit source | hide]

Topography[edit | edit source | hide]

Climate[edit | edit source | hide]

Government and politics[edit | edit source | hide]

Phoenixia is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The Constitution of Phoenixia (luKhanongur aFanaak) also provides the possibility for direct democracy through referendum. Phoenixia has pursued the development of the e-government, with 80 percent of the public services being available on the web 24 hours a day.  
Clarenzio Metrofane
Federal President, since 2022
Antonio D'Amato
Federal Chancellor, since 2022

Landsraad[edit | edit source | hide]

The building of the parliament in Bluckingham
Martin Wilfred, President of the Landsraad since 2022

The Landsraad , also called Congress (luKhneset) is the legislative authority of the Federal Republic of Phoenixia. It consists of 630 members elected in democratic elections for a term of six years according to the principle of proportional representation. The work of the Parliament is coordinated by the Landsraad Council which is led by the President of the Landsraad (luRayeesgur aluKhneset) elected for the entire legislature. There are also factions within the Parliament, which carry out the programs of their respective political parties. The work of the Parliament is supported by various committees, whose staff is made up of members of the factions. They prepare bills and exercise parliamentary control over their sectors of activity. Laws are passed by an open majority. The quorum for the Parliament is provided for by the internal rules of Landsraad.

Citizens of Phoenixia who are at least 21 years old are eligible to vote and can stand for election to Parliament. Citizens who are at least 18 years of age and not convicted of a crime have the right to elect their representatives in parliamentary elections. Elections are held by the President of the Republic. After the election of the Parliament, the first session is convened by the President of the Republic, where the members of the Parliament take the oath and then elect the Chancellor and the President of the Parliament. The election procedure is defined in the electoral law.

Political parties[edit | edit source | hide]

Parties in Landsraad
Name Ideology Leader Seats Government
Labor movement Social Democracy Renato Raffaele 280 Coalition
AluUma Paxist progressivism Zulayka Wasool 124 Coalition
National Alliance Phoenixian Nationalism Luca Amedeo 120 Opposition
Siinkar Herad Siinkarism Seadh J. Teurgn 60 External support
Northern Federation Valerijk regionalism Martien Souverijn 30 Opposition
MeJidhir Paxist conservatism Kelad Munahed 16 Opposition

Federal President[edit | edit source | hide]

The Federal President (muRayeesgur aluIthihad) is the head of state of Phoenixia and serves as the highest representative of the state. The President may have limited participation in legislation by issuing decrees, resolutions and directives. Furthermore, the President can refuse to sign a law and return it to Parliament for review. There are several institutions under the jurisdiction of the President. These include: the Academic Committee, the Federal Development Roundtable, the Phoenixian Memory Institute, the President's Cultural Foundation, the Phoenixian Federal Cooperation Assembly, and the National Defense Council.

The president is elected by the Landsraad for a term of six years, for a limit of 2 consecutive terms. If the Parliament does not obtain at least two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of voting, an Electoral College (made up of Parliament and representatives of local authority councils) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the highest percentage of votes. The candidate is nominated with at least one fifth of the support of the Members of Parliament. Applicants must be Phoexy citizens and at least 40 years of age. The election of the president is governed by the constitution. The Speaker of the Landsraad can also perform the functions of the Federal President in the cases provided for by the constitution.

Government[edit | edit source | hide]

The Government (luSuvraaniyat) is the executive authority of Phoenixia. Its main task is to govern the state and implement policies. It includes the Federal Chancellor (muKhanshaleer aluIthihad) and the ministers. The Chancellor (muKhanshaleer) is the head of government who represents the institution and directs its activities. Different areas of government are managed by various ministries, each of which is headed by a minister. Ministries are further divided into departments, divisions, and offices. The work of the ministry is directed by a general secretary, recommended by the minister and appointed by the government. The executive power is also exercised by executive agencies and inspectorates under the authority of the federal chancellery. The Government is assisted by the Secretary of State (muSikhratariya aluShahiyat), nominated by the Chancellor.

Døminion[edit | edit source | hide]

Phoenixia is a federal state and comprises eighteen constituent states which are collectively referred to as Døminion. Each state (Dømin) has its own constitution, and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation, and each state has representatives in the Landsraad.

Each Dømin has an elected legislature, the Landtag, and a state government headed by a governor.

State elections are conducted under various rules set by the Døminion (states). In general they are conducted according to some form of party-list proportional representation, either the same as the federal system or some simplified version. The election period is generally four to five years, and the dates of elections vary from state to state.

The state constitution, among other things, determines how the seats in the state government are assigned to political parties, with most states having a system of proportional representation based on the number of delegates in the Landtag in place. The Governor is elected by the Landtag, though in practice the governor is the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Landtag.

The state governor is in charge of the administration of much of federal administrative law within the respective state, which makes this post an important political position. Furthermore, state competences include zoning laws, planning issues and public procurement on the regional level, which adds considerable weight to state politics. As a practical matter, there have been cases where states have been able to block projects endorsed by the federal government.

