A referendum to confirm the presidential candidateLuis Souza was held in Esteira on March 31, 2006. The incumbent, Luis Souza, was confirmed with 97.84% of the vote. Souza was inaugurated for his fourth term as president on May 1, 2006 at the Presidential Palace.
The first election since the 2002 Esteiran self-coup d'état, Souza ran unopposed and the election was largely regarded as a formality. The election was considered illegitimate by much of the international community, with reports of rampant corruption, mass arrests of dissidents, and political violence occurring on election day.