Bluckingham, the capital of Phoenixia, plays a double role as city and "Munikip Dømin". The mayor has the rank of a state governor, while the city council also functions as a Landtag. Under the municipal constitution, however, city and state business must be kept separate. Hence, while the city council and Landtag have identical memberships, they hold separate meetings, and each body has separate presiding officers. When meeting as a city council, the deputies can only deal with city affairs; when meeting as a Landtag, they can only deal with state affairs.

Law enforcement and crime[edit | edit source | hide]

The federal structure of the Federal Republic of Phoenixia gives the 20 constituents states (Døminion, Dominmne) the authority to maintain their own police forces within their territory, along with the right to pass legislation and exercise police authority. At the same time, the constitution provides for originary federal authority in central areas of law enforcement.

Due to this division of authority, Phoenixia has 20 state police forces and two federal law enforcement agencies, the Federal Police and the Bluckingham Metropolitan Police.

The Federal Police carry out a wide variety of law enforcement tasks, in particular border protection, railway policing, maritime and aviation security. They are also involved in fighting organized crime and terrorism and may serve abroad, for example at Phoenixian embassies or in international police peacekeeping missions.

Bluckingham Metropolitan Police is the territorial police force responsible for the prevention of crime and law enforcement in Bluckingham City. In addition, the Metropolitan Police is also responsible for some specialised matters throughout Phoenixia; these responsibilities include co-ordinating and leading national counter-terrorism measures and the personal safety of specific individuals, such as the Federal President, the Chancellor, members of the Government, and other officials.

Phoenixia is currently one of the safest and stabilized countries in Urth, but between the late 1990s and the early 2000s, organized crime prevailed and it was characterized by a loose alliance of mobster groups with a wide range of different rackets: prostitution, motor vehicle theft, drug trafficking. Although small size, the Phoenixian mafia was hierarchical and well-organized, which has enabled its survival to this day, albeit to a much more modest form.  Also, the murder rate was considerably higher than ever during the same period in Phoenixia; for example, an average of 9.4 people per 100,000 per year were killed in Phoenixia between 1999 and 2003.

Constitution[edit | edit source | hide]

The Constitution of the Phoenixian Federal Republic was promulgated by the Constituent Assembly on March 11, 1947, with 450 votes in favor and 60 against. The text, amended various times, was promulgated in an extraordinary edition of the Official Gazette on March 27, 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage on June 6, 1946, the same day as the referendum on the abolition of the monarchy. The elections took place in all the Phoenixian Regions (Later transformed into the Constituent States). The Constitution was drafted in 1946 and entered into force on 1 July 1948, a century after the enactment of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Arafors, the Theodor Statute.

The guidelines of the Charter clearly show the tendency towards understanding and dialectical compromise between the authors. The Constitution emphasizes economic and social rights and their effective guarantee. It is also inspired by a democratic conception of the state with a clear distrust of a strong executive power and a confidence in the functioning of the parliamentary system. Although it was foreseen the need to insert suitable mechanisms to protect the needs of government stability, avoiding any degeneration of the republican system.

The Constitution is made up of 70 articles divided into five sections:

  • Constitutive Principles
  • Duties & Rights
  • Government
  • Judiciary
  • Constituent States
  • Constitutional revision

Constitutional revision[edit | edit source | hide]

The Constitution can only be amended through a legislative procedure under which any additions and amendments must be approved by both: The Landsraad, with two votes with an absolute majority. The Majority of the federated state legislatures. The last step, before being activated, is the analysis by the supreme court that verifies the constitutionality of the proposal, and compliance with the voting procedures.

Legislative process[edit | edit source | hide]

The Phoenixian Constitution establishes that the Landsraad (parliament) and the Constituent States and in some circumstances also the executive exercise the legislative function.

The Government can only legislate on its own organization, on the elaboration and regulation of fundamental laws enacted by the Landsraad and on the matters for which it is authorized to legislate by the Landsraad (with legislative delegation). All other matters must be legislated by the Landsraad, including some reserved matters for which legislative authorization cannot be given to the Government. The legislative function reserved to the Constituent States is ensured by the respective legislative assemblies, under the conditions defined by the Constitution and by the political and administrative statute of each state. The legislative process is guided by the Landsraad, by the Government and by the legislative assemblies of the Constituent States, according to the subject to be legislated and the corresponding respective competence of each organ.

Ordinary laws are enacted by the Landsraad are called "federal laws", those enacted by the Government are called "executive orders" and those enacted by state legislative assemblies are called "state legislative decrees". The process of creating Landsraad laws begins with a bill proposed by parliamentarians or the government (bills). If approved by Congress, the bill begins to be designated "law" and is sent for promulgation by the President of the Republic. Promulgation is the act by which the President signs the law. However, the President may decide not to promulgate the act and to veto it with political or legal justification. The veto can be overcome if the bill is voted and approved by more than two thirds of the members of parliament, in which case the President is obliged to enact it. After the promulgation, the act published in the Federal Gazette as a law. The process for the creation of the decree-laws by the Government has two ways. The first is the way of successive signatures, in which the bill is signed separately by each of the responsible ministers and by the Chancellor, and then sent to be promulgated by the President. The second is the collective approval of the bill by the Council of Ministers, which is then sent to be promulgated. The President can also veto the bills, in which case the Government has the possibility to file them, modify them or send them to the Landsraad as a bill. After being promulgated, the decree-laws enter into force even after being published in the Federal Gazette.

Hierarchy of the laws[edit | edit source | hide]

The various types of laws, acts and statutes of Phoenixia constitute a hierarchical, multi-tiered legislative system. The laws of the lower degrees must respect the laws of the higher degrees. The hierarchy is as follows:

1st degree - Constitutional laws

  • Constitution
  • Constitutional revision laws

2nd degree - International law

  • Rules and principles of general or common international law;
  • Standards of international conventions duly ratified or approved
  • Decisions adopted by the competent bodies of the international organizations of which Phoenixia is a part;

3rd order - Ordinary laws

  • Laws
  • Executive orders
  • State legislative decrees

4th degree - Acts with force equivalent to that of the laws

  • Adoption of international conventions, treaties or agreements
  • Constitutional Court rulings of unconstitutionality or illegitimacy with general bond
  • Collective labor agreements and other collective labor regulation tools
  • Jurisprudence of the Supreme Court of Justice
  • Statutes of the Constituent States

5th degree - Regulatory acts, including

  • Regulatory decrees
  • Ministerial regulations
  • Constituent States regulatory decrees
  • Municipal statutes
  • Municipal regulations

Legislative reforms[edit | edit source | hide]

Judiciary of Phoenixia[edit | edit source | hide]

In Phoenixia, the independence of the judiciary is historically older than democracy. The constitution entrusts the control of the judiciary to the Federal Council of Justice, a self-governing body made up of judges, lawyers and distinguished professors of law.

The organization of the courts is traditionally strong, and nearly all federal and state actions are subject to judicial review. Judges follow a distinct career path. Upon completion of legal training at university, all law students must pass a state exam before they can undertake an apprenticeship which includes extensive training in the legal profession for a period of two years. They must then pass a second state exam that allows them to practice law. At that point, the individual can choose whether to become a lawyer or enter the judiciary. Candidates for the judiciary immediately begin working in the courts. However, they are subject to a probationary period of up to four years before being appointed as life judges.

The Phoenixian independent judiciary enjoys special constitutional protection from the executive power. Once appointed, they cannot be removed without specific disciplinary proceedings conducted in due course before the Federal Council for the Judiciary.

Federal Council of Justice[edit | edit source | hide]

The Federal Council of Justice is an institution of self-government to ensure the autonomy and independence of the judiciary from the other branches of the state, in particular the executive, according to the principle of separation of powers; it's an institution of fundamental importance as it is referred to by the Constitution. The Council is chaired by the Federal President of the Republic. The council is made up of 10 members, 5 professional judges, 3 lawyers and 2 law professors. Who remain in office for 4 years; at the end of their mandate they are not immediately eligible for political office.

Supreme Court[edit | edit source | hide]

The Supreme Court (luKhama luMakhniya) is the main guarantor of the republican constitution. ensures the unity of objective national law, respect for the lmits of the various jurisdictions; governs conflicts of jurisdiction and powers and fulfills the other duties attributed to it by law; It can declare unconstitutional laws or enforcement actions taken at any level of government, overriding the law and setting a precedent for future laws and decisions. Its jurisdiction is not limited to a particular jurisdictional matter, but extends to the entire national territory.

The Supreme Court is composed of 12 Justices and 1 Chief Justice. The President nominates 3 candidates for the Supreme Court and the Landsraad can approve the nomination with a 2/3 majority. The Landsraad in turn appoints 3 judges, approved by relative majority. The other half is elected from within the judicial constituencies by the judges. Supreme Court judges remain in office for eight years. In exceptional cases, when a judge carries out extremely malicious actions, the constitution gives the president the ability to remove a Supreme Court justice with the approval of the absolute majority of the Landsraad; this eventuality has never occurred. The Supreme Court meets in plenary session for cases involving jurisdictional issues, constitutional issues, and International issues. The Supreme Court also divides and meets in chambers. There are five chambers:

Penal Affairs Chamber

Administrative Affairs Chamber

Civil Affairs Chamber

Labour Affairs Chamber

Auxiliary chamber, which is responsible for taking cases that cannot be heard in the four regular chambers.

Court rulings are decided on the basis of majority opinion. Rulings of separate chambers can be overturned by the full court. The current Chief of Justice is Lerry Eddie Brown.

Other Courts

Under the supreme court, there are three courts:

  • First-level courts, municipal or city courts based in the municipalities, where the courts in this level have original jurisdiction to hear cases, resolve disputes, and reach a verdict;
  • Second-level courts, Dømin Courts based in the State capital, where the courts in this level have appellate jurisdiction to hear appeals from the first-level courts;
  • Administrative courts, they rule in disputes involving the state officials or bodies, both within central and regional officials or institutions. The courts also hear cases which include civil servants against their superiors of the internal bureaucracy of the government itself.

Areas of Law[edit | edit source | hide]

Civil law[edit | edit source | hide]

The Phoenixian Civil Code begins with the proposition that at birth every person acquires the capacity to exercise rights and to fulfill duties. A minor’s interests are protected by a representative who acts in his name, and although certain legal transactions may be entered into at age 7, full legal capacity is not acquired until age 18. Every person possesses the right, protected by an action in court, to freedom from personal injury and from attacks on individual dignity. Different forms of legal persons are recognized, such as a corporation or a trust or certain legal persons, under public law. As far as natural persons are concerned, contractual capacity is limited according to age and certain other individual circumstances.

Criminal law[edit | edit source | hide]

The "Criminal Section" is the central regulatory source governing Phoenixian substantive criminal law. Primarily, criminal law concerns the identification of crimes and their sanctioning treatment. While, the criminal trial is instead regulated by the Criminal Procedure Code. Disciplinary sanctions and, as a rule, provisions on administrative offenses are not included in the criminal law, but fall within the Civil Code. The Phoenixian Criminal Law knows other complementary laws to the penal code.

Such as the Narcotic Substances Act (Drugs Act) or Tax Offenses Act (Tax Remnants Act), are defined as complementary or secondary criminal law. This does not mean that these norms are hierarchically subordinate to criminal law: in both cases they are norms having equal value, where the special norm, when it exists, replaces the general one.

As for its structure, the Criminal Code is divided into a general part and a special part:

In the general part there are all the basic provisions that regulate the conditions of criminal liability and the constitutive elements of the crime, which in general determine which sanction is applied to which infringement and in what amount. This part of the penal code, which goes from articles 1 to 79, contains the general rules, which apply in principle to all crimes, subsidiary to the special ones. These rules may concern, for example, the statute of limitations and forms of participation in the crime, or the causes of justification.

The special part of the code contains the provisions corresponding to the individual crimes, divided into categories according to the legal asset protected by the law and offended or endangered by the criminal conduct. Here the offenses are defined and a corresponding penalty is associated with them. The job of the jurist, be it the lawyer, the prosecutor or the judge, is to make a subsumption between the rule, which defines the abstract case, and the criminal conduct, in order to verify that he is faced with an integrated crime in all its constituent elements. The special part, as well as the general one, is divided into titles. Title 13 deals with crimes against individual assets.

Among these, particularly serious are:

  • Crimes against sexual self-determination
  • Crimes against life
  • Crimes against physical integrity
  • Crimes against personal freedom
  • Crimes of robbery and extortion; accepting stolen goods and money laundering
  • Crimes of forgery, fraud and embezzlement

The Phoenixian Criminal Code, based on the principle of territorial sovereignty, applies to crimes committed within the borders of the Federal Republic of Phoenixia. In certain cases, the application of the code is extended to extraterritorial crimes. Alongside the federal criminal law contained in the criminal code, there is a rather limited legislation of state derivation. In this case, the constituent states have legislative competence as long as and to the extent that the central government does not make use of the legal reserve.

Criminal law derived from the state, however, must respect limits, one of which is that the penalties envisaged for the offenses identified therein cannot exceed 6 years of imprisonment. In principle, the Constituent States have a limited margin of discretion in the creation of criminal law provisions, as the legislative function is centralized at the federal level. As regards the temporal scope of application of the criminal code, in Phoenixia the principle of non-retroactivity of the criminal law applies, according to which no one can be punished for a fact that, according to the law of the time in which it was committed, did not constitute a crime.

Citizenship[edit | edit source | hide]

Phoenixian citizenship is acquired:

  • Automatically by birth, recognition or adoption, from even a single Phoenixian citizen parent, or if born on Phoenixia soil from parents without citizenship;
  • For having performed military service or civil service; having made Phoenixia famous in the world with eminent services such as works of art, films, songs, brvets, studies, research, important inventions.
  • For the completion of two school cycles, attendance of Phoenixian high schools, universities or accedemies.
  • By residence, if you are born in Phoenixia of foreign parents and reside legally and uninterruptedly up to the age of 18, a declaration must be made within one year of reaching the age of majority to request it;
  • By naturalization, after 10 years of legal residence in Phoenixia, on condition of the absence of a criminal record and the presence of adequate economic resources;
  • By marriage or civil partnership with a Phoenixian citizen, after two years of legal residence in Phoenixia or after three years of marriage or civil partnership if resident overseas, provided there is no criminal record.

Citizenship is also guaranteed in particular cases:

  • Refugees fleeing religious, social and political persecution, or other threatening conditions such as serious natural disasters, in their countries of origin that undermine the full exercise of fundamental freedoms and the possibility of living a dignified and peaceful existence guaranteed by the constitution of Phoenixia.
  • Children born abroad to members of the Phoenixian Defense Forces; if born in international waters aboard phoenixian vehicles, or in flight aboard an airline flying the phoenixian flag.
  • Paying 5,000 PXD for minors under the age of 8, and 6,000 PXD for minors aged 14 or over. 8,200 PXD for adults aged 18 and over.

Vote[edit | edit source | hide]

Every citizen who has reached the age of majority, that is, 18 years, obtains the right to vote which he can freely exercise in the various political elections of the nation and in popular referendums. Citizens are sent a license valid for 20 consultations which must be stamped and renewed once this maximum is reached. In case of damage or loss, a new copy can be requested from the nearest office. In 1946, electoral suffrage was extended to women as well.

The right to vote can be temporarily suspended in the event of intoxication, coma or even revoked in the event of a conviction for serious crimes such as massacre, corruption, trafficking in human beings, etc.

From the age of 20, candidates can be applied to hold public offices and positions at the various political, federal, state and municipal levels.

Labor[edit | edit source | hide]

The National General Labor Act covers all standards governing the employment of some kind. The regulation of employment by private employers is largely harmonized at the federal level, while public-sector employment still prevails through a variety of state laws. In particular, the civil standardization is distributed to a variety of laws. Of greater importance, the Labor Code as well as in the public sector, the Federal Personnel Act.

Family[edit | edit source | hide]

Matters relating to the Care of Young People Act are dealt with by the administrative courts. All other matters are dealt with by the general courts. There are no separate family courts.

Proceedings in the general courts are normally public, as are all the documentation and the decisions. Public access is more limited in the administrative courts.

Parental leave[edit | edit source | hide]

Families receive up to 430 days (14 months) of paid parental leave, with an additional optional month of unpaid leave and four days of leave after the birth of a child for fathers. Regulations require every parent to take at least one month off, but some fathers don't actually take leave at all. In this case the policy is implemented on a "use it or lose it" basis and the parental leave time will drop from 14 months to 10 months if not taken by a parent. The leave can be used intermittently and for parts of days, but must be consumed before the child turns eight. Parents receive around 70% of their wages for the first 300 days and receive a flat rate of PXD 110 per day for the remaining 130 days. The rate for unemployed parents is PXD 180 per day for the entire parental leave. Parents receive up to 90 days (three months) of leave to care for sick children each year, plus a childcare allowance, to allow parents to stay at home and care for children with long-term illnesses.

Parental leave in Phoenixia is job-protected, which means parents taking the leave have the right to return to the same employer and to an identical or appropriate position. In addition to paid leave, parents also receive full or partial reimbursement of hospital care, treatment and transport related to childbirth.

Child allowance[edit | edit source | hide]

Child allowance in Phoenixia began with the general child allowance in 1958. Parents in Phoenixia receive cash benefits to ease the burden of raising children under the age of 16. Typically, Phoenixian parents receive a flat rate child allowance of PXD 1000 per month for one child, tax free. This child allowance is funded from the central government budget and parents do not have to claim the allowance; it is paid automatically. Constituent states can take additional measures to meet more specific needs. Public day care centers in Phoenixia are for children under the age of seven. Nurseries are run by local municipalities under the guidance of the state government. Most municipal preschools are open ten to twelve hours a day to care for children whose parents work full time; there are also night nurseries for parents who work at night.

Education[edit | edit source | hide]

In Phoenixia, education is the responsibility of the states (Døminion) and part of their constitutional sovereignty. Optional Kindergarten (nursery school) education is provided for all children between one and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory. Phoenixia has a less competitive system, leading to low rates of bullying and students having a weak fear of failure but a high level of self-confidence and general happiness.

Teachers are employed by the Ministry of Education for the state and usually have a job for life after a certain period. This practice depends on the state and is currently changing. A parents' council is elected to voice the parents' views to the school's administration. Each class elects one or two Klassensprecher (class presidents; if two are elected usually one is male and the other female), who meet several times a year as the students' council.

A team of school presidents is also elected by the pupils each year, whose main purpose is organizing school parties, sports tournaments and the like for their fellow students. The local town is responsible for the school building and employs the janitorial and secretarial staff. For an average school of 600 – 800 students, there may be two janitors and one secretary. School administration is the responsibility of the teachers, who receive a reduction in their teaching hours if they participate.

Church and state are separated in Phoenixia. Compulsory school prayers and compulsory attendance at religious services at state schools are against the constitution.

Primary education lasts for four years, starting at age six. The maximum class size is 30, but may be as low as 15. It is generally expected that a class will be taught by one teacher for the entire four years and the stable bond between teacher and pupil is considered important for a child's well-being. The 3Rs (Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic) dominate lesson time. Children work individually and all members of a class follow the same plan of work. There is no streaming.

Standard attendance times are 8 am to 12 pm or 1 pm, with hourly five- or ten-minute breaks. Children are given homework daily from the first year. Historically there has been no lunch hour, with children returning home to eat. However, due to a rise in the number of mothers at work, primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care.

As at primary school, lessons at Gymnasium begin at 8 am and continue with short intervals until lunchtime or early afternoon, with children returning home to a late lunch. Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch, generally eaten at school. As at primary level, all pupils follow the same plan of work. Great emphasis is placed on homework and frequent testing. Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report ("Zeugnis") are a prerequisite for moving up ("aufsteigen") to the next class. Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays; those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year ("sitzenbleiben").

It is not uncommon for a pupil to re-sit more than one year of school. After completing the first two years, pupils choose between one of two strands, known as "Gymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on arts) or "Realgymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on science). Whilst many schools offer both strands, some do not, and as a result, some children move schools for a second time at age 12. At age 14, pupils may choose to remain in one of these two strands, or to change to a vocational course, possibly with a further change of school.

Secondary education consists of two main types of schools, attendance at which is based on a pupil's ability as determined by grades from the primary school. The Gymnasium caters for the more able children, in the final year of which the Adex examination is taken, which is a requirement for access to university. The Secondary school prepares pupils for vocational education but also for various types of further education, institution of higher technical education, commercial academy, institution of higher education for economic business. Attendance at one of these further education institutes also leads to the Adex. Some schools aim to combine the education available at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, and are known as Gesamtschulen. In addition, a recognition of the importance of learning English has led some Gymnasiums to offer a bilingual stream, in which pupils deemed able in languages follow a modified curriculum, a portion of the lesson time being conducted in English.

As at primary school, lessons at Gymnasium begin at 8 am and continue with short intervals until lunchtime or early afternoon, with children returning home to a late lunch. Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch, generally eaten at school. As at primary level, all pupils follow the same plan of work. Great emphasis is placed on homework and frequent testing. Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report ("Zeugnis") are a prerequisite for moving up ("aufsteigen") to the next class. Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays; those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year ("sitzenbleiben").

It is not uncommon for a pupil to re-sit more than one year of school. After completing the first two years, pupils choose between one of two strands, known as "Gymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on arts) or "Realgymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on science). Whilst many schools offer both strands, some do not, and as a result, some children move schools for a second time at age 12. At age 14, pupils may choose to remain in one of these two strands, or to change to a vocational course, possibly with a further change of school.

Phoenixia has a two-tier health care system in which virtually all individuals receive publicly funded care, but they also have the option to purchase supplementary private health insurance. Care involving private insurance plans (sometimes referred to as "comfort class" care) can include more flexible visiting hours and private rooms and doctors. Some individuals choose to completely pay for their care privately.

The Phoenixian university system had been open to any student who passed the Adex examination until recently. A 2012 bill allowed the introduction of entrance exams for studies such as Medicine. In 2014, an obligatory tuition fee of $363.36 per term was introduced for all public universities. Since 2008, for all OFAC students the studies have been free of charge, as long as a certain time-limit is not exceeded (the expected duration of the study plus usually two terms tolerance). When the time-limit is exceeded, the fee of around $363.36 per term is charged. Some further exceptions to the fee apply, e.g. for students with a year's salary of more than about $5000. In all cases, an obligatory fee of $20.20 is charged for the student union and insurance.

Taxes[edit | edit source | hide]

Most taxation is decided by the federal government and the states together, some are assigned exclusively at the federal level (eg Customs), some are assigned to the states (excise), and districts and municipalities can enact their own tax laws. Despite the division of jurisdiction by tax law, in practice 85% of all taxes are imposed at the federal level. There are many direct and indirect taxes in Phoenixia; income tax and VAT are the most significant.

At the federal level, the government receives tax revenue from residents in the form of individual income tax, property sales tax, and capital gains. The amount of federal tax liability can be reduced by various deductions and mitigated by various child allowances. Some non-residents are liable in Phoenixia if they have certain types of income there. In general, public and private companies are subject to taxes in Phoenixia, with some exemptions such as charitable foundations and research institutes. Products and services generated in Phoenixia are subject to value added tax (VAT), with some exemptions. Other types of tax revenue include real estate transfers, inheritance and gift taxes, capital gains, aviation and motor vehicle taxes.

The Phoenixian Tax Administration is divided into Federal Tax Authorities and State Tax Authorities. The local tax offices belong to the latter. They administer "shared taxes" for the federation and states and process tax returns. The number of tax offices in Phoenixia amounts to approximately 230. The competent authority is the Federal Revenue Agency (FRA) which is also the competent authority for certain tax refund applications from abroad.

There is usually at least one financial court in every state. The national appeal body is the Federal Court of Finance in Bluckingham.

Since 2006, the FRA has assigned each taxable person a tax code, consisting of nine digits according to the following scheme: 2 numeric characters for the year of birth; 1 alphabetic character for the month of birth; 2 numeric characters for the day of birth and gender; 2 characters associated with the Municipality, 2 characters for the constituent state or for the foreign country of birth.

Land Property[edit | edit source | hide]

Trademark[edit | edit source | hide]

A trademark is a sign that a company uses to distinguish its goods and services. A trademark can be a word like Dube or Caroma or a sign like the wings of Ars Airlines. In order for a trademark to be protected in Phoenixia it has to be registered with the Federal Trade Mark Office; The registration is valid for a period of 10 years after which the registration can be renewed. For worldwide protection a trademark must be registered with the Federal Intellectual Property Organization (FIPO).

After registration no one else can use the trademark without prior consent of the holder. Nor can a company use a name that is similar to the already registered name if there is a risk of confusion of the two trademarks. If someone starts using an already registered name anyway, this constitutes a wrongful act and the trademark owner can take action against infringements, for example by starting an injunction procedure.

Not every name or logo can be registered as a trademark. The trademark needs to meet a few criteria. Firstly, the trademark must have distinctive character. Signs that are merely descriptive are not allowed. Also, signs may not be deceptive. For example a picture of a cow on a pork product. Further, a sign cannot infringe other intellectual property rights like for example trade name rights.

Regardless proper registration, a trademark registration can be (entirely or partly) revoked if the trademark has not been used for over 5 years. In that case another company can request the Trademark Office to delete the registration. It is therefore recommended to keep your trademark registration up to date, especially when your company had a facelift or changed its signs.

Trade Name[edit | edit source | hide]

According to the Federal Trade Name Law a trade name is nothing more than the name under which a business is conducted. To avoid misleading or confusing of the public, the Trade Name Law protects the undertaker. This means that another company is not allowed to use the same or a similar name if the risk of confusion exists.

A trade name does not need to be registered in the Phoenixian Trade Register in order to be protected; the undertaker who uses the name first can invoke the protection. The name has to be effectively been used in public though. Forms of public use are the mentioning of the name on stationary, display at the company’s premises or in advertisement.

A name has to comply with certain rules before it is protected. Firstly, it is prohibited to use a trade name that is misleading about the legal entity of the company. A sole trader, for example, cannot use the word “limited” in his trade name. Nor can the name be misleading about the nature of products or services (Roberts Beef Burgers is misleading when –deliberately- selling horse meat burgers).

Copyright[edit | edit source | hide]

Copyright is the exclusive right of the author of a literary, scientific pr artistic work to communicate that work to the public and to reproduce it, subject to the limitations laid down by Phoexy law (exemptions are made in order to protect the freedom of press and for educational purposes). According to the Phoenixian Copyright Act copyright expires 80 years after the death of the author.

Original works

Only original works are protected by copyright. A work is original when it is the result of independent creative effort. Copyright does not protect ideas. The work needs to be fixed, for example in writing, to be protected. Once fixed, it is automatically protected which means that the work does not to be registered first. Examples of works protected by copyright are books, musical works, plays, films, paintings, photos, software and industrial software.

Exploitation rights

Communicating a work to the public is one of the exclusive rights of the owner. Think of broadcasting a program, publishing a book or uploading a work (e.g. text or music) on the Internet. Another exclusive right of the owner is the right to reproduce the work. This means that nobody else is allowed to print, copy or download the work without permission of the copyright owner

Transferring copyright

Copyrights are regularly transferred. For example in case of the artist who signs a record deal with a record company to bring out his music. Or the writer who gives permission to a theatre company to enact a play based on his novel. To transfer a copyright you need to draw up a deed. Through this deed the owner transfers the control over the use of his work, often for payment.

Licensing copyright

Another option for the copyright owner is to grant someone a copyright license in exchange for a license fee. Herewith the licensee has the right to exploit the work for a certain period while the owner remains ownership over the work. A license can be exclusive in general or for a specific region. If this is the case the owner cannot grant the copyright to another third party. The licensee may have the right to further sublicense.

Patent[edit | edit source | hide]

Contract[edit | edit source | hide]

To establish a valid and binding contract between the parties, the following prerequisites must be met: contractual capacity, consent of the parties, intention, possible and acceptable content and (if required) compliance with formal requirements. A defect in any of these elements will render the contract null and void or give the right to withdraw from the contract. In the event of insufficient performance of a part, the remedies of the non-defaulting party range from price reduction, for example if the defect cannot be corrected and is essential to the contract, to collection of the goods and resolution.

Enterprise[edit | edit source | hide]

A general division between the types of business associations that can be traced are partnerships and corporations. The main distinction between the two types is that the latter only confers limited liability on its members. Phoenix law recognizes two types of companies: (i) Joint stock company and (ii) Limited liability company. A JSC can be a private or public company. It is managed by a board of directors, appointed and supervised by a supervisory board. The corporate form of a limited liability company is simpler and more widely used. Only large limited liability companies require a supervisory board. All companies must be registered in the Commercial Register, which provides publicly available information about each company. Foreign companies can establish branches in Phoenixia, which must also be registered in the Commercial Register.

Economy[edit | edit source | hide]

Phoenixia has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation. The service sector contributes approximately 68% of the total GDP, industry 32%, and agriculture 1% as of 2021. The Poexar dollar (sign: P$; code: PXD), subdivided into 100 cents, is the currency of Phoenixia. Since 2010 the Packilvanian Dinar become a legal tender.

The Reserve Bank of Phoenixia (RBP) is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Phoenixia. Its mission is to keep the Phoenixian financial system stable. It administers the circulation of money, implements monetary policy, advises the government and reports to Parliament. However, it operates independently of other national government agencies. It is supervised by the Supervisory Board, which includes a Chairman along with seven members. The Phoenixian Bank is headed by the National Bank Governor, recommended by the Supervisory Board and appointed by the Federal President for a five-year term, but no more than one consecutive term. The Governor is also the Chairman of the Executive Committee, which is responsible for planning and organizing the institution's work. The Bank is governed by strict confidentiality rules regarding banking secrets.

The fund was established in 1965 after the country discovered oil in the Optia Sea. The fund invests the income from this sector to safeguard the future of the national economy. It has a network of offices and financial locations scattered around the world, PN invests internationally in equities, fixed income, money market instruments, real estate. It has a total budget of 3.7 billion Poexar. The fund is composed of three distinct groups, each with specific investment and development objectives;

Tentacore, founded in 2000, is a venture capital provider that supports the creation, development, financing and, when appropriate, exit young growth companies by providing them with business expertise and venture capital to create value for the shareholders. It focuses on high-potential hi-tech start-ups.

Blackwood, founded in 1971, it pursues investments in real estate, infrastructure and energy and renewable resources; manages properties worth $ 100 billion

Ars Global, founded in 2004, is the branch of the Phoenixian National Fund dedicated to regional and international investments to improve Phoenixia's image and attract new visitors. It operates in numerous fields from IT, services, tourism, culture, to journalism.

Demographics[edit | edit source | hide]

Healthcare[edit | edit source | hide]

Phoenixia's system of hospitals, called Krake, dates from medieval times, and today, Phoenixia has one of the world's oldest universal health care system, dated to the social legislation of the 1880s. Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. The population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by Willdar Darlo Satistar, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. Population density in Phoenixia stands at 4.79 inhabitants per square kilometre. The overall life expectancy in Phoenixia at birth is 82.19 years (79.93 years for males and 83.58 years for females). The fertility rate of 1.24 children born per woman (2021 estimates). It had a very low infant mortality rate (3 per 1,000 live births). In 2021, the principal cause of death was chronic diseases, at 37%.

Culture[edit | edit source | hide]

Music[edit | edit source | hide]

Phoenixia has a diverse music culture that ranges from country and pop to folk and classical.

Music constitutes an important pillar of Phoenixian culture and is probably the cultural and creative sector with the largest audience reach. It is an essential component of Phoenixia’s cultural diversity. It has the power to bring positive changes in society and is vital for people’s well-being.

Thus, in 1951 the federal government established the Phoenixian Council Of Arts (PCOA), to encourage interest in Phoexy art (including visual art, music, performance, and literature) and to channel funding from the state to Phoexy artists and arts organisations. This includes encouragement of traditional Phoexy arts, support for contemporary Phoexy arts, and finance for international arts events in Phoenixia. The PCOA also funds and supports traditional and contemporary ethnic music, associations and non-profit organizations.

Its various communities have their own distinct musical traditions: the Phoenixians form the largest ethnic group in Phoenixia, followed by Yallo and Klevee as well as a smaller number of other peoples of different ethnicities including Packilvanians, Oan, Cukish etc.

The different people with their traditional forms of music, the various modern musical styles, and the fusion of different forms account for the musical diversity in the country.

It has an urban musical scene, and is a center for country, rock, pop and other genres in the region.

Various music festivals are organized every year, the most famous being the Grand Prix of Music held in Afragola, the most popular Phoenixian song contest and awards ceremony, and Bluckingham Music Week, city culture festival and networking event for music and creative industry professionals held in the capital of Phoenixia.

Notable Phoexy musicians include , Jeremy Scott Kate, a singer of the 20th century who combined religious, folk and pop songs; Daniel Nefion Berg, the "Great Dan", he is considered the father of modern jazz and blues in Phoenixia and the greatest musician of the Klevee ethnic group; Robert Tens Nevermind, a pop and light metal singer. In the new millennium the singer Chaos Blade and the Phoexy-Coasteran trio Subatomic penguins stand out.

Among the best-known Phoenixia band internationally are country band Love and Peace, winners of the 2021 edition of GPOM and representatives of Phoenixia at Urthvision XVIII.

Media[edit | edit source | hide]

Freedom of speech and of the press are guaranteed by the Constitution. The Broadcasting Act, approved in 1984, regulated broadcasting until it was revised, becoming in 2010 the Media Services Act. These laws, together with the National Broadcasting Law (2007) represent the legal framework of media in Phoenixia. Cultural norms are highly influential in the country and over-regulation is generally avoided. The Phoenixian Ministry of Culture is responsible for issuing licenses in relation to content, while the Phoenixian Technical Surveillance Authority issues technical licences. The principle of access to information is outlined in the Constitution, and the Public Information Act establishes mechanisms for access and obliges authorities to assist citizens in the process. The Phoenixian Broadcasting Council (PBC), which supervises the Phoenixian Public Broadcaster (PPB), is composed of 8 media professionals and one representative of each political fraction. Their election is made in Parliament. In 2018, in total, there were 12 members of the Council. Under the law, the Council operates independently.

In 2009 the Phoenixian Supreme Court decided that online media are deemed responsible for comments posted by their readers. Phoenxia’s largest website, Lune, was fined in 2015 for one of these comments.

Phoenixia Times is the State Gazette of the Republic of Phoenixia.

Human rights[edit | edit source | hide]

Phoenixia provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. Phoenixia is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with 82% of the population saying that homosexuality should be accepted.

Death penalty[edit | edit source | hide]

The Phoenixian constitution prohibits capital punishment outside of military law in wartime. The highest priority is attached to the international campaign as a moratorium on capital punishment. Since 1990's, several initiatives have been promoted to achieve a universal moratorium on the death penalty.

Religion[edit | edit source | hide]

Although Phoenixia is predominantly a Paxist country, the constitution defines that Phoenixia has no official religion and does not favor any faith, and on the federal level there is not any administrative office which deals specifically with religious affairs, thus on such level the magister and the state are fully separated. However, religious propaganda in public and private is permitted with the consent of the competent authorities.

Law defines that Phoexy public schools must be religiously neutral, and that the teaching of religious studies in public schools must not identify unilaterally with any religion or proseytise for it. The state allows religious or philosophical communities to establish confessional private school, though they are still supervised by the state, which imposes certain requirements and conducts inspections.

Military[edit | edit source | hide]